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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 87, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196537

ABSTRACT

Misinformation has been a pressing issue since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, threatening our ability to effectively act on the crisis. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of fake news on behavioural intentions. Does exposure to or belief in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines affect people's intentions to receive such a vaccine? This paper attempts to address this question via three preregistered experiments (N = 3463). In Study 1, participants (n = 1269) were exposed to fabricated pro- or anti-vaccine information or to neutral true information, and then asked about their intentions to get vaccinated. In Study 2, participants (n = 646) were exposed to true pro- and anti-vaccine information, while Study 3 (n = 1548) experimentally manipulated beliefs in novel misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines by increasing exposure to the information. The results of these three studies showed that exposure to false information about the vaccines had little effect on participants' intentions to get vaccinated, even when multiple exposures led them to believe the headlines to be more accurate. An exploratory meta-analysis of studies 1 and 3, with a combined sample size of 2683, showed that exposure to false information both supporting and opposing COVID-19 vaccines actually increased vaccination intentions, though the effect size was very small. We conclude by cautioning researchers against equating exposure to misinformation or perceived accuracy of false news with actual behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Vaccination
2.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 88, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196536

ABSTRACT

The objective was to document the influence of face mask use by other people on communication experiences, participation in activities, and quality of life. Australian adults (n = 665) completed an online survey; 90.8% resided in a state with mandatory mask use outside the home and 44.1% self-reported hearing difficulties. Mask use was reported as negatively affecting communication quality in the community (90.2%) and workplace (91.8%), and with household members (59.1%), including an increased requirement for clarification and repetition, increased difficulty communicating, and decreased understanding. Masks influenced feelings when communicating in the community (74.1%) and workplace (76.7%), and with household members (43.6%), including increased fatigue and frustration, and decreased connection to others. Masks influenced the time spent communicating in the community (68.8%) and workplace (67.9%), and with household members (42.3%), including a decrease in the number of individuals communicated with, and the time spent communicating with each individual. Masks influenced participation in activities in the community (50.9%) and workplace (59.7%), and with household members (41.3%), including reduced participation in health-related activities, shopping, and socialising. Influences on quality of life included reduced physical and mental health, including increased loneliness. Female gender and greater self-reported hearing difficulties were significantly associated with increased influence of mask use. The wide-ranging influences of face mask use have implications for physical health and mental health, including social connectedness, and for employers and the economy. As an important measure for combatting disease spread, the negative impacts of mask use must be considered during policy formulation, and appropriate mitigating measures, such as educational campaigns, enacted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication , Female , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Quality of Life
4.
5.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 51(2): 199-207, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202476
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1416, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The states of IPC (Infection Prevention and Control) is serious under the COVID-19 pandemic. Nosocomial infection reporting is of great significance to transparent management of IPC in regard to the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to explore the relationship between communication openness and nosocomial infection reporting, explore the mediating effect of team cohesion in the two, and provide evidence-based organizational perspective for improving IPC management in the hospitals. METHOD: A questionnaire was used to collect data on communication openness, team cohesion and nosocomial infection reporting in 3512 medical staff from 239 hospitals in Hubei, China. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was conducted to examine the hypothetical model. RESULT: Communication openness was positively related to nosocomial infection reporting (ß = 0.540, p < 0.001), and was positively related to team cohesion (ß = 0.887, p < 0.001). Team cohesion was positively related to nosocomial infection reporting (ß = 0.328, p < 0.001). The partial mediating effect of team cohesion was significant (ß = 0.291, SE = 0.055, 95% CI = [ 0.178,0.392 ]), making up 35.02% of total effect. CONCLUSION: Communication openness was not only positively related to nosocomial infection reporting. Team cohesion can be regarded as a mediator between communication openness and nosocomial infection reporting. It implies that strengthening communication openness and team cohesion is the strategy to promote IPC management from the new organizational perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Humans , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics , Communication , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2114, 2022 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tackling infodemics with flooding misinformation is key to managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet only a few studies have attempted to understand the characteristics of the people who believe in misinformation. METHODS: Data was used from an online survey that was administered in April 2020 to 6518 English-speaking adult participants in the United States. We created binary variables to represent four misinformation categories related to COVID-19: general COVID-19-related, vaccine/anti-vaccine, COVID-19 as an act of bioterrorism, and mode of transmission. Using binary logistic regression and the LASSO regularization, we then identified the important predictors of belief in each type of misinformation. Nested vector bootstrapping approach was used to estimate the standard error of the LASSO coefficients. RESULTS: About 30% of our sample reported believing in at least one type of COVID-19-related misinformation. Belief in one type of misinformation was not strongly associated with belief in other types. We also identified 58 demographic and socioeconomic factors that predicted people's susceptibility to at least one type of COVID-19 misinformation. Different groups, characterized by distinct sets of predictors, were susceptible to different types of misinformation. There were 25 predictors for general COVID-19 misinformation, 42 for COVID-19 vaccine, 36 for COVID-19 as an act of bioterrorism, and 27 for mode of COVID-transmission. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm the existence of groups with unique characteristics that believe in different types of COVID-19 misinformation. Findings are readily applicable by policymakers to inform careful targeting of misinformation mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Communication
9.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221138426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139060

