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1.
APMIS ; 130(9): 590-596, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909331

ABSTRACT

Ferritin, the central iron storage protein, has attracted attention as a biomarker of severe COVID-19. Few studies have investigated regulators of iron metabolism in the context of COVID-19. The aim was to evaluate biomarkers for iron metabolism in the acute phase response to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by SARS-CoV-2 compared with CAP caused by bacteria or influenza virus in hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study of 164 patients from the Surviving Pneumonia Cohort recruited between January 8, 2019 and May 26, 2020. Blood samples were collected at admission and analyzed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, erythroferrone, and hepcidin. Median (IQR) hepcidin was higher in SARS-CoV-2 with 143.8 (100.7-180.7) ng/mL compared with bacterial and influenza infection with 78.8 (40.1-125.4) and 53.5 (25.2-125.8) ng/mL, respectively. The median ferritin level was more than 2-fold higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 compared with the other etiologies (p < 0.001). Patients with SARS-CoV-2 had lower levels of erythroferrone and CRP compared with those infected with bacteria. Higher levels of hepcidin and lower levels of erythroferrone despite lower CRP levels among patients with SARS-CoV-2 compared with those infected with bacteria indicate alterations in iron metabolism in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Pneumonia, Viral , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ferritins , Hepcidins/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Iron/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/blood , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Immunol ; 208(2): 321-327, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708204

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have demonstrated that 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) exerted key roles in various pulmonary diseases, but the evidence for its role in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was lacking. The goal of this research was to evaluate the correlations of serum 8-OHdG with the severity and prognosis among patients with CAP through a prospective cohort study. A total of 239 patients with CAP and 239 healthy participants were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were collected. 8-OHdG and inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. On admission, serum 8-OHdG was significantly increased in patients with CAP compared with control subjects. Besides, serum 8-OHdG was incrementally increased in line with CAP severity scores. Pearson correlative analysis found that serum 8-OHdG was correlated with clinical characteristics and inflammatory cytokines in patients with CAP. Linear and logistic regression analysis showed that serum 8-OHdG was positively associated with CAP severity scores. Furthermore, the prognostic outcomes were tracked. Higher serum 8-OHdG on admission increased the risks for intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive agent usage, death, and longer hospital stay among patients with CAP. Serum 8-OHdG combination with confusion, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥65 y or pneumonia severity index had stronger predictive powers for death than single 8-OHdG, CAP severity scores, or several inflammatory cytokines in patients with CAP. These results indicated that serum 8-OHdG is positively associated with the severity and poor prognosis in patients with CAP, demonstrating that 8-OHdG may be involved in the pathophysiology process of CAP.


Subject(s)
8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/pathology , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Cytokines/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data
3.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704354

