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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(12): 443, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103917

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of infectious diseases caused by contagious pathogens is a life-threatening hazard to the entire human population worldwide. A timely and accurate diagnosis is the critical link in the fight against infectious diseases. Aptamer-based biosensors, the so-called aptasensors, employ nucleic acid aptamers as bio-receptors for the recognition of target pathogens of interest. This review focuses on the design strategies as well as state-of-the-art technologies of aptasensor-based diagnostics for infectious pathogens (mainly bacteria and viruses), covering the utilization of three major signal transducers, the employment of aptamers as recognition moieties, the construction of versatile biosensing platforms (mostly micro and nanomaterial-based), innovated reporting mechanisms, and signal enhancement approaches. Advanced point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious disease diagnostics are also discussed highlighting some representative ready-to-use devices to address the urgent needs of currently prevalent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pressing issues in aptamer-based technology and some future perspectives of aptasensors are provided for the implementation of aptasensor-based diagnostics into practical application.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis
2.
Methods ; 203: 431-446, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096167

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are a global health problem affecting billions of people. Developing rapid and sensitive diagnostic tools is key for successful patient management and curbing disease spread. Currently available diagnostics are very specific and sensitive but time-consuming and require expensive laboratory settings and well-trained personnel; thus, they are not available in resource-limited areas, for the purposes of large-scale screenings and in case of outbreaks and epidemics. Developing new, rapid, and affordable point-of-care diagnostic assays is urgently needed. This review focuses on CRISPR-based technologies and their perspectives to become platforms for point-of-care nucleic acid detection methods and as deployable diagnostic platforms that could help to identify and curb outbreaks and emerging epidemics. We describe the mechanisms and function of different classes and types of CRISPR-Cas systems, including pros and cons for developing molecular diagnostic tests and applications of each type to detect a wide range of infectious agents. Many Cas proteins (Cas3, Cas9, Cas12, Cas13, Cas14 etc.) have been leveraged to create highly accurate and sensitive diagnostic tools combined with technologies of signal amplification and fluorescent, potentiometric, colorimetric, lateral flow assay detection and other. In particular, the most advanced platforms -- SHERLOCK/v2, DETECTR, CARMEN or CRISPR-Chip -- enable detection of attomolar amounts of pathogenic nucleic acids with specificity comparable to that of PCR but with minimal technical settings. Further developing CRISPR-based diagnostic tools promises to dramatically transform molecular diagnostics, making them easily affordable and accessible virtually anywhere in the world. The burden of socially significant diseases, frequent outbreaks, recent epidemics (MERS, SARS and the ongoing COVID-19) and outbreaks of zoonotic viruses (African Swine Fever Virus etc.) urgently need the developing and distribution of express-diagnostic tools. Recently devised CRISPR-technologies represent the unprecedented opportunity to reshape epidemiological surveillance and molecular diagnostics.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Swine
3.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 171: 2-3, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711213

ABSTRACT

Specifically for COVID-19, we have had several recent articles on SARS-CoV-2. Sohail and Nutini reported on models working to predict the incubation period for SARS-CoV-2 and disease progression. Güler et al. wrote a review of the biophysical and biochemical properties of SARS-CoV-2 which highlighted how the virus's molecular structure allows it to interact and infect cells. These structures are also potential targets for diagnostic and treatment strategies. Lalitha Guruprasad's review on how the various human coronavirus spike proteins interact with human cell proteins and carbohydrate receptors provides further insight on coronavirus-cell interactions as well, and reviews successfully repurposed drugs to combat coronavirus-based diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2579-2589, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037298

ABSTRACT

Clinical microbiology has possessed a marvellous past, an important present and a bright future. Western medicine modernization started with the discovery of bacterial pathogens, and from then, clinical bacteriology became a cornerstone of diagnostics. Today, clinical microbiology uses standard techniques including Gram stain morphology, in vitro culture, antigen and antibody assays, and molecular biology both to establish a diagnosis and monitor the progression of microbial infections. Clinical microbiology has played a critical role in pathogen detection and characterization for emerging infectious diseases as evidenced by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Revolutionary changes are on the way in clinical microbiology with the application of "-omic" techniques, including transcriptomics and metabolomics, and optimization of clinical practice configurations to improve outcomes of patients with infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Metabolomics
5.
Lab Chip ; 22(20): 3933-3941, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028739