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Effective communication is a key component to managing an event such as a global pandemic. In Canada, federal/provincial reports indicated that effective communication was a challenge in the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the communication strategies used within long term care facilities in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. METHODS: Online surveys were used to collect data from administrators, staff, and individuals with family members living in long-term care facilities. RESULTS: The findings show an overall satisfaction with the information received by staff and families, however the frequency and format in which information was communicated were inconsistent. All participants indicated that too much information and poor quality information was a challenge. The importance of digital platforms to provide COVID-19 information was consistently identified as a successful communication strategy. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study reveal that the quantity and quality of information provided during the pandemic created challenges for administrators, staff, and families. This is in line with reports from Canadian provincial/federal reports on COVID-19 and long-term care. Recommendations have been made that would benefit the long-term care sector, not only for pandemics, but for communication in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Canada/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , New Brunswick , Communication
11.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 43(6): 899-923, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133781

ABSTRACT

Radiology plays an important role in the management of the most seriously ill patients in the hospital. Over the years, continued advances in imaging technology have contributed to an improvement in patient care. However, even with such advances, the portable chest radiograph (CXR) remains one of the most commonly requested radiographic examinations. While they provide valuable information, CXRs remain relatively insensitive at revealing abnormalities and are often nonspecific. Chest computed tomography (CT) can display findings that are occult on CXR and is particularly useful at identifying and characterizing pleural effusions, detecting barotrauma including small pneumothoraces, distinguishing pneumonia from atelectasis, and revealing unsuspected or additional abnormalities which could result in increased morbidity and mortality if left untreated. CT pulmonary angiography is the modality of choice in the evaluation of pulmonary emboli which can complicate the hospital course of the ICU patient. This article will provide guidance for interpretation of CXR and thoracic CT images, discuss some of the invasive devices routinely used, and review the radiologic manifestations of common pathologic disease states encountered in ICU patients. In addition, imaging findings and complications of more specific clinical scenarios in which the incidence has increased in the ICU setting, such as patients who are immunocompromised, have interstitial lung disease, or COVID-19, will also be discussed. Communication between the radiologist and intensivist, particularly on complicated cases, is important to help increase diagnostic accuracy and leads to an improvement in the management of the most critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Intensive Care Units , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Communication
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19987, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133628

ABSTRACT

Despite the efficacy, safety, and availability of COVID-19 vaccines, a lack of awareness and trust of vaccine safety research remains an important barrier to public health. The goal of this research was to design and test online meta-summaries-transparent, interactive summaries of the state of relevant studies-to improve people's awareness and opinion of vaccine safety research. We used insights from a set of co-design interviews (n = 22) to develop meta-summaries to highlight metascientific information about vaccine safety research. An experiment with 863 unvaccinated participants showed that our meta-summaries increased participants' perception of the amount, consistency, and direction of vaccine safety research relative to the U.S. Center for Disease Control (CDC) webpage, and that participants found them more trustworthy than the CDC page as well. They were also more likely to discuss it with others in the week following. We conclude that direct summaries of scientific research can be a useful communication tool for controversial scientific topics.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Trust , Communication
13.
J Med Imaging Radiat Sci ; 53(4S): S116-S125, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131608