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether high D-dimer level before treatment has any impact on poor outcomes in patients with community-associated pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted the first meta-analysis focusing specifically on prognostic value of high D-dimer level before treatment in CAP patients. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and World Health Organization clinical trials registry center were searched up to the end of March 2021. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) and observational studies were included to demonstrate the association between the level of D-dimer and clinical outcomes. Data were extracted using an adaptation of the Checklist for Critical Appraisal and Data Extraction for Systematic Reviews of Prediction Modeling Studies (CHARMS-PF). When feasible, meta-analysis using random-effects models was performed. Risk of bias and level of evidence were assessed with the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool and an adaptation of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Data were analyzed using STATA 14.0 to complete meta and network analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Besides d-dimer levels in CAP patients with poor outcomes, we also analyzed proportion of patients with or without poor outcomes correctly classified by the d-dimer levels as being at high or low risk. The poor outcome includes severe CAP, death, pulmonary embolism (PE) and invasive mechanical ventilators. RESULTS: 32 studies with a total of 9,593 patients were eventually included. Pooled effect size (ES) suggested that d-dimer level was significantly higher in severe CAP patients than non-severe CAP patients with great heterogeneity (SMD = 1.21 95%CI 0.87-1.56, I2 = 86.8% p = 0.000). D-dimer level was significantly elevated in non-survivors compared to survivors with CAP (SMD = 1.22 95%CI 0.67-1.77, I2 = 85.1% p = 0.000). Prognostic value of d-dimer for pulmonary embolism (PE) was proved by hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve (HSROC) with good summary sensitivity (0.74, 95%CI, 0.50-0.89) and summary specificity (0.82, 95%CI, 0.41-0.97). Network meta-analysis suggested that there was a significant elevation of d-dimer levels in CAP patients with poor outcome than general CAP patients but d-dimer levels weren't significantly different among poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: The prognostic ability of d-dimer among patients with CAP appeared to be good at correctly identifying high-risk populations of poor outcomes, suggesting potential for clinical utility in patients with CAP.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Network Meta-Analysis , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Prognosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Young Adult
4.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 4713045, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is abundant in serum and has been implicated in several processes including blood coagulation and immune response. This prospective study is aimed at exploring HRG as a biomarker in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 160 patients (73 severe CAP, 57 nonsevere CAP), and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in 2019. Demographic and clinical data were recorded for all patients. Serum HRG concentration was measured upon admission using ELISA. RESULTS: HRG levels were significantly lower in severe CAP patients compared with other groups, regardless of etiology, and were negatively correlated with serum interleukin-6 and disease severity index scores. Combination of CURB-65, PSI, and APACHE II scores with HRG values significantly improved the accuracy of predicting 30-day mortality in these patients. Cox regression analysis showed that HRG could serve as an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality. Notably, patients with HRG ≤ 16.92 µg/mL had significantly lower cumulative survival than those with HRG > 16.92 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Serum HRG levels are lower in patients with severe CAP and are negatively correlated with disease severity scores. Measurement of HRG upon admission can provide valuable prognostic information for patients with CAP.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/mortality , Proteins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23390, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are very much like those of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP with clinical symptoms and imaging examination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct an effective model for the early identification of COVID-19 that would also distinguish it from CAP. METHODS: The clinical laboratory indicators (CLIs) of 61 COVID-19 patients and 60 CAP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Random combinations of various CLIs (ie, CLI combinations) were utilized to establish COVID-19 versus CAP classifiers with machine learning algorithms, including random forest classifier (RFC), logistic regression classifier, and gradient boosting classifier (GBC). The performance of the classifiers was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall rate in COVID-19 prediction using the test data set. RESULTS: The classifiers that were constructed with three algorithms from 43 CLI combinations showed high performance (recall rate >0.9 and AUROC >0.85) in COVID-19 prediction for the test data set. Among the high-performance classifiers, several CLIs showed a high usage rate; these included procalcitonin (PCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), uric acid, albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), neutrophil count, red blood cell (RBC) count, monocyte count, basophil count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. They also had high feature importance except for basophil count. The feature combination (FC) of PCT, AGR, uric acid, WBC count, neutrophil count, basophil count, RBC count, and MCHC was the representative one among the nine FCs used to construct the classifiers with an AUROC equal to 1.0 when using the RFC or GBC algorithms. Replacing any CLI in these FCs would lead to a significant reduction in the performance of the classifiers that were built with them. CONCLUSIONS: The classifiers constructed with only a few specific CLIs could efficiently distinguish COVID-19 from CAP, which could help clinicians perform early isolation and centralized management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that S100A9 may involve in the pathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the role of S100A9 was unclear in the CAP. The goal was to explore the correlations of serum S100A9 with the severity and prognosis of CAP patients based on a prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 220 CAP patients and 110 control subjects were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Serum S100A9 and inflammatory cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Serum S100A9 was elevated in CAP patients on admission. Serum S100A9 was gradually elevated parallelly with CAP severity scores. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were increased and blood routine parameters were changed in CAP patients compared with control subjects. Correlation analysis found that serum S100A9 was positively associated with CAP severity scores, blood routine parameters (WBC, NLR and MON) and inflammatory cytokines. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there were positive associations between serum S100A9 and CAP severity scores. Besides, the prognosis of CAP was tracked. Serum higher S100A9 on the early stage elevated the death of risk and hospital stay among CAP patients. CONCLUSION: Serum S100A9 is positively correlated with the severity of CAP. On admission, serum higher S100A9 elevates the risk of death and hospital stay in CAP patients, suggesting that S100A9 may exert a certain role in the pathophysiology of CAP and regard as a serum diagnostic and managing biomarker for CAP.


