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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 554, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Access to affordable and effective menstrual hygiene products (MHP) is critical to the menstrual health of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). In this mixed-methods analysis, we use data from a programme delivering comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to describe access to MHP and how COVID-19-related closures affected access to MHP; we use qualitative data to understand AGYW's experience accessing products during the study. METHODS: Between September 2019-January 2021, we used data routinely collected from ten Yathu Yathu hubs offering community-based, peer-led SRH services to adolescents and young people aged 15-24. Hubs offered free MHP (primarily disposable pads) as a service. To incentivise service access, a "loyalty" card system was embedded within Yathu Yathu, allowing individuals to gain points for services accessed and redeem rewards using these points. Branded pads, tampons and reusable pads were among available rewards. We describe access to service pads and to reward MHP, and use logistic regression to investigate factors associated with accessing pads and reward products before (Sept 2019-March 2020) and after (July 2020-Jan 2021) COVID-19-related closures. Focus group discussions explored accessibility of offering MHP through hubs. RESULTS: Between September 2019-January 2021, 6374 AGYW made 34,116 hub visits to access an SRH service and/or redeem a reward. At 30% of these visits, AGYW accessed any MHP. Before COVID19-closures, an average of 17% of monthly visits were for freely-available disposable pads compared to 34% after hubs reopened (p < 0.001). Results were similar for reward visits. Overall, 63% of 6374 AGYW collected pads as a service at least once. Prior to COVID19-closures, AGYW aged 18-24 were more likely to access service pads than adolescents (15-17-years). After reopening, access was lower among older AGYW. Prior to hub closures, uptake of reward MHP was higher among AGYW with some secondary education but not after reopening. Discussions revealed that, for adolescents aged 15-19, COVID-19-related hub closures required reverting to using ineffective materials to manage menstruation. CONCLUSION: Availability of MHP through Yathu Yathu provided a large number of AGYW with access to these products. Hubs seemed particularly important for adolescent girls. Community-based, peer-led hubs should be considered as spaces to provide AGYW access to affordable and effective MHP.


Subject(s)
Menstrual Hygiene Products , Reproductive Health Services , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Community Health Services , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Menstruation , Pandemics , Young Adult
2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(3): e390-e397, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage is one of the WHO End TB Strategy priority interventions and could be achieved-particularly in low-income and middle-income countries-through the expansion of primary health care. We evaluated the effects of one of the largest primary health-care programmes in the world, the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS), on tuberculosis morbidity and mortality using a nationwide cohort of 7·3 million individuals over a 10-year study period. METHODS: We analysed individuals who entered the 100 Million Brazilians Cohort during the period Jan 1, 2004, to Dec 31, 2013, and compared residents in municipalities with no FHS coverage with residents in municipalities with full FHS coverage. We used a cohort design with multivariable Poisson regressions, adjusted for all relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables and weighted with inverse probability of treatment weighting, to estimate the effect of FHS on tuberculosis incidence, mortality, cure, and case fatality. We also performed a range of stratifications and sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: FHS exposure was associated with lower tuberculosis incidence (rate ratio [RR] 0·78, 95% CI 0·72-0·84) and mortality (0·72, 0·55-0·94), and was positively associated with tuberculosis cure rates (1·04, 1·00-1·08). FHS was also associated with a decrease in tuberculosis case-fatality rates, although this was not statistically significant (RR 0·84, 95% CI 0·55-1·30). FHS associations were stronger among the poorest individuals for all the tuberculosis indicators. INTERPRETATION: Community-based primary health care could strongly reduce tuberculosis morbidity and mortality and decrease the unequal distribution of the tuberculosis burden in the most vulnerable populations. During the current marked rise in global poverty due to the COVID-19 pandemic, investments in primary health care could help protect against the expected increases in tuberculosis incidence worldwide and contribute to the attainment of the End TB Strategy goals. FUNDING: TB Modelling and Analysis Consortium (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), Wellcome Trust, and Brazilian Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Portuguese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy , Universal Health Insurance/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community Health Services/methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/methods , Young Adult