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In England, the NHS National Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) offers routine breast screening to all women, some trans men and non-bionary people, between the ages of 50 years and up to their 71 st birthday, every 3 years. The unfolding Covid-19 pandemic in early 2020 was understandably a time of great anxiety and concern. Culturally we were seeing strong behavioural shifts such as social distancing and a general change in all our daily life patterns. Conceptually, and as leaders, we understood the vulnerability we observed, but felt that we did not have the 'right language' and in fact lacked the relevant experience of how to address and communicate with staff and clients during this crisis. METHODS: A semiotic, observational research project was utilised that aimed at providing insight how cultural behaviour was being shaped and expressed during the early onset of the Covid-19 pandemic in England. The recommendations of the project were then integrated and implemented into an action plan and subsequent practice. RESULTS: Semiotic analysis revealed that several factors (positive and negative) impacted on peoples' confidence and had practical and emotional implications. Eleven main codes which are belief systems about oneself and others were identified and expressed in a multitude of different ways revealing three main themes or needs i.e. Reassurance, Trust and Clarity. An action plan was developed in response to the project findings and recommendation were implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Effective leadership relies on situational awareness. Our semiotic project enabled us to find the 'right' language and communication style so that we could connect with staff at the time of crisis. Using our own expert staff, we empowered them by providing the correct, easily digestible resources to facilitate confidence across the service teams which in turn supported the delivery of high-quality breast screening at a time of great uncertainty. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: We must learn to be agile and adaptive, both in our operational delivery and our communication styles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leadership , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communication , Research
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 950469, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142320

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the COVID-19 pandemic, surveillance systems worldwide underestimated mortality in real time due to longer death reporting lags. In Spain, the mortality monitor "MoMo" published downward biased excess mortality estimates daily. I study the correction of such bias using polynomial regressions in data from January to March 2021 for Spain and the Comunitat Valenciana, the region with the highest excess mortality. Methods: This adjustment for real-time statistics consisted of (1) estimating forthcoming revisions with polynomial regressions of past revisions, and (2) multiplying the daily-published excess mortality by these estimated revisions. The accuracy of the corrected estimates compared to the original was measured by contrasting their mean absolute errors (MAE) and root mean square errors (RMSE). Results: Applying quadratic and cubic regressions improved the first communication of cumulative mortality in Spain by 2-3%, on average, and the flow in registered deaths by 20%. However, for the Comunitat Valenciana, those corrections improved the first publications of the cumulative mortality by 36-45%, on average; their second publication, by 23-30%; and the third, by 15-21%. The flow of deaths registered each day improved by 62-63% on their first publication, by 19-36% on the second, and by 12-17% on the third. Conclusion: It is recommended that MoMo's estimates for excess mortality be corrected from the effect of death reporting lags by using polynomial regressions. This holds for the flows in each date and their cumulative sum, as well as national and regional data. These adjustments can be applied by surveillance systems in other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Communication
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e26527, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has left many people isolated within their homes; these people are turning to social media for news and social connection, which leaves them vulnerable to believing and sharing misinformation. Health-related misinformation threatens adherence to public health messaging, and monitoring its spread on social media is critical to understanding the evolution of ideas that have potentially negative public health impacts. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to use Twitter data to explore methods to characterize and classify four COVID-19 conspiracy theories and to provide context for each of these conspiracy theories through the first 5 months of the pandemic. METHODS: We began with a corpus of COVID-19 tweets (approximately 120 million) spanning late January to early May 2020. We first filtered tweets using regular expressions (n=1.8 million) and used random forest classification models to identify tweets related to four conspiracy theories. Our classified data sets were then used in downstream sentiment analysis and dynamic topic modeling to characterize the linguistic features of COVID-19 conspiracy theories as they evolve over time. RESULTS: Analysis using model-labeled data was beneficial for increasing the proportion of data matching misinformation indicators. Random forest classifier metrics varied across the four conspiracy theories considered (F1 scores between 0.347 and 0.857); this performance increased as the given conspiracy theory was more narrowly defined. We showed that misinformation tweets demonstrate more negative sentiment when compared to nonmisinformation tweets and that theories evolve over time, incorporating details from unrelated conspiracy theories as well as real-world events. CONCLUSIONS: Although we focus here on health-related misinformation, this combination of approaches is not specific to public health and is valuable for characterizing misinformation in general, which is an important first step in creating targeted messaging to counteract its spread. Initial messaging should aim to preempt generalized misinformation before it becomes widespread, while later messaging will need to target evolving conspiracy theories and the new facets of each as they become incorporated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Information Dissemination/methods , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Humans
16.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(11): 61, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129135

