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Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167410


Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin capable of promoting or suppressing the progression of infectious diseases. This protein is susceptible to cleavage of its linker-peptides by several proteases, and the resulting cleaved forms, N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and C-terminal CRD, bind to various glycans. It has been suggested that full-length (FL)-Gal-9 and the truncated (Tr)-Gal-9s could exert different functions from one another via their different glycan-binding activities. We propose that FL-Gal-9 regulates the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV co-infected with opportunistic infection (HIV/OI), dengue, malaria, leptospirosis, and tuberculosis (TB). We also suggest that the blood levels of FL-Gal-9 reflect the severity of dengue, malaria, and HIV/OI, and those of Tr-Gal-9 markedly reflect the severity of HIV/OI. Recently, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suggested to be an indicator of respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as useful for differentiating pulmonary from extrapulmonary TB. The protease cleavage of FL-Gal-9 may lead to uncontrolled hyper-immune activation, including a cytokine storm. In summary, Gal-9 has potential to reflect the disease severity for the acute and chronic infectious diseases.

Communicable Diseases/blood , Galectins/blood , Acute Disease , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Galectins/genetics , Galectins/metabolism , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Leptospirosis/blood , Leptospirosis/physiopathology , Malaria/blood , Malaria/physiopathology , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/physiopathology
Biomarkers ; 25(8): 616-625, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967371


BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has an impact on all aspects of patient care. Serum ferritin generally represents a biomarker of choice when iron deficiency is suspected. However, ferritin is also an acute-phase-protein exhibiting elevated serum concentration in various inflammatory diseases. Here we focus on the role of serum ferritin for diagnostic and clinical management of patients with COVID-19 in comparison with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. METHODS: We examined scientific articles listed in PubMed reporting on ferritin in various infectious and non-infectious diseases. We then compared these results with nine current COVID-19 ferritin reports published in 2020. RESULTS: Several non-infectious, as well as non-COVID-19 infectious diseases, are characterised by a partly dramatic elevation of serum ferritin levels. All COVID-19 studies published between February and May 2020, which documented laboratory serum ferritin, indicate ferritin as a biomarker of COVID-19 severity in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSIONS: Serum ferritin may be considered both a prognostic and stratifying biomarker that can also contribute to therapeutic decision-making concerning patients with COVID-19. It should be emphasised, however, that most scientific reports refer to cohorts in the Asian region. Further validation in other cohorts is urgently required.

Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Communicable Diseases/blood , Ferritins/blood , Inflammation/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity