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1.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14937, 2022 Jan.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically changed the recommended activities and environment for patients worldwide. Our aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on pediatric hospitalizations in Kitami, Japan. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on hospitalized patients aged 0-14 years at the Japanese Red Cross Kitami Hospital. We compared the incidence of pediatric patients hospitalized in 2020 with those in 2017-2019. RESULTS: The number of pediatric hospitalized patients dropped significantly in 2020 compared to that in 2017-2019 (median 43.0 vs 78.5 per month, P < 0.001). The patients were significantly older in 2020 (4.3 vs 3.4 years, P < 0.001). Hospitalization from respiratory (8.5 vs 30.5, P < 0.001) and gastrointestinal infections (3.0 vs 6.0, P = 0.004) significantly decreased. Admission due to respiratory syncytial virus (0.0 vs 4.0, P < 0.001), human metapneumovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.005), influenza (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.009), adenovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.003), and rotavirus infection (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.025) also decreased significantly. The <1-5 age groups significantly decreased (<1 year old, 6.5 vs 12.5, P < 0.001; 1-3 years old, 13.0 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; 4-5 years old, 5.5 vs 11.5, P < 0.001). Hospitalization due to foreign body ingestions increased significantly in 2020 (1.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 control measures inadvertently reduced the number of hospitalized pediatric patients, especially younger children with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with high-consequence infectious diseases (HCID) are rare in Western Europe. However, high-level isolation units (HLIU) must always be prepared for patient admission. Case fatality rates of HCID can be reduced by providing optimal intensive care management. We here describe a single centre's preparation, its embedding in the national context and the challenges we faced during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: Ten team leaders organize monthly whole day trainings for a team of doctors and nurses from the HLIU focusing on intensive care medicine. Impact and relevance of training are assessed by a questionnaire and a perception survey, respectively. Furthermore, yearly exercises with several partner institutions are performed to cover different real-life scenarios. Exercises are evaluated by internal and external observers. Both training sessions and exercises are accompanied by intense feedback. RESULTS: From May 2017 monthly training sessions were held with a two-month and a seven-month break due to the first and second wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, respectively. Agreement with the statements of the questionnaire was higher after training compared to before training indicating a positive effect of training sessions on competence. Participants rated joint trainings for nurses and doctors at regular intervals as important. Numerous issues with potential for improvement were identified during post processing of exercises. Action plans for their improvement were drafted and as of now mostly implemented. The network of the permanent working group of competence and treatment centres for HCID (Ständiger Arbeitskreis der Kompetenz- und Behandlungszentren für Krankheiten durch hochpathogene Erreger (STAKOB)) at the Robert Koch-Institute (RKI) was strengthened throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. DISCUSSION: Adequate preparation for the admission of patients with HCID is challenging. We show that joint regular trainings of doctors and nurses are appreciated and that training sessions may improve perceived skills. We also show that real-life scenario exercises may reveal additional deficits, which cannot be easily disclosed in training sessions. Although the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic interfered with our activities the enhanced cooperation among German HLIU during the pandemic ensured constant readiness for the admission of HCID patients to our or to collaborating HLIU. This is a single centre's experience, which may not be generalized to other centres. However, we believe that our work may address aspects that should be considered when preparing a unit for the admission of patients with HCID. These may then be adapted to the local situations.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Continuing/methods , Education, Nursing, Continuing/organization & administration , Environment Design , Germany/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Workflow
