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1.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716366

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic in Italy has severely affected people aged more than 80, especially socially isolated. Aim of this paper is to assess whether a social and health program reduced mortality associated to the epidemic. METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort analysis of deaths recorded among >80 years in three Italian cities has been carried out to compare death rate of the general population and "Long Live the Elderly!" (LLE) program. Parametric and non-parametric tests have been performed to assess differences of means between the two populations. A multivariable analysis to assess the impact of covariates on weekly mortality has been carried out by setting up a linear mixed model. RESULTS: The total number of services delivered to the LLE population (including phone calls and home visits) was 34,528, 1 every 20 day per person on average, one every 15 days during March and April. From January to April 2019, the same population received one service every 41 days on average, without differences between January-February and March-April. The January-April 2020 cumulative crude death rate was 34.8‰ (9,718 deaths out of 279,249 individuals; CI95%: 34.1-35.5) and 28.9‰ (166 deaths out of 5,727 individuals; CI95%:24.7-33.7) for the general population and the LLE sample respectively. The general population weekly death rate increased after the 11th calendar week that was not the case among the LLE program participants (p<0.001). The Standardized Mortality Ratio was 0.83; (CI95%: 0.71-0.97). Mortality adjusted for age, gender, COVID-19 weekly incidence and prevalence of people living in nursing homes was lower in the LLE program than in the general population (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: LLE program is likely to limit mortality associated with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to establish whether it is due to the impact of social care that allows a better clients' adherence to the recommendations of physical distancing or to an improved surveillance of older adults that prevents negative outcomes associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/psychology , Cities , Community Health Services/ethics , Female , Homes for the Aged/ethics , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Nursing Homes/ethics , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , Social Isolation/psychology , Survival Analysis
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(49): 1706-1711, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614366

ABSTRACT

Immediately following the March 13, 2020 declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency (1), the U.S. government began implementing national testing programs for epidemiologic surveillance, monitoring of frontline workers and populations at higher risk for acquiring COVID-19, and identifying and allocating limited testing resources. Effective testing supports identification of COVID-19 cases; facilitates isolation, quarantine, and timely treatment measures that limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19); and guides public health officials about the incidence of COVID-19 in a community. A White House Joint Task Force, co-led by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), created the Community-Based Testing Sites (CBTS) program working with state and local partners (2). This report describes the timeline, services delivered, and scope of the CBTS program. During March 19, 2020-April 11, 2021, the CBTS program conducted 11,661,923 SARS-CoV-2 tests at 8,319 locations across the United States and its territories, including 402,223 (3.5%) administered through Drive-Through Testing, 10,129,142 (86.9%) through Pharmacies+ Testing, and 1,130,558 (9.7%) through Surge Testing programs. Tests administered through the CBTS program yielded 1,176,959 (10.1%) positive results for SARS-CoV-2. Among tested persons with available race data,* positive test results were highest among American Indian or Alaska Native (14.1%) and Black persons (10.4%) and lowest among White persons (9.9%), Asian persons (7.3%), and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders (6.4%). Among persons with reported ethnicity, 25.3% were Hispanic, 15.9% of whom received a positive test result. Overall, 82.0% of test results were returned within 2 days, but the percentage of test results returned within 2 days was as low as 40.7% in July 2020 and 59.3% in December 2020 during peak testing periods. Strong partnerships enabled a rapid coordinated response to establish the federally supported CBTS program to improve access to no-charge diagnostic testing, including for frontline workers, symptomatic persons and close contacts, and persons living in high-prevalence areas. In April 2021, the CBTS Pharmacies+ Testing and Surge Testing programs were expanded into the Increasing Community Access to Testing (ICATT) program. As of November 12, 2021, the CBTS and ICATT programs conducted approximately 26.6 million tests with approximately 10,000 active testing sites. Although the CBTS program represented a relatively small portion of overall U.S. SARS-CoV-2 testing, with its successful partnerships and adaptability, the CBTS program serves as a model to guide current community-based screening, surveillance, and disease control programs, and responses to future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cooperative Behavior , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Interinstitutional Relations , Male , Medically Underserved Area , Middle Aged , Program Evaluation , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1419-1427, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527442

