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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(5): 786-794, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789250

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To investigate associations between COVID-19-related factors and depressive symptoms among primary care workers (PCWs) in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare the prevalence of probable depression among PCWs before and during the pandemic. Methods. In a random sample of primary care clinics, we examined 6 pandemic-related factors among 828 PCWs. We used multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios for probable depression. We assessed the prevalence of probable depression in PCWs before and during the pandemic in 2 comparable studies. Results. Adjusted prevalence ratios were substantial for insufficient personal protective equipment; experiences of discrimination, violence, or harassment; and lack of family support. Comparisons between PCWs before and during the pandemic showed that the prevalence of probable depression among physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants was higher during the pandemic and that the prevalence among community health workers was higher before the pandemic. Conclusions. Our findings indicate domains that may be crucial to mitigating depression among PCWs but that, with the exception of personal protective equipment, have not previously been examined in this population. It is crucial that governments and communities address discriminatory behaviors against PCWs, promote their well-being at work, and foster family support. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(5):786-794. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306723).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Primary Health Care
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to have the highest maternal and under-five child deaths in the world. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is amplifying the problems and overwhelming already fragile health systems. Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly being acknowledged as crucial members of the healthcare workforce in improving maternal and child health (MCH). However, evidence is limited on multilevel determinants of an effective CHWs programme using CHWs' perspective. The objective of this systematic review is to examine perceived barriers to and enablers of different levels of the determinants of the CHWs' engagement to enhance MCH equity and a resilient community health system in SSA. METHODS: We systematically conducted a literature search from inception in MEDLINE complete, EMBASE, CINAHL complete and Global Health for relevant studies. Qualitative studies that presented information on perceived barriers to and facilitators of effectiveness of CHWs in SSA were eligible for inclusion. Quality appraisal was conducted according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative study checklist. We used a framework analysis to identify key findings. FINDINGS: From the database search, 1561 articles were identified. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final review. Using socio-ecological framework, we identified the determinants of CHWs' effectiveness at 4 levels: individual/CHWs, interpersonal, community and health system logistics. Under each level, we identified themes of perceived barriers such as competency gaps, lack of collaboration, fragmentation of empowerment programmes. In terms of facilitators, we identified themes such as CHW empowerment, interpersonal effectiveness, community trust, integration of CHWs into health systems and technology. CONCLUSION: Evidence from this review revealed that effectiveness of CHW/MCH programme is determined by multilevel contextual factors. The socio-ecological framework can provide a lens of understanding diverse context that impedes or enhances CHWs' engagement and effectiveness at different levels. Hence, there is a need for health programme policy makers and practitioners to adopt a multilevel CHW/MCH programme guided by the socio-ecological framework to transform CHW programmes. The framework can help to address the barriers and scale up the facilitators to ensuring MCH equity and a resilient community health system in SSA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Child , Child Health , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics
3.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211073415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused socio-economic disruptions across the globe. The pandemic disrupted the health system (HS) calling for reengineering in response to high infection rates, deaths, and resultant containment measures. To deal with COVID-19 and promote resilience, community health workers (CHWs) were engaged across countries. OBJECTIVE: Assess the preparedness of CHWs in supporting health system response in prevention and management of COVID-19 in Kenya, Senegal, and Uganda. METHODS: A mixed methods design study involving national and subnational jurisdictions in the 3 countries. Key informant interviews were conducted with policy actors (16) and health care workers (24) while in-depth interviews involved CHWs (14) and community members (312) subjected to survey interviews. RESULTS: Most (>50%) households survived on

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Community Health Workers/education , Community Health Workers/psychology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiology
4.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(Suppl 3): 111, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the concluding paper of our 11-paper supplement, "Community health workers at the dawn of a new era". METHODS: We relied on our collective experience, an extensive body of literature about community health workers (CHWs), and the other papers in this supplement to identify the most pressing challenges facing CHW programmes and approaches for strengthening CHW programmes. RESULTS: CHWs are increasingly being recognized as a critical resource for achieving national and global health goals. These goals include achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals of Universal Health Coverage, ending preventable child and maternal deaths, and making a major contribution to the control of HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and noncommunicable diseases. CHWs can also play a critical role in responding to current and future pandemics. For these reasons, we argue that CHWs are now at the dawn of a new era. While CHW programmes have long been an underfunded afterthought, they are now front and centre as the emerging foundation of health systems. Despite this increased attention, CHW programmes continue to face the same pressing challenges: inadequate financing, lack of supplies and commodities, low compensation of CHWs, and inadequate supervision. We outline approaches for strengthening CHW programmes, arguing that their enormous potential will only be realized when investment and health system support matches rhetoric. Rigorous monitoring, evaluation, and implementation research are also needed to enable CHW programmes to continuously improve their quality and effectiveness. CONCLUSION: A marked increase in sustainable funding for CHW programmes is needed, and this will require increased domestic political support for prioritizing CHW programmes as economies grow and additional health-related funding becomes available. The paradigm shift called for here will be an important step in accelerating progress in achieving current global health goals and in reaching the goal of Health for All.


Subject(s)
Community Health Workers , Motivation , Child , Global Health , Humans
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265092, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community Health Workers are globally recognised as crucial members of healthcare systems in low and middle-income countries, but their role and experience during COVID-19 is not well-understood. This study aimed to explore factors that influence CHWs' ability and willingness to work in the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos. DESIGN: A generic qualitative study exploring Community Health Workers experiences and perceptions of working during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: 15 semi-structured, in-depth, video interviews were conducted with Community Health Workers purposively sampled across seven of Lagos' Local Government Areas with the highest COVID-19 burden. Interviews explored Community Health Workers' attitudes towards COVID-19, its management, and their experiences working in Lagos. Data was analysed thematically using the framework method. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified. 1. Influences on ability to undertake COVID-19 Role: Trust and COVID-19 knowledge were found to aid Community Health Workers in their work. However, challenges included exhaustion due to an increased workload, public misconceptions about COVID-19, stigmatisation of COVID-19 patients, delayed access to care and lack of transportation. 2. Influences on willingness to work in COVID-19 Role: Community Health Workers' perceptions of COVID-19, attitudes towards responsibility for COVID-19 risk at work, commitment and faith appeared to increase willingness to work. 3. Suggested Improvements: Financial incentives, provision of adequate personal protective equipment, transportation, and increasing staff numbers were seen as potential strategies to address many of the challenges faced. CONCLUSION: Despite Community Health Workers being committed to their role, they have faced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. Changes to their working environment may make their role during disease outbreaks more fulfilling and sustainable. International input is required to enhance Nigeria's policies and infrastructure to better support Community Health Workers during both current and future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers/psychology , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Knowledge , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Perception , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stereotyping , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transportation , Workload , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700115

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Community health workers (CHWs) are an essential public health workforce defined by their trustful relationships with vulnerable citizens. However, how trustful relationships are built remains unclear. This study aimed to understand how and under which circumstances CHWs are likely to build trust with their vulnerable clients during the COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: We developed a program theory using a realist research design. Data were collected through focus groups and in-depth interviews with CHWs and their clients. Using a grounded theory approach, we aimed to unravel mechanisms and contextual factors that determine the trust in a CHW program offering psychosocial support to vulnerable citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic. (3) Results: The trustful relationship between CHWs and their clients is rooted in three mental models: recognition, equality, and reciprocity. Five contextual factors (adopting a client-centered attitude, coordination, temporariness, and link with primary care practice (PCP)) enable the program mechanisms to work. (4) Conclusions: CHWs are a crucial public health outreach strategy for PCP and complement and enhance trust-building by primary care professionals. In the process of building trustful relationships between CHWs and clients, different mechanisms and contextual factors play a role in the trustful relationship between primary care professionals and patients. Future research should assess whether these findings also apply to a non-covid context, to the involvement of CHWs in other facets of primary healthcare (e.g., prevention campaigns, etc.), and to a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) setting. Furthermore, implementation research should elaborate on the integration of CHWs in PCP to support CHWs in developing the mental models leading to build trust with vulnerable citizens and to establish the required conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Workers/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
8.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(1): 213-220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, community health workers (CHWs) in our health system screened patients in-person for social determinants of health and connected them to community resources. However, when our CHWs were required to work remotely from home due to the pandemic, the best platform to optimize contacting these patients was unknown. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of three outgoing phone call approaches (*67, Google Voice®, and Doximity Dialer®) in successfully contacting patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis comparing reach rates across the three outgoing call approaches. RESULTS: Reach rates were highest when Doximity Dialer was used (64.0%, 95% CI: 58.8-69.0) compared with *67 (40.8%, 95% CI: 30.8-51.6) or Google Voice (53.2%, 95% CI: 48.4-57.8) in this analysis of 1,144 outreach calls. CONCLUSION: Due to higher reach rates, we recommend Doximity Dialer for phone-based outreach to patients. Additional research to improve the efficacy of remote outreach is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Community Health Workers , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Malar J ; 21(1): 48, 2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rwanda has achieved impressive reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality over the past two decades. However, the disruption of essential services due to the current Covid-19 pandemic can lead to a reversal of these gains in malaria control unless targeted, evidence-based interventions are implemented to mitigate the impact of the pandemic. The extent to which malaria services have been disrupted has not been fully characterized. This study was conducted to assess the impact of Covid-19 on malaria services in Rwanda. METHODS: A mixed-methods study was conducted in three purposively selected districts in Rwanda. The quantitative data included malaria aggregated data reported at the health facility level and the community level. The data included the number of malaria tests, uncomplicated malaria cases, severe malaria cases, and malaria deaths. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions with community members and community health workers, as well as in-depth interviews with health care providers and staff working in the malaria programme. Interrupted time series analysis was conducted to compare changes in malaria presentations between the pre-Covid-19 period (January 2019 to February 2020) and Covid-19 period (from March 2020 to November 2020). The constant comparative method was used in qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-Covid-19 period, there was a monthly reduction in patients tested in health facilities of 4.32 per 1000 population and a monthly increase in patients tested in the community of 2.38 per 1000 population during the Covid-19 period. There was no change in the overall presentation rate for uncomplicated malaria. The was a monthly reduction in the proportion of severe malaria of 5.47 per 100,000 malaria cases. Additionally, although healthcare providers continued to provide malaria services, they were fearful that this would expose them and their families to Covid-19. Covid-19 mitigation measures limited the availability of transportation options for the community to seek care in health facilities and delayed the implementation of some key malaria interventions. The focus on Covid-19-related communication also reduced the amount of health information for other diseases provided to community members. CONCLUSION: The Covid-19 pandemic resulted in patients increasingly seeking care in the community and poses challenges to maintaining delivery of malaria services in Rwanda. Interventions to mitigate these challenges should focus on strengthening programming for the community and home-based care models and integrating malaria messages into Covid-19-related communication. Additionally, implementation of the interrupted interventions should be timed and overlap with the malaria transmission season to mitigate Covid-19 consequences on malaria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Community Health Workers , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Rwanda/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e7, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:  Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including type-2 diabetes and hypertension, have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Maintaining quality care for these conditions is important but data on the impact of COVID-19 on NCD care in South Africa are sparse. AIM:  This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on facility and community-based NCD care and management during the first COVID-19 wave. SETTING:  Two public health sector primary care sites in the Cape Town Metro, including a Community Orientated Primary Care (COPC) learning site. METHODS:  A rapid appraisal with convergent mixed-methods design, including semi-structured interviews with facility and community health workers (CHWs) (n = 20) and patients living with NCDs (n = 8), was used. Interviews were conducted in English and Afrikaans by qualified interviewers. Transcripts were analysed by thematic content analysis. Quantitative data of health facility attendance, chronic dispensing unit (CDU) prescriptions and routine diabetes control were sourced from the Provincial Health Data Centre and analysed descriptively. RESULTS:  Qualitative analysis revealed three themes: disruption (cancellation of services, fear of infection, stress and anxiety), service reorganisation (communication, home delivery of medication, CHW scope of work, risk stratification and change management) and outcomes (workload and morale, stigma, appreciation and impact on NCD control). There was a drop in primary care attendance and an increase in CDU prescriptions and uncontrolled diabetes. CONCLUSION:  This study described the service disruption together with rapid reorganisation and change management at primary care level during the first COVID-19 wave. The changes were strengthened by the COPC foundation in one of the study sites. The impact of COVID-19 on primary-level NCD care and management requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Community Health Workers , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052464, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685586