3.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14958, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, many countries, including Japan, implemented policies limiting social activities and encouraging preventive behaviors. This study examines the influence of such policies on the trends of 10 infectious pediatric diseases: pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; herpangina; respiratory syncytial virus; exanthem subitum; and mumps. METHODS: The research adopted a retrospective cohort study design. We collected data from Japan's National Epidemiological Surveillance Program detailing the incidences of the 10 diseases per pediatric sentinel site for a period beginning at 9 weeks before government-ordered school closures and ending at 9 weeks after the end of the state of emergency. We obtained corresponding data for the equivalent weeks in 2015-2019. We estimated the influence of the policies using a difference-in-differences regression model. RESULTS: For seven diseases (pharyngoconjunctival fever; group A streptococcal pharyngitis; infectious gastroenteritis; chickenpox; erythema infectiosum; hand, foot, and mouth disease; and herpangina), the incidence in 2020 decreased significantly during and after the school closures. Sensitivity analysis, in which the focus area was limited to the policy-implementation period or existing trend patterns, replicated these significant decreases for one of the above mentioned seven diseases - infectious gastroenteritis. CONCLUSIONS: Policies such as school closures and encouragement of preventive behaviors were associated with significant decreases in the incidences of most of the 10 diseases, which sensitivity analysis replicated in infectious gastroenteritis. To determine the long-term effects of these policies, prospective cohort studies are needed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Erythema Infectiosum , Gastroenteritis , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Herpangina , Pharyngitis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Policy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pyogenes
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 206, 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases. METHODS: We analyzed data for neonatal inpatients admitted at a tertiary academic hospital with a principal diagnosis of an infectious disease during January 2015 to December 2020. We compared hospitalizations in 2020 (COVID-19 cohort), corresponding with the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and associated containment measures, and the comparable 2015 to 2019 (pre-COVID-19 cohort). RESULTS: 14,468 cases admitted for neonatal infectious diseases were included in our study, with 1201 cases in the COVID-19 cohort and 13,267 cases in the pre-COVID-19 cohort. The leading causes of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases remain being respiratory tract infections (median ratio = 0.461, 95% CI 0.335-0.551), sepsis (median ratio = 0.292, 95% CI 0.263-0.361), gastric intestinal infections (median ratio = 0.095, 95% CI 0.078-0.118) and dermatologic infections (median ratio = 0.058, 95% CI 0.047-0.083). The seasonality of neonatal infectious disease hospitalizations could be obviously observed, with the total number and the overall rate of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in the first and fourth quarters greater than that of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in the second and third quarters in each year (1362.67 ± 360.54 vs 1048.67 ± 279.23, P = 0.001; 8176/20020 vs 6292/19369, P < 0.001, respectively). Both the numbers and the proportions of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in different quarters of the COVID-19 cohort significantly decreased as compared with those forecasted with the data from the pre-COVID-19 cohort: the numbers per quarter (300.25 ± 57.33 vs 546.64 ± 100.43, P-value = 0.006), the first quarter (0.34 vs 0.40, P = 0.002), the second quarter (0.24 vs 0.30, P = 0.001), the third quarter (0.24 vs 0.28, P = 0.024), and the fourth quarter (0.29 vs 0.35, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the leading causes of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases remain unchanged. The seasonality of neonatal infectious disease hospitalizations could be obviously observed. The numbers as well as the overall rates of hospitalizations for neonatal infectious diseases in the COVID-19 cohort dramatically declined with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 208, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Public Health Services in the Rotterdam region, the Netherlands, observed a substantial decrease of non-COVID-19 notifiable infectious diseases and institutional outbreaks during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic. We describe this change from mid-March to mid-October 2020 by comparing with the pre-COVID-19 situation. METHODS: All cases of notifiable diseases and institutional outbreaks reported to the Public Health Services Rotterdam-Rijnmond between 1st January and mid-October 2020 were included. Seven-day moving averages and cumulative cases were plotted against time and compared to those of 2017-2019. Additionally, Google mobility transit data of the region were plotted, as proxy for social distancing. RESULTS: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, and travel-related notifiable diseases were reported 65% less often during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic than in the same weeks in 2017-2019. Reports of institutional outbreaks were also lower after the initially imposed social distancing measures; however, the numbers rebounded when measures were partially lifted. CONCLUSIONS: Interpersonal distancing and hygiene measures imposed nationally against COVID-19 were in place between mid-March and mid-October, which most likely reduced transmission of other infectious diseases, and may thus have resulted in lower notifications of infectious diseases and outbreaks. This phenomenon opens future study options considering the effect of local outbreak control measures on a wide range of non-COVID-19 diseases. Targeted, tailored, appropriate and acceptable hygiene and distancing measures, specifically for vulnerable groups and institutions, should be devised and their effect investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2201-2211, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777589

ABSTRACT

The public health interventions to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could also potentially reduce the global activity of influenza. However, this strategy's impact on other common infectious diseases is unknown. We collected data of 10 respiratory infectious (RI) diseases, influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), and seven gastrointestinal infectious (GI) diseases during 2015-2020 in China and applied two proportional tests to check the differences in the yearly incidence and mortality, and case-fatality rates (CFRs) over the years 2015-2020. The results showed that the overall RI activity decreased by 7.47%, from 181.64 in 2015-2019 to 168.08 per 100 000 in 2020 (p < 0.001); however, the incidence of influenza was seen to have a 16.08% escalation (p < 0.001). In contrast, the average weekly ILI percentage and positive influenza virus rate decreased by 6.25% and 61.94%, respectively, in 2020 compared to the previous 5 years (all p < 0.001). The overall incidence of GI decreased by 45.28%, from 253.73 in 2015-2019 to 138.84 in 2020 per 100 000 (p < 0.001), and with the greatest decline seen in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) (64.66%; p < 0.001). The mortality and CFRs from RI increased by 128.49% and 146.95%, respectively, in 2020, compared to 2015-2019 (p < 0.001). However, the mortality rates and CFRs of seven GI decreased by 70.56% and 46.12%, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, China's COVID-19 elimination/containment strategy is very effective in reducing the incidence rates of RI and GI, and ILI activity, as well as the mortality and CFRs of GI diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 774984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775979

ABSTRACT

Objective: Timely and accurate forecast of infectious diseases is essential for achieving precise prevention and control. A good forecasting method of infectious diseases should have the advantages of interpretability, feasibility, and forecasting performance. Since previous research had illustrated that the spatial transmission network (STN) showed good interpretability and feasibility, this study further explored its forecasting performance for infectious diseases across multiple regions. Meanwhile, this study also showed whether the STN could overcome the challenges of model rationality and practical needs. Methods: The construction of the STN framework involved three major steps: the spatial kluster analysis by tree edge removal (SKATER) algorithm, structure learning by dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), and parameter learning by the vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model. Then, we evaluated the forecasting performance of STN by comparing its accuracy with that of the mechanism models like susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SEIRS) and machine-learning algorithm like long-short-term memory (LSTM). At the same time, we assessed the robustness of forecasting performance of STN in high and low incidence seasons. The influenza-like illness (ILI) data in the Sichuan Province of China from 2010 to 2017 were used as an example for illustration. Results: The STN model revealed that ILI was likely to spread among multiple cities in Sichuan during the study period. During the whole study period, the forecasting accuracy of the STN (mean absolute percentage error [MAPE] = 31.134) was significantly better than that of the LSTM (MAPE = 41.657) and the SEIRS (MAPE = 62.039). In addition, the forecasting performance of STN was also superior to those of the other two methods in either the high incidence season (MAPE = 24.742) or the low incidence season (MAPE = 26.209), and the superiority was more obvious in the high incidence season. Conclusion: This study applied the STN to the forecast of infectious diseases across multiple regions. The results illustrated that the STN not only had good accuracy in forecasting performance but also indicated the spreading directions of infectious diseases among multiple regions to a certain extent. Therefore, the STN is a promising candidate to improve the surveillance work.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Forecasting , Bayes Theorem , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted great public health efforts across the world. Few studies, however, have described the potential impact of these measures on other important infectious diseases. METHODS: The incidence of 19 major infectious diseases in Zhejiang Province was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from January 2017 to October 2020. The entire epidemic control phase was divided into three stages. The government deployed the first level response from 24 January to 2 March (the most rigorous measures). When the outbreak of COVID-19 was under control, the response level changed to the second level from 3 to 23 March, and then the third level response was implemented after 24 March. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of 19 major infectious diseases during different periods of the COVID-19 epidemic and previous years. RESULTS: A total of 1,814,881 cases of 19 infectious diseases were reported in Zhejiang from January 2017 to October 2020, resulting in an incidence rate of 8088.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. After the non-pharmaceutical intervention, the incidence of 19 infectious diseases dropped by 70.84%, from 9436.32 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 2751.51 cases per 1,000,000 person-years, with the large decrease in the first response period of influenza. However, we observed that the daily incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and leptospirosis increased slightly (from 1.11 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.82 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for SFTS and 0.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.24 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for leptospirosis). There was no significant difference in the distribution of epidemiological characteristic of most infectious diseases before and during the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. CONCLUSION: Our study summarizes the epidemiological characteristics of 19 infectious diseases and indicates that the rigorous control measures for COVID-19 are also effective for majority of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence
10.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 411-416, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742148