Subject(s)
Calgranulin B/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1097-1100, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the value of inflammatory factors procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis and evaluation of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 140 patients with pneumonia in our hospital, including 70 who had COVID-19 and 70 who had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were statistically analyzed. The levels of PCT, IL-6, and CRP were measured and statistically analyzed to determine the differences between the two groups. The differences in the COVID-19 group were analyzed after subgrouping into the ordinary type, severe type, and critical type. RESULTS: The PCT and CRP levels in the COVID-19 group were statistically lower than those in the CAP group (p < 0.05), but IL-6 was not statistically different between the two groups (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences existed in IL-6 and CRP when comparing the COVID-19 subgroups of the critical type, severe type, and ordinary type (p < 0.05). However, there was no clinical meaning in the evaluation of the difference in PCT levels among the three subgroups with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: PCT and CRP could be used as indicators in the differentiation between COVID-19 and CAP, but IL-6 was of little significance in the differentiation. The higher the IL-6 and CRP, the more severe the condition of COVID-19 might be.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/diagnosis
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(20): 12054-12064, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755303

ABSTRACT

Cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are transferred in disease state including inflammatory lung diseases and are often packed into extracellular vesicles (EVs). To assess their suitability as biomarkers for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and severe secondary complications such as sepsis, we studied patients with CAP (n = 30), sepsis (n = 65) and healthy volunteers (n = 47) subdivided into a training (n = 67) and a validation (n = 75) cohort. After precipitating crude EVs from sera, associated small RNA was profiled by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and evaluated in multivariate analyses. A subset of the thereby identified biomarker candidates was validated both technically and additionally by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed 29 differentially expressed miRNAs in CAP patients when compared to volunteers, and 25 miRNAs in patients with CAP, compared to those with sepsis. Sparse partial-least discriminant analysis separated groups based on 12 miRNAs. Three miRNAs proved as a significant biomarker signature. While expression levels of miR-1246 showed significant changes with an increase in overall disease severity from volunteers to CAP and to sepsis, miR-193a-5p and miR-542-3p differentiated patients with an infectious disease (CAP or sepsis) from volunteers. Cell-free miRNAs are potentially novel biomarkers for CAP and may help to identify patients at risk for progress to sepsis, facilitating early intervention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Circulating MicroRNA/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/genetics , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/genetics , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Circulating MicroRNA/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcription/genetics , Sepsis/genetics
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e164, 2020 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679966

ABSTRACT

The emergence of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently a global concern. In this study, our goal was to explore the changing expression levels of acute-phase reaction proteins (APRPs) in the serum of COVID-19 patients and to elucidate the immunological characteristics of COVID-19. In the study design, we recruited 72 COVID-19 patients, including 22 cases of mild degree, 38 cases of moderate degree and 12 cases of severe degree. We also recruited 20 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 20 normal control subjects as a comparison. Fasting venous blood was taken to detect the content of complement 3 (C3), complement 4 (C4), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and prealbumin (PA). When compared the COVID-19 group with the CAP and normal control groups, respectively, the mean value of CRP and SAA in the COVID-19 group (including mild, moderate and severe patients) had increased significantly (P < 0.01), whereas the mean values of C3, C4 and PA decreased (P < 0.01). For the asymptomatic or mild symptomatic patients with COVID-19, the actual aggravation of disease may be more advanced than the clinical appearances. Meanwhile, the statistical analyses indicated that the development of COVID-19 brought about a significant increase in the content of CRP and SAA (P < 0.01), and a decline in the content of C3, C4 and PA (P < 0.01). These findings suggested that the changes in the level of APRPs could be used as indicators to identify the degree and progression of COVID-19, and the significant changes might demonstrate the aggravation of disease. This study provided a new approach to improve the clinical management plan and prognosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute-Phase Proteins/analysis , Acute-Phase Proteins/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/biosynthesis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/immunology , Complement C3/analysis , Complement C3/biosynthesis , Complement C4/analysis , Complement C4/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prealbumin/analysis , Prealbumin/biosynthesis , Prognosis , Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis , Serum Amyloid A Protein/biosynthesis , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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