3.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211017742, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintaining essential HIV services has being a Global challenge during the COVID-19 crises. Myanmar has 54 million inhabitants. Neighbor of China, Thailand, India and Bangladesh it was impacted by COVID-19, but came up with a comprehensive and effective response, following WHO recommendations. The HIV Prevalence is 0.58% and it is concentrated among key population. A HIV Contingency Plan was developed to face this challenge. METHODOLOGY: The programme-based cross-sectional descriptive study with analysis of routinely collected data from MoHS data system, between 2019 and 2020 was conducted, comparing first six months of 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: HIV outreach activities and HIV testing were slightly affected after detection of first COVID-19 case, till mid May 2020. After that, outreach activities resumed. Introduction of HIV self-testing was initiated. 72% of more than 21,000 PWID on MMT were receiving take home dose up to 14 days and 60% of ART patients were receiving 6 months ARV dispensing. CONCLUSION: Essential HIV services were maintained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/methods , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Plan Implementation , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716366

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
5.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(1): e27272, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the next 15 to 20 years, the Chinese population will reach a plateau and start to decline. With the changing family structure and rushed urbanization policies, there will be greater demand for high-quality medical resources at urban centers and home-based elderly care driven by telehealth solutions. This paper describes an exploratory study regarding elderly users' preference for telehealth solutions in the next 5 to 10 years in 4 cities, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Yichang. OBJECTIVE: The goal is to analyze why users choose telehealth solutions over traditional health solutions based on a questionnaire study involving 4 age groups (50-60, 61-70, 71-80, and 80+) in 4 cities (Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Yichang) in the next 10 to 20 years. The legal retirement age for female workers in China is 50 to 55 years and 60 years for male workers. To simulate reality in terms of elderly care in China, the authors use the Chinese definition of elderly for employees, defined as being 50 to 60 years old rather than 65 years, as defined by the World Health Organization. METHODS: The questionnaires were collected from Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Wuhan, and Yichang randomly with 390 valid data samples. The questionnaire consists of 31 questions distributed offline on tablet devices by local investigators. Subsequently, Stata 16.0 and SPSS 24.0 were used to analyze the data. O-logit ordered regression and principal component analysis (PCA) were the main theoretical models used. The study is currently in the exploratory stage and therefore does not seek generalization of the results. RESULTS: Approximately 71.09% (280/390) of the respondents reported having at least 1 type of chronic disease. We started with PCA and categorized all Likert scale variables into 3 factors. The influence of demographic variables on Factors 1, 2, and 3 was verified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t tests. The ordered logit regression results suggest that health-related motivations are positively related to the willingness to use telehealth solutions, and trust on data collected from telehealth solutions is negatively correlated with the willingness to use telehealth solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there is a need to address the gap in community health care and ensure health care continuity between different levels of health care institutions in China by providing telehealth solutions. Meanwhile, telehealth solution providers must focus on improving users' health awareness and lower health risk for chronic diseases by addressing lifestyle changes such as regular exercise and social activity. The interoperability between the electronic health record system and telehealth solutions remains a hurdle for telehealth solutions to add value in health care. The hurdle is that doctors neither adjust health care plans nor diagnose based on data collected by telehealth solutions.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , China , Community Health Services , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic in Italy has severely affected people aged more than 80, especially socially isolated. Aim of this paper is to assess whether a social and health program reduced mortality associated to the epidemic. METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort analysis of deaths recorded among >80 years in three Italian cities has been carried out to compare death rate of the general population and "Long Live the Elderly!" (LLE) program. Parametric and non-parametric tests have been performed to assess differences of means between the two populations. A multivariable analysis to assess the impact of covariates on weekly mortality has been carried out by setting up a linear mixed model. RESULTS: The total number of services delivered to the LLE population (including phone calls and home visits) was 34,528, 1 every 20 day per person on average, one every 15 days during March and April. From January to April 2019, the same population received one service every 41 days on average, without differences between January-February and March-April. The January-April 2020 cumulative crude death rate was 34.8‰ (9,718 deaths out of 279,249 individuals; CI95%: 34.1-35.5) and 28.9‰ (166 deaths out of 5,727 