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the role and perceptions of trainees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: An online survey was designed to provide an insight into the significance of the COVID-19 pandemic on working conditions of infectious diseases and clinical microbiology trainees. Results: The main roles of trainees included management of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 (55%), research (53%) and diagnostic procedures (43%). The majority (82%) of trainees felt useful in managing the crisis. However, more than two-thirds felt more stressed and more tired compared with other rotations. Only 39% of the participants had access to psychological support. Conclusion: Due to the significant impact of the pandemic on infectious diseases and clinical microbiology trainees, further research should focus on their health and welfare in the post-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736059

ABSTRACT

The spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 presents many challenges to healthcare systems and infrastructures across the world, exacerbating inequalities and leaving the world's most vulnerable populations at risk. Epidemiological modelling is vital to guiding evidence-informed or data-driven decision making. In forced displacement contexts, and in particular refugee and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements, it meets several challenges including data availability and quality, the applicability of existing models to those contexts, the accurate modelling of cultural differences or specificities of those operational settings, the communication of results and uncertainties, as well as the alignment of strategic goals between diverse partners in complex situations. In this paper, we systematically review the limited epidemiological modelling work applied to refugee and IDP settlements so far, and discuss challenges and identify lessons learnt from the process. With the likelihood of disease outbreaks expected to increase in the future as more people are displaced due to conflict and climate change, we call for the development of more approaches and models specifically designed to include the unique features and populations of refugee and IDP settlements. To strengthen collaboration between the modelling and the humanitarian public health communities, we propose a roadmap to encourage the development of systems and frameworks to share needs, build tools and coordinate responses in an efficient and scalable manner, both for this pandemic and for future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Refugees , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3816, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735273

ABSTRACT

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been holding the world hostage for several years now. Mobility is key to viral spreading and its restriction is the main non-pharmaceutical interventions to fight the virus expansion. Previous works have shown a connection between the structural organization of cities and the movement patterns of their residents. This puts urban centers in the focus of epidemic surveillance and interventions. Here we show that the organization of urban flows has a tremendous impact on disease spreading and on the amenability of different mitigation strategies. By studying anonymous and aggregated intra-urban flows in a variety of cities in the United States and other countries, and a combination of empirical analysis and analytical methods, we demonstrate that the response of cities to epidemic spreading can be roughly classified in two major types according to the overall organization of those flows. Hierarchical cities, where flows are concentrated primarily between mobility hotspots, are particularly vulnerable to the rapid spread of epidemics. Nevertheless, mobility restrictions in such types of cities are very effective in mitigating the spread of a virus. Conversely, in sprawled cities which present many centers of activity, the spread of an epidemic is much slower, but the response to mobility restrictions is much weaker and less effective. Investing resources on early monitoring and prompt ad-hoc interventions in more vulnerable cities may prove helpful in containing and reducing the impact of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/transmission , Models, Theoretical , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cities , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(8): e60, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intussusception refers to the invagination of a part of the intestine into itself. The exact cause for this condition is unknown in most cases. The active implementation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection control guidelines has reduced the spread of COVID-19 and the incidence of other infectious diseases in children. The current study aimed to identify changes in pediatric intussusception and infectious diseases after the implementation of infection control guidelines and confirm the association between intussusception and contagious diseases. METHODS: We analyzed the electronic medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with intussusception from seven hospitals in Korea between January 2017 and December 2020. We used open data from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency to investigate changes in infectious diseases over the same period. RESULTS: Altogether, we evaluated 390 children with intussusception. There was a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of monthly visits with intussusception in the COVID-19 period group (9.0 vs. 3.5, P < 0.001). When the monthly incidence of infectious diseases was compared between the pre-COVID-19 and the COVID-19 periods, a statistically significant decrease in respiratory viruses (7979.0 vs. 815.2, P < 0.001), enterovirus infection (262.2 vs. 6.6, P < 0.001), and viral enteritis (916.2 vs. 197.8, P < 0.001) were confirmed in the COVID-19 period. Through interrupted time series analysis, it was confirmed that the incidence of intussusception and viral infectious diseases have drastically decreased since March 2020, when COVID-19 infection control guidelines were actively implemented. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that implementing infection control guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a decrease in intussusception and viral infectious diseases. Through this result, it was possible to indirectly confirm the existing hypothesis that viral infections play a significant role in the pathophysiologic mechanism of intussusception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Intussusception/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infection Control , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 817431, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686578