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Bangladesh, Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 67% of all deaths. Mental health services are not available in routine healthcare at the primary facilities in Bangladesh. The protocol is for a qualitative study that seeks to understand the perceptions, beliefs and norms regarding common mental disorders (CMDs) among patients with NCD with and without CMDs to identify barriers to accessing mental health services in rural communities in Bangladesh. We also aim to explore the feasibility of integrating mental healthcare into routine NCD services at primary health facilities in rural Bangladesh. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will be conducted at the outpatient departments in two subdistrict hospitals and one district hospital in Munshiganj district in Bangladesh. We will purposefully select patients with hypertension and diabetes from the patient inventory generated from a recently completed randomised control trial titled 'Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka' in two subdistricts in Munshiganj district in Bangladesh. The selected participants will be screened for CMD using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 Items (DASS-21) over the telephone. Sixty in-depth interviews with patients and family members, 8-10 key informant interviews with healthcare providers and 2 focus group discussions with community health workers will be held following consent.The study is conceptualised under Levesque et al's framework. Thematic analysis will be applied following the study objectives and key issues, and commonly emerging topics generated by the data. The findings will be presented anonymously to corroborate the interpretation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board at icddr,b (PR-19108) and the University of York (HSRGC/2020/382/F). Written informed consent or audio recording consent form in Bangla will be obtained. For dissemination, we will invite representatives of the collaborating institutions to share the findings in national or international conferences and peer-reviewed journals.


Subject(s)
Mental Health Services , Rural Health Services , Bangladesh , Community Health Workers , Family , Humans , Primary Health Care , Rural Population
12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(2): 108-114, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674223

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report experiences in Bihar, India's most densely populated state, with a state government programme to train community health workers (CHWs) to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the state's predominantly rural population of 128 million. Methods: In May 2021, during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India, the Bihari government initiated a 1-day COVID-19 training programme for rural, unaccredited CHWs who had recently completed a community health education course from the National Institute of Open Schooling. The use of primary health centre buildings and doctors to deliver COVID-19 training and the existence of certification data on CHWs who participated in the community health education course streamlined implementation and minimized costs. After COVID-19 training, CHWs were paid as first responders and COVID-19 treatment workers by the Bihari government. Findings: Overall, 15 000 CHWs in Bihar completed the COVID-19 training programme in 2021 and a further 30 000 were enrolled. A survey of CHWs carried out after COVID-19 training had started found that 80% (81/102) were satisfied with training and felt they were receiving information from reliable sources. Conclusion: The training and mobilization of a team of CHWs helped ease pressure on a stressed, rural, health-care system in Bihar and improved its preparedness for future COVID-19 outbreaks. The success of the training programme illustrates how local initiatives can help address gaps in the health workforce and extend the reach of public health care into rural areas, in addition to improving COVID-19 responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Community Health Workers , Humans , India , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e052577, 2022 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore how gender influences the way community health workers (CHWs) are managed and supported and the effects on their work experiences. SETTING: Two districts in three fragile countries. Sierra Leone-Kenema and Bonthe districts; Liberia-two districts in Grand Bassa county one with international support for CHW activities and one without: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)-Aru and Bunia districts in Ituri Province. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Qualitative interviews with decision-makers and managers working in community health programmes and managing CHWs (n=36); life history interviews and photovoice with CHWs (n=15, in Sierra Leone only). RESULTS: While policies were put in place in Sierra Leone and Liberia to attract women to the newly paid position of CHW after the Ebola outbreak, these good intentions evaporated in practice. Gender norms at the community level, literacy levels and patriarchal expectations surrounding paid work meant that fewer women than imagined took up the role. Only in DRC, there were more women than men working as CHWs. Gender roles, norms and expectations in all contexts also affected retention and progression as well as safety, security and travel (over long distance and at night). Women CHWs also juggle between household and childcare responsibilities. Despite this, they were more likely to retain their position while men were more likely to leave and seek better paid employment. CHWs demonstrated agency in negotiating and challenging gender norms within their work and interactions supporting families. CONCLUSIONS: Gender roles and relations shape CHW experiences across multiple levels of the health system. Health systems need to develop gender transformative human resource management strategies to address gender inequities and restrictive gender norms for this critical interface cadre.