individuals; CI95%:24.7-33.7) for the general population and the LLE sample respectively. The general population weekly death rate increased after the 11th calendar week that was not the case among the LLE program participants (p<0.001). The Standardized Mortality Ratio was 0.83; (CI95%: 0.71-0.97). Mortality adjusted for age, gender, COVID-19 weekly incidence and prevalence of people living in nursing homes was lower in the LLE program than in the general population (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LLE program is likely to limit mortality associated with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to establish whether it is due to the impact of social care that allows a better clients' adherence to the recommendations of physical distancing or to an improved surveillance of older adults that prevents negative outcomes associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/psychology , Cities , Community Health Services/ethics , Female , Homes for the Aged/ethics , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nursing Homes/ethics , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , Social Isolation/psychology , Survival Analysis
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(49): 1706-1711, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614366

ABSTRACT

Immediately following the March 13, 2020 declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency (1), the U.S. government began implementing national testing programs for epidemiologic surveillance, monitoring of frontline workers and populations at higher risk for acquiring COVID-19, and identifying and allocating limited testing resources. Effective testing supports identification of COVID-19 cases; facilitates isolation, quarantine, and timely treatment measures that limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19); and guides public health officials about the incidence of COVID-19 in a community. A White House Joint Task Force, co-led by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), created the Community-Based Testing Sites (CBTS) program working with state and local partners (2). This report describes the timeline, services delivered, and scope of the CBTS program. During March 19, 2020-April 11, 2021, the CBTS program conducted 11,661,923 SARS-CoV-2 tests at 8,319 locations across the United States and its territories, including 402,223 (3.5%) administered through Drive-Through Testing, 10,129,142 (86.9%) through Pharmacies+ Testing, and 1,130,558 (9.7%) through Surge Testing programs. Tests administered through the CBTS program yielded 1,176,959 (10.1%) positive results for SARS-CoV-2. Among tested persons with available race data,* positive test results were highest among American Indian or Alaska Native (14.1%) and Black persons (10.4%) and lowest among White persons (9.9%), Asian persons (7.3%), and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders (6.4%). Among persons with reported ethnicity, 25.3% were Hispanic, 15.9% of whom received a positive test result. Overall, 82.0% of test results were returned within 2 days, but the percentage of test results returned within 2 days was as low as 40.7% in July 2020 and 59.3% in December 2020 during peak testing periods. Strong partnerships enabled a rapid coordinated response to establish the federally supported CBTS program to improve access to no-charge diagnostic testing, including for frontline workers, symptomatic persons and close contacts, and persons living in high-prevalence areas. In April 2021, the CBTS Pharmacies+ Testing and Surge Testing programs were expanded into the Increasing Community Access to Testing (ICATT) program. As of November 12, 2021, the CBTS and ICATT programs conducted approximately 26.6 million tests with approximately 10,000 active testing sites. Although the CBTS program represented a relatively small portion of overall U.S. SARS-CoV-2 testing, with its successful partnerships and adaptability, the CBTS program serves as a model to guide current community-based screening, surveillance, and disease control programs, and responses to future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cooperative Behavior , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Interinstitutional Relations , Male , Medically Underserved Area , Middle Aged , Program Evaluation , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
BMJ ; 375: e065834, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the rates for consulting a general practitioner (GP) for sequelae after acute covid-19 in patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and those managed in the community, and to determine how the rates change over time for patients in the community and after vaccination for covid-19. DESIGN: Population based study. SETTING: 1392 general practices in England contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database. PARTICIPANTS: 456 002 patients with a diagnosis of covid-19 between 1 August 2020 and 14 February 2021 (44.7% men; median age 61 years), admitted to hospital within two weeks of diagnosis or managed in the community, and followed-up for a maximum of 9.2 months. A negative control group included individuals without covid-19 (n=38 511) and patients with influenza before the pandemic (n=21 803). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of rates for consulting a GP for new symptoms, diseases, prescriptions, and healthcare use in individuals admitted to hospital and those managed in the community, separately, before and after covid-19 infection, using Cox regression and negative binomial regression for healthcare use. The analysis was repeated for the negative control and influenza cohorts. In individuals in the community, outcomes were also described over time after a diagnosis of covid-19, and compared before and after vaccination for individuals who were symptomatic after covid-19 infection, using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: Relative to the negative control and influenza cohorts, patients in the community (n=437 943) had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, and the most common were loss of smell or taste, or both (adjusted hazard ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 3.89 to 7.17, P<0.001); venous thromboembolism (3.35, 2.87 to 3.91, P<0.001); lung fibrosis (2.41, 1.37 to 4.25, P=0.002), and muscle pain (1.89, 1.63 to 2.20, P<0.001); and also for healthcare use after a diagnosis of covid-19 compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients in the community were joint pain (2.5%), anxiety (1.2%), and prescriptions for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (1.2%). Patients admitted to hospital (n=18 059) also had significantly higher GP consultation rates for multiple sequelae, most commonly for venous thromboembolism (16.21, 11.28 to 23.31, P<0.001), nausea (4.64, 2.24 to 9.21, P<0.001), prescriptions for paracetamol (3.68, 2.86 to 4.74, P<0.001), renal failure (3.42, 2.67 to 4.38, P<0.001), and healthcare use after a covid-19 diagnosis compared with 12 months before infection. For absolute proportions, the most common outcomes ≥4 weeks after a covid-19 diagnosis in patients admitted to hospital were venous thromboembolism (3.5%), joint pain (2.7%), and breathlessness (2.8%). In patients in the community, anxiety and depression, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, general pain, nausea, chest tightness, and tinnitus persisted throughout follow-up. GP consultation rates were reduced for all symptoms, prescriptions, and healthcare use, except for neuropathic pain, cognitive impairment, strong opiates, and paracetamol use in patients in the community after the first vaccination dose for covid-19 relative to before vaccination. GP consultation rates were also reduced for ischaemic heart disease, asthma, and gastro-oesophageal disease. CONCLUSIONS: GP consultation rates for sequelae after acute covid-19 infection differed between patients with covid-19 who were admitted to hospital and those managed in the community. For individuals in the community, rates of some sequelae decreased over time but those for others, such as anxiety and depression, persisted. Rates of some outcomes decreased after vaccination in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Community Health Services , General Practitioners , Hospitalization , Office Visits/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259229, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected Ethiopia since March 13, 2020, when the first case was detected in Addis Ababa. Since then, the incidence of cases has continued to increase day by day. As a result, the health sector has recommended universal preventive measures to be practiced by the public. However, studies on adherence to these preventive measures are limited. OBJECTIVE: To monitor the status of preventive practices of the population related to hand washing, physical distancing, and respiratory hygiene practices at selected sites within the city of Addis Ababa. METHODS: Weekly cross-sectional non-participatory observations were done during the period of April-June, 2020. Data was collected using the Open Data Kit (ODK) tool in ten public sites involving eight public facilities targeted for individual observations. Ten individuals were randomly observed at each facility over two days a week at peak hours of public services. WHO operational definitions of the preventive behaviors were adopted for this study. Observations were conducted anonymously at gates or entrances of public facilities and places. RESULTS: A total of 12,056 individual observations with 53% males and 82% in an estimated age range of 18-50 years age group were involved in this study. There was an increase in the practice of respiratory hygiene from 14% in week one to 77% in week 10, while those of hand hygiene and physical distancing changed little over the weeks from their baseline of 24% and 34%, respectively. Overall, respiratory hygiene demonstrated an increased rate of 6% per week, while hand hygiene and physical distancing had less than a 1% change per week, Females and the estimated age group of 18-50 years had practice changes in respiratory hygiene with no difference in hand hygiene and physical distancing practices. Respiratory hygiene took about six weeks to reach a level of 77% from its baseline of 24%, making an increment of about 9% per week. CONCLUSION: The public practice of respiratory hygiene improved threefold whereas hand hygiene and physical distancing revealed no change. Regularly sustained public mobilization and mass education are required to sustain the achievements gained in respiratory hygiene and further hand hygiene and physical distancing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Community Health Services/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Facilities/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1419-1427, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527442

ABSTRACT