ABSTRACT

There is currently limited information on clinical severity phenotypes of symptoms and functional disability in post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) Syndrome (PCS). A purposive sample of 370 PCS patients from a dedicated community COVID-19 rehabilitation service was assessed using the COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale where each symptom or functional difficulty was scored on a 0-10 Likert scale and also compared with before infection. Phenotypes based on symptom severity were extracted to identify any noticeable patterns. The correlation between symptom severity, functional disability, and overall health was explored. The mean age was 47 years, with 237 (64%) females. The median duration of symptoms was 211 days (interquartile range 143-353). Symptoms and functional difficulties increased substantially when compared to before infection. Three distinct severity phenotypes of mild (n = 90), moderate (n = 186), and severe (n = 94) were identified where the severity of individual symptoms was of similar severity within each phenotype. Symptom scores were strongly positively correlated with functional difficulty scores (0.7, 0.6-0.7) and moderately negatively correlated with overall health (-0.4, -0.3, to -0.5). This is the first study reporting on severity phenotypes in a largely nonhospitalized PCS cohort. Severity phenotypes might help stratify patients for targeted interventions and planning of care pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Community Health Services/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464161

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1267-1273, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456567

ABSTRACT

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (1-3). Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations vary in language; cultural practices; and social, economic, and environmental experiences,† which can affect health outcomes (4).§ However, data from these populations are often aggregated in analyses. Although data aggregation is often used as an approach to increase sample size and statistical power when analyzing data from smaller population groups, it can limit the understanding of disparities among diverse Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian subpopulations¶ (4-7). To assess disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations, a disaggregated, descriptive analysis, informed by recommendations from these communities,** was performed using race data from 21,005 COVID-19 cases and 449 COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health (HDOH) during March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021.†† In Hawaii, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 population were 1,477 and 32, respectively during this period. In analyses with race categories that were not mutually exclusive, including persons of one race alone or in combination with one or more races, Pacific Islander persons, who account for 5% of Hawaii's population, represented 22% of COVID-19 cases and deaths (COVID-19 incidence of 7,070 and mortality rate of 150). Native Hawaiian persons experienced an incidence of 1,181 and a mortality rate of 15. Among subcategories of Asian populations, the highest incidences were experienced by Filipino persons (1,247) and Vietnamese persons (1,200). Disaggregating Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian race data can aid in identifying racial disparities among specific subpopulations and highlights the importance of partnering with communities to develop culturally responsive outreach teams§§ and tailored public health interventions and vaccination campaigns to more effectively address health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans
10.
Prof Case Manag ; 26(6): 286-297, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF STUDY: The specific aims of this study were to examine whether sociodemographic variables and medical-surgical diagnoses were associated with telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates, emergency department visits, and hospital readmissions. PRIMARY PRACTICE OF SETTING: Acute care inpatient units in an academic medical center. METHODOLOGY AND SAMPLE: A correlational design was utilized, and a prospective medical record review of patients was conducted while implementing face-to-face prehospital discharge meeting interventions. The study sample (N = 176) included adult patients in two neurosurgical wards who were admitted between June 2016 and September 2016. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used to explore the balance between the intervention group receiving a face-to-face prehospital discharge meeting and comparison group receiving standard prehospital discharge care. Bivariate statistics were employed to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 15 sociodemographic and medical-surgical variables were used to correlate TFU reach rates, emergency department (ED) visits, and readmission rates. Educational attainment (p = .002), employment status (p = .014), parental status (p = .010), and hospital service (p = .039) had significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups. Results demonstrated an improved reach rate for the intervention group but despite the differences in the groups, phi and Cramer's V coefficients did not correlate any associations with TFU reach rate, ED visits, and readmission rates with sociodemographic and surgical variables. This outcome affirmed that despite the similarities and differences in the sample, a face-to-face meeting prehospital discharge is an effective intervention to improve telephone outreach. IMPLICATIONS TO CASE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: There is a need to determine the most cost-effective way to increase TFU reach rates to prevent subsequent ED visits and hospital readmissions. There is also a need to develop a tool that can predict the hardest-to-reach patients posthospital discharge, so that case managers can meet those patients before leaving the hospital. In addition, it is important to identify alternative methods of "face-to-face" interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic crises. Case managers must explore ways with caution to leverage secured digital technology to bridge the gap of communicating with patients and family members when hospital visitations are limited.