Subject(s)
Community Health Workers , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Child , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research
14.
Global Health ; 18(1): 8, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662420

ABSTRACT

Nepal's Primary Health Care (PHC) is aligned vertically with disease control programs at the core and a vast network of community health workers at the periphery. Aligning with the globalization of health and the factors affecting global burden of diseases, Nepal echoes the progressive increase in life expectancy, changes in diseases patterns, including the current impact of COVID-19. Nepal's health system is also accommodating recent federalization, and thus it is critical to explore how the primary health care system is grappling the challenges amidst these changes. In this review, we conducted a narrative synthesis of literature to explore the challenges related to transformation of Nepal's primary health care delivery system to meet the demands incurred by impact of globalization and recent federalization, covering following database: PubMED, Embase and Google Scholar. Of the 49 articles abstracted for full text review, 37 were included in the analyses. Existing theories were used for constructing the conceptual framework to explain the study findings. The results are divided into four themes. Additional searches were conducted to further support the narrative synthesis: a total of 46 articles were further included in the articulation of main findings. Transforming Nepal's primary health care system requires a clear focus on following priority areas that include i) Revised efforts towards strengthening of community based primary health care units; ii) Adapting vertical programs to federal governance; iii) Reinforcing the health insurance scheme; and iv) Strengthening an existing network of community health workers and health human resources. This review discusses how these broad goals bear challenges and opportunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Community Health Workers , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Nepal , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319211067669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare systems were forced to focus their efforts on the rapidly rising numbers of patients contracting COVID-19. Although a myriad of publications focused on COVID-19 care have rapidly emerged, few have studied the impact of the pandemic on care received by patients without COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To identify the experiences of Medicaid patients without COVID-19 related illness during the pandemic through the lens of community health worker outreach. METHODS: From July 15, 2020 through February 1, 2021 patients previously enrolled in the C-CAT initiative were contacted by telephone for patient check-ins by CHW staff. RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were contacted telephonically. Six patients had no active needs. Of the remaining patients, 70% of participants indicated that they had been unable to communicate with PCP or physician specialist care teams since the beginning of the pandemic and requested assistance from our CHW. Resulting unmet needs included the inability to obtain prescriptions drugs, necessary medical equipment, or supplies. CONCLUSION: The shift to COVID-19 focused care during the pandemic limited access to primary care for patients without COVID-19. The identified unmet patient needs included obtaining prescription medications, acute on chronic clinical condition management, healthcare services at home, and connection to social services. CHWs are uniquely positioned to assist patients as they connect to necessary clinical care, whether it be virtual or in-person, as they recover from the pandemic experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Community Health Workers , Humans , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E100, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566777

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To address the global diabetes epidemic, lifestyle counseling on diet, physical activity, and weight loss is essential. This study assessed the implementation of a diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) intervention using a mixed-methods evaluation framework. METHODS: We implemented a culturally adapted, home-based DSMES intervention in rural Indigenous Maya towns in Guatemala from 2018 through 2020. We used a pretest-posttest design and a mixed-methods evaluation approach guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework. Quantitative data included baseline characteristics, implementation metrics, effectiveness outcomes, and costs. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews with 3 groups of stakeholders. RESULTS: Of 738 participants screened, 627 participants were enrolled, and 478 participants completed the study. Adjusted mean change in glycated hemoglobin A1c was -0.4% (95% CI, -0.6% to -0.3%; P < .001), change in systolic blood pressure was -5.0 mm Hg (95% CI, -6.4 to -3.7 mm Hg; P < .001), change in diastolic blood pressure was -2.6 mm Hg (95% CI, -3.4 to -1.9 mm Hg; P < .001), and change in body mass index was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3 to 0.6; P < .001). We observed improvements in diabetes knowledge, distress, and most self-care activities. Key implementation factors included 1) recruitment barriers for men, 2) importance of patient-centered care, 3) role of research staff in catalyzing health worker involvement, 4) tradeoffs between home and telephone visits, and 5) sustainability challenges. CONCLUSION: A community health worker-led DSMES intervention was successfully implemented in the public health system in rural Guatemala and resulted in significant improvements in most clinical and psychometric outcomes. Scaling up sustainable DSMES in health systems in rural settings requires careful consideration of local barriers and facilitators.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Self-Management , Community Health Workers , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Guatemala , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Rural Population
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 810, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Like many countries, the government of Bangladesh also imposed stay-at-home orders to restrict the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) in March, 2020. Epidemiological studies were undertaken to estimate the early possible unforeseen effects on maternal mortality due to the disruption of services during the lockdown. Little is known about the constraints faced by the pregnant women and community health workers in accessing and providing basic obstetric services during the pandemic in the country. This study was conducted to explore the lived experience of pregnant women and community health care providers from two southern districts of Bangladesh during the pandemic of COVID-19. METHODS: The study participants were recruited through purposive sampling and non-structured in-depth interviews were conducted. Data was collected over the telephone from April to June, 2020. The data collected was analyzed through a phenomenological approach. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that community health care providers are working under tremendous strains of work load, fear of getting infected and physical and mental fatigue in a widely disrupted health system. Despite the fear of getting infected, the health workers are reluctant to wear personal protective suits because of gender norms. Similarly, the lived experience of pregnant women shows that they are feeling helpless; the joyful event of pregnancy has suddenly turned into a constant fear and stress. They are living in a limbo of hope and despair with a belief that only God could save their lives. CONCLUSION: The results of the study present the vulnerability of pregnant women and health workers during the pandemic. It recognizes the challenges and constraints, emphasizing the crucial need for government and non-government organizations to improve maternal and newborn health services to protect the pregnant women and health workers as they face predicted waves of the pandemic in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Community Health Workers/psychology , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Health Workers/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Poverty , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114299, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531725