ABSTRACT

For rapid detection of the COVID-19 infection, the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) with higher sensitivity and specificity has been presented as a promising method of point-of-care testing (POCT). Unlike the conventional real-time PCR (qPCR), the dPCR system allows absolute quantification of the target DNA without a calibration curve. Although a number of dPCR systems have previously been reported, most of these previous assays lack multiplexing capabilities. As different variants of COVID-19 have rapidly emerged, there is an urgent need for highly specific multiplexed detection systems. Additionally, the advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) technology have enabled the onsite detection of infectious diseases. Here, we present an IoT-integrated multiplexed dPCR (IM-dPCR) system involving sample compartmentalization, DNA amplification, fluorescence imaging, and quantitative analysis. This IM-dPCR system comprises three modules: a plasmonic heating-based thermal cycler, a multi-color fluorescence imaging set-up, and a firmware control module. Combined with a custom-developed smartphone application built on an IoT platform, the IM-dPCR system enabled automatic processing, data collection, and cloud storage. Using a self-priming microfluidic chip, 9 RNA groups (e.g., H1N1, H3N2, IFZ B, DENV2, DENV3, DENV4, OC43, 229E, and NL63) associated with three infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, dengue, and human coronaviruses) were analyzed with higher linearity (>98%) and sensitivity (1 copy per µL). The IM-dPCR system exhibited comparable analytical accuracy to commercial qPCR platforms. Therefore, this IM-dPCR system plays a crucial role in the onsite detection of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , DNA/genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , RNA , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
6.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6902321, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968376

ABSTRACT

Controlling infectious diseases is a major health priority because they can spread and infect humans, thus evolving into epidemics or pandemics. Therefore, early detection of infectious diseases is a significant need, and many researchers have developed models to diagnose them in the early stages. This paper reviewed research articles for recent machine-learning (ML) algorithms applied to infectious disease diagnosis. We searched the Web of Science, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Springer, and IEEE databases from 2015 to 2022, identified the pros and cons of the reviewed ML models, and discussed the possible recommendations to advance the studies in this field. We found that most of the articles used small datasets, and few of them used real-time data. Our results demonstrated that a suitable ML technique depends on the nature of the dataset and the desired goal. Moreover, heterogeneous data could ensure the model's generalization, while big data, many features, and a hybrid model will increase the resulting performance. Furthermore, using other techniques such as deep learning and NLP to extract vast features from unstructured data is a powerful approach to enhancing the performance of ML diagnostic models.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Machine Learning , Algorithms , Big Data , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics
7.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(10): e0244621, 2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949964

ABSTRACT

Nearly 40 years have elapsed since the invention of the PCR, with its extremely sensitive and specific ability to detect nucleic acids via in vitro enzyme-mediated amplification. In turn, more than 2 years have passed since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, during which time molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases have assumed a larger global role than ever before. In this context, we review broadly the progression of molecular techniques in clinical microbiology, to their current prominence. Notably, these methods now entail both the detection and quantification of microbial nucleic acids, along with their sequence-based characterization. Overall, we seek to provide a combined perspective on the techniques themselves, as well as how they have come to shape health care at the intersection of technologic innovation, pathophysiologic knowledge, clinical/laboratory logistics, and even financial/regulatory factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Nucleic Acids , Humans , Pathology, Molecular , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods
8.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 115-123, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887517

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases still register significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surveillance through a mandatory notification system allows the continuous analysis of the situation even at a local level and its importance has been highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to outline the importance of the mandatory notification system as a Public Health tool in the continuous monitoring of infectious diseases. To this aim, we carried out a cross-sectional study examining the notifications reported in the Italian territory of Messina, Sicily, in the period 2001-2020. The institutional websites were examined and the notification data were used to obtain the incidences. Overall, a significant reduction of the incidence notification trend was observed. Chickenpox was by far the most notified infectious disease, followed by scabies, pediculosis, and brucellosis. Outbreaks of brucellosis, measles and hepatitis A occurred. All the diseases decreased over time, except syphilis, for which a significant increase was observed. Surveillance of infectious diseases through a mandatory notification system remains a bulwark of public health despite underreporting. Our study reflects the situation of a typical high-income area, although some unexpected criticisms are highlighted. Continuous information about correct behaviors through education campaigns are crucial in order to improve the situation. Keywords: mandatory notifications, infectious diseases, surveillance, public health Corresponding author: Alessio Facciolà, Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Italy. Email: afacciola@unime.it.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Notification , Humans , Pandemics , Population Surveillance/methods , Sicily
9.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875479

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases remain a pervasive threat to global and public health, especially in many countries and rural urban areas. The main causes of such severe diseases are the lack of appropriate analytical methods and subsequent treatment strategies due to limited access to centralized and equipped medical centers for detection. Rapid and accurate diagnosis in biomedicine and healthcare is essential for the effective treatment of pathogenic viruses as well as early detection. Plasma-engineered polymers are used worldwide for viral infections in conjunction with molecular detection of biomarkers. Plasma-engineered polymers for biomarker-based viral detection are generally inexpensive and offer great potential. For biomarker-based virus detection, plasma-based polymers appear to be potential biological probes and have been used directly with physiological components to perform highly multiplexed analyses simultaneously. The simultaneous measurement of multiple clinical parameters from the same sample volume is possible using highly multiplexed analysis to detect human viral infections, thereby reducing the time and cost required to collect each data point. This article reviews recent studies on the efficacy of plasma-engineered polymers as a detection method against human pandemic viruses. In this review study, we examine polymer biomarkers, plasma-engineered polymers, highly multiplexed analyses for viral infections, and recent applications of polymer-based biomarkers for virus detection. Finally, we provide an outlook on recent advances in the field of plasma-engineered polymers for biomarker-based virus detection and highly multiplexed analysis.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Biomarkers , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Polymers , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
10.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869803