Subject(s)
Community Health Services/organization & administration , Hospitalization , Patient Discharge , Telephone , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
13.
CMAJ ; 193(31): E1203-E1212, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated disparities in poverty and illness for people in vulnerable circumstances in ethnocultural communities. We sought to understand the evolving impacts of COVID-19 on ethnocultural communities to inform intersectoral advocacy and community action. METHODS: The Illuminate Project used participatory action research, with cultural health brokers as peer researchers, from Sept. 21 to Dec. 31, 2020, in Edmonton, Alberta. Twenty-one peer researchers collected narratives from members of ethnocultural communities and self-interpreted them as they entered the narratives into the SenseMaker platform, a mixed-method data collection tool. The entire research team analyzed real-time, aggregate, quantitative and qualitative data to identify emerging thematic domains, then visualized these domains with social network analysis. RESULTS: Brokers serving diverse communities collected 773 narratives. Identified domains illuminate the evolving and entangled impacts of COVID-19 including the following: COVID-19 prevention and management; care of acute, chronic and serious illnesses other than COVID-19; maternal care; mental health and triggers of past trauma; financial insecurity; impact on children and youth and seniors; and legal concerns. We identified that community social capital and cultural brokering are key assets that facilitate access to formal health and social system supports. INTERPRETATION: The Illuminate Project has illustrated the entangled, systemic issues that result in poor health among vulnerable members of ethnocultural communities, and the exacerbating effects of COVID-19, which also increased barriers to mitigation. Cultural brokering and community social capital are key supports for people during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings can inform policy to reduce harm and support community resiliency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Consumer Health Information , Female , Financial Stress , Health Services Research , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Capital , Social Network Analysis , Social Support
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 85-91, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate community and health-care workers' perspectives on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and on early pandemic responses during the first 2 weeks of national lockdown in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Rapid qualitative research was carried out between March and April 2020 via phone interviews with one representative from each of four community-based organizations and 16 health-care workers involved in a trial of community-based services for young people. In addition, information on COVID-19 was collected from social media platforms, news outlets and government announcements. Data were analysed thematically. FINDINGS: Four themes emerged: (i) individuals were overloaded with information but lacked trusted sources, which resulted in widespread fear and unanswered questions; (ii) communities had limited ability to comply with prevention measures, such as social distancing, because access to long-term food supplies and water at home was limited and because income had to be earned daily; (iii) health-care workers perceived themselves to be vulnerable and undervalued because of a shortage of personal protective equipment and inadequate pay; and (iv) other health conditions were sidelined because resources were redirected, with potentially wide-reaching implications. CONCLUSION: It is important that prevention measures against COVID-19 are appropriate for the local context. In Zimbabwe, communities require support with basic needs and access to reliable information to enable them to follow prevention measures. In addition, health-care workers urgently need personal protective equipment and adequate salaries. Essential health-care services and medications for conditions other than COVID-19 must also continue to be provided to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Personnel , Access to Information , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Qualitative Research , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Zimbabwe
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E55, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256965

ABSTRACT

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 and associated disparities among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native children and teenagers has been documented. Reducing these disparities along with overcoming unintended negative consequences of the pandemic, such as the disruption of in-person schooling, calls for broad community-based collaborations and nuanced approaches. Based on national survey data, children from some racial and ethnic minority groups have a higher prevalence of obesity, asthma, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension; were diagnosed more frequently with COVID-19; and had more severe outcomes compared with their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Furthermore, a higher proportion of children from some racial and ethnic minority groups lived in families with incomes less than 200% of the federal poverty level or in households lacking secure employment compared with NHW children. Children from some racial and ethnic minority groups were also more likely to attend school via online learning compared with NHW counterparts. Because the root causes of these disparities are complex and multifactorial, an organized community-based approach is needed to achieve greater proactive and sustained collaborations between local health departments, local school systems, and other public and private organizations to pursue health equity. This article provides a summary of potential community-based health promotion strategies to address racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes and educational inequities among children and teens, specifically in the implementation of strategic partnerships, including initial collective work, outcomes-based activities, and communication. These collaborations can facilitate policy, systems, and environmental changes in school systems that support emergency preparedness, recovery, and resilience when faced with public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Status Disparities , Social Determinants of Health , Adolescent , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Chronic Disease/ethnology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(19): 707-711, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227230