ABSTRACT

Digital technology has emerged as a promising approach for training and building capacity of community health workers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Little is known about the cost of developing digital training programs in LMICs, which hinders the adoption, implementation, and scaling up of the programs in routine primary care settings. This study assessed the costs of developing a digital program for training community health workers to deliver a psychological treatment for depression in a rural district of Madhya Pradesh, India. We developed survey instruments to document required resources in development, including involved personnel (their roles, responsibilities, time spent, and salaries or payments), information technologies (e.g., smartphones, software programs), and infrastructure-related costs (e.g., vehicle, office space, utilities). Costs were estimated from an accounting perspective. Over a 10-month developmental period, the total costs were 208,814 USD, with the largest portion on human resources (61%, with 14% on management and supervision), followed by information technologies (33%), and infrastructure-related costs (6%). These findings could inform policymakers in LMICs on costs of developing online-training programs, which will be especially useful during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Depression , Humans , India , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 45(1): 2-12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528230

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has adversely impacted vulnerable communities. Community health workers (CHWs) are an evidence-based solution for helping communities navigate challenges and barriers. This case study describes the work of CHWs in a large Hispanic Chicago neighborhood who experienced a disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases. Methods included semistructured interviews and conventional qualitative content analysis. Results describe the problem; the situation; CHWs' roles, motivations and actions; outcomes; lessons learned; and recommendations. The case study concludes with a discussion of effective CHW engagement-particularly for underresourced communities-and presents recommendations for CHW workforce development and policies to strengthen the health care and public health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Chicago , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690067, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518565

ABSTRACT

Blue Shield of California's Community Health Advocate Program was created to support whole person-health needs by helping individuals of all socio-economic statuses navigate and access community resources, social services, and medical systems. Blue Shield's Health Reimagined team is partnering with medical providers, community resources centers, and community partners to provide intensive person-centered and technology-enabled care to patients, ensuring social needs are met while promoting health equity. A key aspect of the Health Reimagined initiative embeds Community Health Advocates (CHAs) within physician practices serving patients using a payor-agnostic approach, by which Blue Shield aims to increase access to social services and community resources, improve health outcomes, reduce medical costs, and improve overall patient experience. The purpose of this case study is to understand the provider's perspective of embedding a CHA into the care team and the resulting impact on the practice and patients. Blue Shield also sought to identify best practices and barriers of a CHA program within primary and specialty care practices. As part of an ongoing two-year mixed-methods impact evaluation (2019-2021), 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 18 providers and office staff at five primary care and specialty practices where CHAs have been embedded. We also conducted two focus groups with the same five CHAs at different points in time. Several themes emerged from the provider, office staff, and CHA interviews. Provider practices found great value in adding a CHA to their care team as the CHA brings flexibility and continuity to patient care. They also found that having access to a CHA with shared life experiences of the communities they served is a key component to the program's success. Providers and staff reported a new understanding of the social determinants of health that impacts a patient's wellbeing with the embedding of a CHA in the care team. Overall, practitioners expressed high satisfaction with the CHA program. During the COVID-19 pandemic, CHAs have been critically important in care, as social needs have increased, and resources have shifted. The CHA program is constantly adapting to address challenges faced by all stakeholders and applying new knowledge to ensure best practices are implemented within the CHA program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
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