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aphasia is an acquired neurological language disorder after brain damages. Persons with aphasia (PWA) are more susceptible to behavioral and emotional implications due to inherent communication and/or cognitive difficulties. Currently, little is known regarding the impact of COVID-19 on PWA. RECENT FINDINGS: There are now growing reports with evidence of neurological and dysexecutive syndromes subsequent to interference of brain functions in acute patients with COVID-19, leading to variable aphasia-like symptoms. COVID-19 affected chronic PWA more in terms of disrupted communication and daily routines, worsened psychosocial well-being, and difficulties getting aphasia services that adequately addressed their needs. Acute versus chronic PWA were disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Recognizing, examining, and managing COVID-19-related neurological and behavioral problems in PWA is not straightforward. As we passed the 1-year mark and approaching the 2-year mark of the onset of COVID-19, more research is necessary to prioritize strategies for improving current evidence-based care and rehabilitation of aphasia.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , COVID-19 , Aphasia/etiology , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(10): 3633-3645, 2022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nearly 20% of U.S. Americans report a hearing loss, yet our current health care system is poorly designed and equipped to effectively care for these individuals. Individuals with hearing loss report communication breakdowns, inaccessible health information, reduced awareness and training by health care providers, and decreased satisfaction while struggling with inadequate health literacy. These all contribute to health inequities and increased health care expenditures and inefficiencies. It is time to reframe the health care system for these individuals using existing models of best practices and accessibility to mitigate inequities and improve quality of care. METHOD: A review of system-, clinic-, provider-, and patient-level barriers, along with existing and suggested efforts to improve care for individuals with hearing loss, are presented. RESULTS: These strategies include improving screening and identification of hearing loss, adopting universal design and inclusion principles, implementing effective communication approaches, leveraging assistive technologies and training, and diversifying a team to better care for patients with hearing loss. Patients should also be encouraged to seek social support and resources from hearing loss organizations while leveraging technologies to help facilitate communication. CONCLUSIONS: The strategies described introduce actionable steps that can be made at the system, clinic, provider, and patient levels. With implementation of these steps, significant progress can be made to more proactively meet the needs of patients with hearing loss. Presentation Video: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.21215843.


Subject(s)
Deafness , Hearing Loss , Communication , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , United States
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115230

ABSTRACT

There has been increasing interest over the past decade with regard to the health and wellbeing implications of time spent outdoors in nature for children. Universal systematic reviews of evidence report benefits to physical health, social-emotional mental health and wellbeing, cognition and academic learning. Internationally, there is indicative evidence to suggest outdoor engagement with nature may also impact children's language and communication skills, skills that are critical to development, education, social relationships and life opportunities. Yet, at present such evidence has not been synthesised. Despite evidence for the benefits of the outdoors, the amount of time children are spending outdoors is in rapid decline, and has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Alongside this are increasing numbers of children starting primary education with significant speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) which remain persistent over time. With established wide-reaching benefits of nature to children's physical and mental health and psychological development, there is a need to further explore the more specific impacts of the natural environment on children's language, communication and social skills, which could provide a unique opportunity to consider nature as a universal public health intervention for SLCN. The current review will aim to synthesise existing qualitative and quantitative evidence of the impact of time spent in natural outdoor spaces on the language, communication and social skills of 2-11-year-old children. Literature will be searched across seven databases and considered for inclusion against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Potential implications of the review include informing public health practice and policy for child development and education, informing priorities for speech, language, and communication interventions, and providing directions for future international research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Skills , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Humans , Language , Pandemics , Review Literature as Topic
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 387, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Communication between people who are deaf and sign and people who use a spoken language is possible by means of an interpreter. Interpreting in real time can be performed at a distance, which differs from interpreting face-to-face. Due to COVID-19, interpretation at a distance has increased. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to map the existing literature to identify key characteristics by addressing the following question: What is known about interpreted mediated interactions between people using a signed respective spoken language across distances in real time? DESIGN: Eight online databases, complemented by a search in one nonindexed journal of relevance to the review, were used to identify original studies published in 2010-2020, and 17 publications met the inclusion criteria. Charting of the data revealed insight from 17 original studies that were extracted, summarized, and reported. RESULTS: Four key characteristics were identified: (1) advantages and challenges in remote interpreting; (2) the need for training in remote interpreting and video relay service (VRS); (3) regulations and organizational structures of VRS; and (4) the interpreter as an active party in VRS. CONCLUSION: Remote interpreting has several challenges but also advantages. Knowledge of these kinds of interactions is limited, and further research must be initiated and realized, not least due to technological developments and the increased number of interpreting events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deafness , Communication , Humans , Language , Sign Language
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