ABSTRACT

On May 13, 2020, Chicago established a free community-based testing (CBT) initiative for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The initiative focused on demographic groups and geographic areas that were underrepresented in testing by clinical providers and had experienced high COVID-19 incidence, including Hispanic persons and those who have been economically marginalized. To assess the CBT initiative, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) compared demographic characteristics, economic marginalization, and test positivity between persons tested at CBT sites and persons tested in all other testing settings in Chicago. During May 13-November 14, a total of 253,904 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests were conducted at CBT sites. Compared with those tested in all other testing settings in Chicago, persons tested at CBT sites were more likely to live in areas that are economically marginalized (38.6% versus 32.0%; p<0.001) and to be Hispanic (50.9% versus 20.7%; p<0.001). The cumulative percentage of positive test results at the CBT sites was higher than that at all other testing settings (11.1% versus 7.1%; p<0.001). These results demonstrate the ability of public health departments to establish community-based testing initiatives that reach communities with less access to testing in other settings and that experience disproportionately higher incidences of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty Areas , Young Adult
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209602

ABSTRACT

The onslaught of COVID-19 pandemic has greatly overwhelmed some of the best healthcare systems in the world. Medical practitioners working in hospitals at the epicenters of COVID-19 pandemic have emphasized on the need to manage mildly ill and convalescent COVID-19 patients at home or community facilities rather than at hospitals during a pandemic. In this article, we highlight that a standardized home- and community-based (HCBC) approach for management of COVID-19 patients will be a key component for preparing hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for a potential surge in COVID-19 cases. So far, based on the trajectory of infection, we think that SSA seems to have a window of opportunity, albeit narrowing, for implementing HCBC. However, there are challenges that will need to be addressed in order to implement and maintain HCBC. Successful implementation and maintenance of HCBC in SSA will require international agencies and key donors to work closely with the national governments; providing them with policy, technical, and financial assistance. Home- and community-based care (HCBC) is also important because it can play a role in advocacy, education, training, and health promotion during COVID-19 pandemic. We further underscore the need for a delicate balance between HCBC and hospital-based care (HBC) approach as well as with COVID-19 mitigation and suppression measures in order to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission and allow optimal continuity of the HBC. We conclude by emphasizing once again that, for countries in SSA to adequately prepare for the worst-case scenario of COVID-19 pandemic in the absence of a cure, policy makers of member states need to act collectively and fast.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Home Care Services/organization & administration , Africa South of the Sahara , Community Health Services/standards , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Home Care Services/standards , Hospitalization , Humans
20.
Emerg Med J ; 38(5): 371-372, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197268

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges to services providing emergency care, in both the community and hospital setting. The Physician Response Unit (PRU) is a Community Emergency Medicine model, working closely with community, hospital and pre-hospital services. In response to the pandemic, the PRU has been able to rapidly introduce novel pathways designed to support local emergency departments (EDs) and local emergency patients. The pathways are (1) supporting discharge from acute medical and older people's services wards into the community; (2) supporting acute oncology services; (3) supporting EDs; (4) supporting palliative care services. Establishing these pathways have facilitated a number of vulnerable patients to access patient-focussed and holistic definitive emergency care. The pathways have also allowed EDs to safely discharge patients to the community, and also mitigate some of the problems associated with trying to maintain isolation for vulnerable patients within the ED. Community Emergency Medicine models are able to reduce ED attendances and hospital admissions, and hence risk of crowding, as well as reducing nosocomial risks for patients who can have high-quality emergency care brought to them. This model may also provide various alternative solutions in the delivery of safe emergency care in the postpandemic healthcare landscape.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Services for the Aged/organization & administration , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
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