There is currently limited information on clinical severity phenotypes of symptoms and functional disability in post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) Syndrome (PCS). A purposive sample of 370 PCS patients from a dedicated community COVID-19 rehabilitation service was assessed using the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale where each symptom or functional difficulty was scored on a 0-10 Likert scale and also compared with before infection. Phenotypes based on symptom severity were extracted to identify any noticeable patterns. The correlation between symptom severity, functional disability, and overall health was explored. The mean age was 47 years, with 237 (64%) females. The median duration of symptoms was 211 days (interquartile range 143-353). Symptoms and functional difficulties increased substantially when compared to before infection. Three distinct severity phenotypes of mild (n = 90), moderate (n = 186), and severe (n = 94) were identified where the severity of individual symptoms was of similar severity within each phenotype. Symptom scores were strongly positively correlated with functional difficulty scores (0.7, 0.6-0.7) and moderately negatively correlated with overall health (-0.4, -0.3, to -0.5). This is the first study reporting on severity phenotypes in a largely nonhospitalized PCS cohort. Severity phenotypes might help stratify patients for targeted interventions and planning of care pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Community Health Services/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index
13.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 221, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of frequent attenders (FAs) among older patients in Shanghai, China, and explore the associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in six community health service centers in Shanghai, China, from August to December 2018 based on stratified sampling. On the basis of our preliminary study, FAs were defined as those attending at least four consultations in a month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the clinicodemographic data of the participants. Social support, pain severity, depression, and anxiety were evaluated using the Social Support Revalued Scale, six-point Behavioral Rating Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, respectively. RESULTS: This study included 619 patients aged > 60 years. Among these patients, 155 (25%) were FAs to a community health service center, 366 (59.1%) had 1 or 2 chronic diseases, 179 (28.9%) had ≥3 chronic diseases, 313 (50.4%) opted for a family doctor service, and 537 (86.8%) chose a community health service center for the first consultation. The following were identified as independent risk factors for frequent attendance: widowed status, unmarried status, the presence of > 3 chronic diseases, first consultation at a community health service center, high medical expenses, frequent attendance of the spouses, long-term medication, the use of both traditional Chinese and Western medicine services, and depression. CONCLUSIONS: This study summarizes the characteristics of older FAs to community health service centers in China and identifies 10 risk factors significantly associated with frequent attendance.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Community Health Services , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 6: e25819, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487493

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) models for HIV treatment decrease health facility visit frequency and limit healthcare facility-based exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, two important evidence gaps include understanding DSD effectiveness amongst clients commencing DSD within 12 months of antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation and amongst clients receiving only single annual clinical consultations. To investigate these, we pooled data from two cluster-randomized trials investigating community-based DSD in Zimbabwe and Lesotho. METHODS: Individual-level participant data of newly stable adults enrolled between 6 and 12 months after ART initiation were pooled. Both trials (conducted between August 2017 and July 2019) had three arms: Standard-of-care three-monthly ART provision at healthcare facilities (SoC, control); ART provided three-monthly in community ART groups (CAGs) (3MC) and ART provided six-monthly in either CAGs or at community-distribution points (6MC). Clinical visits were three-monthly in SoC and annually in intervention arms. The primary outcome was retention in care and secondary outcomes were viral suppression (VS) and number of unscheduled facility visits 12 months after enrolment. Individual-level regression analyses were conducted by intention-to-treat specifying for clustering and adjusted for country. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 599 participants were included; 212 (35.4%), 128 (21.4%) and 259 (43.2%) in SoC, 3MC and 6MC, respectively. Few participants aged <25 years were included (n = 32). After 12 months, 198 (93.4%), 123 (96.1%) and 248 (95.8%) were retained in SoC, 3MC and 6MC, respectively. Retention in 3MC was superior versus SoC, adjusted risk difference (aRD) = 4.6% (95% CI: 0.7%-8.5%). Retention in 6MC was non-inferior versus SoC, aRD = 1.7% (95% CI: -2.5%-5.9%) (prespecified non-inferiority aRD margin -3.25%). VS was similar between arms, 99.3, 98.6 and 98.1% in SoC, 3MC and 6MC, respectively. Adjusted risk ratio's for VS were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.92-1.03) for 3MC versus SoC, and 0.98 (CI: 0.95-1.00) for 6MC versus SoC. Unscheduled clinic visits were not increased in intervention arms: incidence rate ratio = 0.53 (CI: 0.16-1.80) for 3MC versus SoC; and 0.82 (CI: 0.25-2.79) for 6MC versus SoC. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based DSD incorporating three- and six-monthly ART refills and single annual clinical visits were at least non-inferior to standard facility-based care amongst newly stable ART clients aged ≥25 years. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03238846 & NCT03438370.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Africa, Southern , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Community Health Services , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Load