ABSTRACT

From 29 November to 1 December 2021, an "emerging animal infectious disease conference (EAIDC)" was held at the Pennsylvania State University. This conference brought together distinguished thought leaders in animal health, veterinary diagnostics, epidemiology and disease surveillance, and agricultural economics. The conference's primary objective was to review the lessons learned from past experiences in dealing with high-consequence animal infectious diseases to inform an action plan to prepare for future epizootics and panzootics. Invited speakers and panel members comprised world-leading experts in animal infectious diseases from federal state agencies, academia, professional societies, and the private sector. The conference concluded that the biosecurity of livestock operations is critical for minimizing the devastating impact of emerging animal infectious diseases. The panel also highlighted the need to develop and benchmark cutting-edge diagnostics for rapidly detecting pathogens in clinical samples and the environment. Developing next-generation pathogen agnostic diagnostics will help detect variants of known pathogens and unknown novel pathogens. The conference also highlighted the importance of the One Health approach in dealing with emerging animal and human infectious diseases. The recommendations of the conference may be used to inform policy discussions focused on developing strategies for monitoring and preventing emerging infectious disease threats to the livestock industry.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Communicable Diseases , Agriculture , Animals , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Humans
12.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 411-416, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742148

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the role and perceptions of trainees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: An online survey was designed to provide an insight into the significance of the COVID-19 pandemic on working conditions of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology trainees. Results: The main roles of trainees included management of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (55%), research (53%) and diagnostic procedures (43%). The majority (82%) of trainees felt useful in managing the crisis. However, more than two-thirds felt more stressed and more tired compared with other rotations. Only 39% of the participants had access to psychological support. Conclusion: Due to the significant impact of the pandemic on infectious diseases and clinical microbiology trainees, further research should focus on their health and welfare in the post-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715107

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of infectious diseases is ineffective when the diagnostic test does not meet one or more of the necessary standards of affordability, accessibility, and accuracy. The World Health Organization further clarifies these standards with a set of criteria that has the acronym ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment-free and Deliverable to end-users). The advancement of the digital age has led to a revision of the ASSURED criteria to REASSURED: Real-time connectivity, Ease of specimen collection, Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and robust, Equipment-free or simple, and Deliverable to end-users. Many diagnostic tests have been developed that aim to satisfy the REASSURED criteria; however, most of them only detect a single target. With the progression of syndromic infections, coinfections and the current antimicrobial resistance challenges, the need for multiplexed diagnostics is now more important than ever. This review summarizes current diagnostic technologies for multiplexed detection and forecasts which methods have promise for detecting multiple targets and meeting all REASSURED criteria.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704472

ABSTRACT

Rapid and precise diagnostic methods are required to control emerging infectious diseases effectively. Human body fluids are attractive clinical samples for discovering diagnostic targets because they reflect the clinical statuses of patients and most of them can be obtained with minimally invasive sampling processes. Body fluids are good reservoirs for infectious parasites, bacteria, and viruses. Therefore, recent clinical proteomics methods have focused on body fluids when aiming to discover human- or pathogen-originated diagnostic markers. Cutting-edge liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics has been applied in this regard; it is considered one of the most sensitive and specific proteomics approaches. Here, the clinical characteristics of each body fluid, recent tandem mass spectroscopy (MS/MS) data-acquisition methods, and applications of body fluids for proteomics regarding infectious diseases (including the coronavirus disease of 2019 [COVID-19]), are summarized and discussed.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Proteomics/methods , Body Fluids , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(767): 173-181, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675729

ABSTRACT

The substantial progresses during the last decades in the field of infectious diseases have significantly improved their prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Basic and medical sciences have efficiently dealt with the challenges of emerging infections, infectious complications related to the increasing complexity of medical practices and marked slow-down in the development of new antimicrobial agents. During the worldwide crisis related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the « medical normality ¼ has been put in stand-by, but medical advances have fortunately continued. In the present article we present new knowledge in the field of bacterial, viral and fungal infections, which may modify hospital and ambulatory practices. Significant achievements in the field of COVID-19 will be presented in a future article.