ABSTRACT

As the world looks forward to turning a corner in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes increasingly evident that international research cooperation and dialogue is necessary to end this global catastrophe. Last year, we initiated a research topic: "Infectious Disease Surveillance: Cooperative Research in Response to Recent Outbreaks, Including COVID-19," which aimed at featuring manuscripts focused on the essential link between surveillance and cooperative research for emerging and endemic diseases, and highlighting scientific partnerships in countries under-represented in the scientific literature. Here we recognize the body of work published from our manuscript call that resulted in over 50 published papers. This current analysis describes articles and authors from a variety of funded and unfunded international sources. The work exemplifies successful research and publications which are frequently cooperative, and may serve as a basis to model further global scientific engagements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(3): e259-e273, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is used for multiple infectious diseases, most recently for COVID-19, but data regarding its effectiveness in disease control are scarce. To address this knowledge gap and inform public health decision making for COVID-19, we systematically reviewed the existing literature to determine the effectiveness of contact tracing in the control of communicable illness. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from database inception up to Nov 22, 2021, for published studies evaluating associations between provider-initiated contact tracing for transmissible infectious diseases and one of three outcomes of interest: case detection rates among contacts or at the community level, overall forward transmission, or overall disease incidence. Clinical trials and observational studies were eligible, with no language or date restrictions. Reference lists of reviews were searched for additional studies. We excluded studies without a control group, using only mathematical modelling, not reporting a primary outcome of interest, or solely examining patient-initiated contact tracing. One reviewer applied eligibility criteria to each screened abstract and full-text article, and two reviewers independently extracted summary effect estimates and additional data from eligible studies. Only data reported in published manuscripts or supplemental material was extracted. Risk of bias for each included study was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool (randomised studies) or the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (non-randomised studies). FINDINGS: We identified 9050 unique citations, of which 47 studies met the inclusion criteria: six were focused on COVID-19, 20 on tuberculosis, eight on HIV, 12 on curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and one on measles. More than 2 million index patients were included across a variety of settings (both urban and rural areas and low-resource and high-resource settings). Of the 47 studies, 29 (61·7%) used observational designs, including all studies on COVID-19, and 18 (38·3%) were randomised controlled trials. 40 studies compared provider-initiated contact tracing with other interventions or evaluated expansions of provider-initiated contact tracing, and seven compared programmatic adaptations within provider-initiated contact tracing. 29 (72·5%) of the 40 studies evaluating the effect of provider-initiated contact tracing, including four (66·7%) of six COVID-19 studies, found contact tracing interventions were associated with improvements in at least one outcome of interest. 23 (48·9%) studies had low risk of bias, 22 (46·8%) studies had some risk of bias, and two (4·3%) studies (both randomised controlled trials on curable STIs) had high risk of bias. INTERPRETATION: Provider-initiated contact tracing can be an effective public health tool. However, the ability of authorities to make informed choices about its deployment might be limited by heterogenous approaches to contact tracing in studies, a scarcity of quantitative evidence on its effectiveness, and absence of specificity of tracing parameters most important for disease control. FUNDING: The Sullivan Family Foundation, Massachusetts General Hospital Executive Committee on Research, and US National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674646