16.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(3): 171-173, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468758
18.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464161

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1267-1273, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456567

ABSTRACT

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (1-3). Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations vary in language; cultural practices; and social, economic, and environmental experiences,† which can affect health outcomes (4).§ However, data from these populations are often aggregated in analyses. Although data aggregation is often used as an approach to increase sample size and statistical power when analyzing data from smaller population groups, it can limit the understanding of disparities among diverse Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian subpopulations¶ (4-7). To assess disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations, a disaggregated, descriptive analysis, informed by recommendations from these communities,** was performed using race data from 21,005 COVID-19 cases and 449 COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health (HDOH) during March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021.†† In Hawaii, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 population were 1,477 and 32, respectively during this period. In analyses with race categories that were not mutually exclusive, including persons of one race alone or in combination with one or more races, Pacific Islander persons, who account for 5% of Hawaii's population, represented 22% of COVID-19 cases and deaths (COVID-19 incidence of 7,070 and mortality rate of 150). Native Hawaiian persons experienced an incidence of 1,181 and a mortality rate of 15. Among subcategories of Asian populations, the highest incidences were experienced by Filipino persons (1,247) and Vietnamese persons (1,200). Disaggregating Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian race data can aid in identifying racial disparities among specific subpopulations and highlights the importance of partnering with communities to develop culturally responsive outreach teams§§ and tailored public health interventions and vaccination campaigns to more effectively address health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans
20.
Prof Case Manag ; 26(6): 286-297, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF STUDY: The specific aims of this study were to examine whether sociodemographic variables and medical-surgical diagnoses were associated with telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates, emergency department visits, and hospital readmissions. PRIMARY PRACTICE OF SETTING: Acute care inpatient units in an academic medical center. METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE: A correlational design was utilized, and a prospective medical record review of patients was conducted while implementing face-to-face prehospital discharge meeting interventions. The study sample (N = 176) included adult patients in two neurosurgical wards who were admitted between June 2016 and September 2016. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to explore the balance between the intervention group receiving a face-to-face prehospital discharge meeting and comparison group receiving standard prehospital discharge care. Bivariate statistics were employed to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 15 sociodemographic and medical-surgical variables were used to correlate TFU reach rates, emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission rates. Educational attainment (p = .002), employment status (p = .014), parental status (p = .010), and hospital service (p = .039) had significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups. Results demonstrated an improved reach rate for the intervention group but despite the differences in the groups, phi and Cramer's V coefficients did not correlate any associations with TFU reach rate, ED visits, and readmission rates with sociodemographic and surgical variables. This outcome affirmed that despite the similarities and differences in the sample, a face-to-face meeting prehospital discharge is an effective intervention to improve telephone outreach. IMPLICATIONS TO CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: There is a need to determine the most cost-effective way to increase TFU reach rates to prevent subsequent ED visits and hospital readmissions. There is also a need to develop a tool that can predict the hardest-to-reach patients posthospital discharge, so that case managers can meet those patients before leaving the hospital. In addition, it is important to identify alternative methods of "face-to-face" interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic crises. Case managers must explore ways with caution to leverage secured digital technology to bridge the gap of communicating with patients and family members when hospital visitations are limited.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/organization & administration , Hospitalization , Patient Discharge , Telephone , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
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