Les progrès spectaculaires des dernières décennies dans le domaine des maladies infectieuses ont sensiblement amélioré leurs prévention, diagnostic et traitement. Les sciences de base et cliniques ont répondu présent face à de multiples défis: infections émergentes, complications infectieuses de pratiques médicales de plus en plus complexes, ralentissement préoccupant du développement de nouveaux agents antimicrobiens. Pendant la crise mondiale liée à la pandémie de Covid-19, la « normalité médicale ¼ a dû être mise entre parenthèses, mais les progrès médicaux se sont ­ fort heureusement ­ poursuivis. Dans cet article, nous vous présentons de nouvelles connaissances en matière d'infections bactériennes, virales ou fongiques qui pourraient faire évoluer nos pratiques hospitalières et ambulatoires. Les acquis marquants dans le domaine du Covid-19 feront l'objet d'un article à venir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 10-15, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672158
18.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633231

ABSTRACT

Recent reports indicate that respiratory infectious diseases were suppressed during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 led to behavioral changes aimed to control droplet transmission or contact transmission. In this study, we examined the incidence of common infectious diseases in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 data were extracted from the national data based on the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID). Common infectious diseases were selected from notifiable infectious diseases under the NESID. The epidemic activity of the diseases during 2015-2020 was evaluated based on the Infectious Disease Weekly Reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Each disease was then categorized according to the route of transmission. Many Japanese people had adopted hygienic activities, such as wearing masks and hand washing, even before the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the correlation between the time-series of disease counts of common infectious diseases and COVID-19 over time using cross-correlation analysis. The weekly number of cases of measles, rotavirus, and several infections transmitted by droplet spread, was negatively correlated with the weekly number of cases of COVID-19 for up to 20 weeks in the past. According to the difference-in-differences analysis, the activity of influenza and rubella was significantly lower starting from the second week in 2020 than that in 2015-2019. Only legionellosis was more frequent throughout the year than in 2015-2019. Lower activity was also observed in some contact transmitted, airborne-transmitted, and fecal-oral transmitted diseases. However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, exanthema subitum, showed the same trend as that over the previous 5 years. In conclusion, our study shows that public health interventions for the COVID-19 pandemic may have effectively prevented the transmission of most droplet-transmitted diseases and those transmitted through other routes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Health Behavior , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Masks , Pandemics , Rubella/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 125-133, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) are poised to transform infectious disease testing. Uniquely, infectious disease testing is technologically diverse spaces in laboratory medicine, where multiple platforms and approaches may be required to support clinical decision-making. Despite advances in laboratory informatics, the vast array of infectious disease data is constrained by human analytical limitations. Machine learning can exploit multiple data streams, including but not limited to laboratory information and overcome human limitations to provide physicians with predictive and actionable results. As a quickly evolving area of computer science, laboratory professionals should become aware of AI/ML applications for infectious disease testing as more platforms are become commercially available. CONTENT: In this review we: (a) define both AI/ML, (b) provide an overview of common ML approaches used in laboratory medicine, (c) describe the current AI/ML landscape as it relates infectious disease testing, and (d) discuss the future evolution AI/ML for infectious disease testing in both laboratory and point-of-care applications. SUMMARY: The review provides an important educational overview of AI/ML technique in the context of infectious disease testing. This includes supervised ML approaches, which are frequently used in laboratory medicine applications including infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, sepsis, hepatitis, malaria, meningitis, Lyme disease, and tuberculosis. We also apply the concept of "data fusion" describing the future of laboratory testing where multiple data streams are integrated by AI/ML to provide actionable clinical knowledge.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Communicable Diseases , Machine Learning , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans
20.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 52-58, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lateral flow immunoassays are widely used as diagnostic tests in many applications in human and other diagnostic areas. Assays for human applications have been commercially available since the 1980s and initially were primarily used to identify pregnancy by measuring human chorionic gonadotropin in urine and serum/plasma. CONTENT: The first infectious disease lateral flow assays were commercialized in the late 1980s identifying the presence of Group A Streptococcus pyogenes collected with throat swabs; innumerable other applications followed in the intervening decades. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has brought a vast number of new assays for which emergency use authorization (EUA) has been requested in the USA. These assays have been designed for detection of the antibody response to an infection and viral antigens in respiratory samples. In view of the onslaught of new tests, this review will focus on the use of rapid lateral flow immunoassays for infectious diseases. Principles of lateral flow assays and approaches to the production of high-sensitivity point-of-care assays are presented. Market trends, customer requirements, and future directions of lateral flow assay technology and its applications in the infectious disease diagnostic space are discussed. SUMMARY: Lateral flow immunoassays play an important role in infectious disease diagnostics. Advancements in technology have led to improved performance of these assays and acceptance by professional users. With the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the market has reached new levels requiring hundreds of millions of tests per year for professional and even home use.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Immunoassay , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity
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