ABSTRACT

Africa has a long history of novel and re-emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This reality has attracted the attention of researchers interested in the general research theme of predicting infectious diseases. However, a knowledge mapping analysis of literature to reveal the research trends, gaps, and hotspots in predicting Africa's infectious diseases using bibliometric tools has not been conducted. A bibliometric analysis of 247 published papers on predicting infectious diseases in Africa, published in the Web of Science core collection databases, is presented in this study. The results indicate that the severe outbreaks of infectious diseases in Africa have increased scientific publications during the past decade. The results also reveal that African researchers are highly underrepresented in these publications and that the United States of America (USA) is the most productive and collaborative country. The relevant hotspots in this research field include malaria, models, classification, associations, COVID-19, and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, weather-based prediction using meteorological factors is an emerging theme, and very few studies have used the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) technologies. Therefore, there is a need to explore 4IR predicting tools such as machine learning and consider integrated approaches that are pivotal to developing robust prediction systems for infectious diseases, especially in Africa. This review paper provides a useful resource for researchers, practitioners, and research funding agencies interested in the research theme-the prediction of infectious diseases in Africa-by capturing the current research hotspots and trends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Africa/epidemiology , Bibliometrics , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(767): 173-181, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675729

ABSTRACT

The substantial progresses during the last decades in the field of infectious diseases have significantly improved their prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Basic and medical sciences have efficiently dealt with the challenges of emerging infections, infectious complications related to the increasing complexity of medical practices and marked slow-down in the development of new antimicrobial agents. During the worldwide crisis related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the « medical normality ¼ has been put in stand-by, but medical advances have fortunately continued. In the present article we present new knowledge in the field of bacterial, viral and fungal infections, which may modify hospital and ambulatory practices. Significant achievements in the field of COVID-19 will be presented in a future article.


Les progrès spectaculaires des dernières décennies dans le domaine des maladies infectieuses ont sensiblement amélioré leurs prévention, diagnostic et traitement. Les sciences de base et cliniques ont répondu présent face à de multiples défis: infections émergentes, complications infectieuses de pratiques médicales de plus en plus complexes, ralentissement préoccupant du développement de nouveaux agents antimicrobiens. Pendant la crise mondiale liée à la pandémie de Covid-19, la « normalité médicale ¼ a dû être mise entre parenthèses, mais les progrès médicaux se sont ­ fort heureusement ­ poursuivis. Dans cet article, nous vous présentons de nouvelles connaissances en matière d'infections bactériennes, virales ou fongiques qui pourraient faire évoluer nos pratiques hospitalières et ambulatoires. Les acquis marquants dans le domaine du Covid-19 feront l'objet d'un article à venir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2147363, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669330

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infections are proposed to be triggering factors for Kawasaki disease (KD), although its etiological factors remain unknown. Recent reports have indicated a 4- to 6-week lag between SARS-CoV-2 infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with a similar presentation to that of KD. Objective: To investigate the temporal correlation between KD and viral infections, focusing on respiratory viruses. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted among individuals aged 0 to 19 years diagnosed with KD between January 2010 and September 2020 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Data on infectious disease outbreaks from 2016 to 2019 were collected from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System, Korea Enteroviruses Surveillance System, and the Enteric Pathogens Active Surveillance Network in South Korea. Data were analyzed from December 2020 to October 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: National databases for infectious diseases were used for a time-series analysis of the correlation between viral infections and KD. The temporal correlation between infectious disease outbreaks and KD outbreaks was evaluated using the Granger causality test (G-test), which is a useful tool to estimate correlations between 2 time series of diseases based on time lags. Results: Overall, 53 424 individuals with KD were identified, including 22 510 (42.1%) females and 30 914 (57.9%) males and 44 276 individuals (82.9%) younger than 5 years. Intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant KD was identified in 9042 individuals (16.9%), and coronary artery abnormalities were identified in 384 individuals (0.7%). Of 14 infectious diseases included in the analyses, rhinovirus infection outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks in South Korea (r = 0.3; 1 month: P < .001; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus infection were identified as significantly correlated with KD outbreaks by 2 months (r = 0.5; 2 months: P < .001). Additionally, varicella outbreaks were identified as significantly correlated at 2 and 3 months before KD outbreaks (r = 0.7; 2 months: P < .001; 3 months: P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study with a time series analysis of children and youth in South Korea with KD, respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus and varicella outbreaks were significantly correlated with KD at 1 to 3 months before KD outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
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