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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23390, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are very much like those of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP with clinical symptoms and imaging examination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct an effective model for the early identification of COVID-19 that would also distinguish it from CAP. METHODS: The clinical laboratory indicators (CLIs) of 61 COVID-19 patients and 60 CAP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Random combinations of various CLIs (ie, CLI combinations) were utilized to establish COVID-19 versus CAP classifiers with machine learning algorithms, including random forest classifier (RFC), logistic regression classifier, and gradient boosting classifier (GBC). The performance of the classifiers was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall rate in COVID-19 prediction using the test data set. RESULTS: The classifiers that were constructed with three algorithms from 43 CLI combinations showed high performance (recall rate >0.9 and AUROC >0.85) in COVID-19 prediction for the test data set. Among the high-performance classifiers, several CLIs showed a high usage rate; these included procalcitonin (PCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), uric acid, albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), neutrophil count, red blood cell (RBC) count, monocyte count, basophil count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. They also had high feature importance except for basophil count. The feature combination (FC) of PCT, AGR, uric acid, WBC count, neutrophil count, basophil count, RBC count, and MCHC was the representative one among the nine FCs used to construct the classifiers with an AUROC equal to 1.0 when using the RFC or GBC algorithms. Replacing any CLI in these FCs would lead to a significant reduction in the performance of the classifiers that were built with them. CONCLUSIONS: The classifiers constructed with only a few specific CLIs could efficiently distinguish COVID-19 from CAP, which could help clinicians perform early isolation and centralized management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
5.
Infection ; 49(6): 1299-1306, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482322

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thorough knowledge of the nature and frequency of co-infections is essential to optimize treatment strategies and risk assessment in cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening approach for community-acquired bacterial pathogens (CABPs) at hospital admission, which could facilitate identification of bacterial co-infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Clinical data and biomaterials from 200 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from the observational cohort of the Competence Network for community-acquired pneumonia (CAPNETZ) prospectively recruited between March 17, 2020, and March 12, 2021 in 12 centers in Germany and Switzerland, were included in this study. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were analyzed on hospital admission using multiplex real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for a broad range of CABPs. RESULTS: In total of 200 patients Staphylococcus aureus (27.0%), Haemophilus influenzae (13.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.5%), Moraxella catarrhalis (2.5%), and Legionella pneumophila (1.5%) were the most frequently detected bacterial pathogens. PCR detection of bacterial pathogens correlated with purulent sputum, and showed no correlation with ICU admission, mortality, and inflammation markers. Although patients who received antimicrobial treatment were more often admitted to the ICU and had a higher mortality rate, PCR pathogen detection was not significantly related to antimicrobial treatment. CONCLUSION: General CABP screening using multiplex PCR with nasopharyngeal swabs may not facilitate prediction or identification of bacterial co-infections in the early phase of COVID-19-related hospitalization. Most patients with positive PCR results appear to be colonized rather than infected at that time, questioning the value of routine antibiotic treatment on admission in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Legionella pneumophila , Pneumonia , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 918-922, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389847

ABSTRACT

To limit introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the United States restricted travel from China on February 2, 2020, and from Europe on March 13. To determine whether local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 could be detected, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) conducted deidentified sentinel surveillance at six NYC hospital emergency departments (EDs) during March 1-20. On March 8, while testing availability for SARS-CoV-2 was still limited, DOHMH announced sustained community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). At this time, twenty-six NYC residents had confirmed COVID-19, and ED visits for influenza-like illness* increased, despite decreased influenza virus circulation.† The following week, on March 15, when only seven of the 56 (13%) patients with known exposure histories had exposure outside of NYC, the level of community SARS-CoV-2 transmission status was elevated from sustained community transmission to widespread community transmission (2). Through sentinel surveillance during March 1-20, DOHMH collected 544 specimens from patients with influenza-like symptoms (ILS)§ who had negative test results for influenza and, in some instances, other respiratory pathogens.¶ All 544 specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at CDC; 36 (6.6%) tested positive. Using genetic sequencing, CDC determined that the sequences of most SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens resembled those circulating in Europe, suggesting probable introductions of SARS-CoV-2 from Europe, from other U.S. locations, and local introductions from within New York. These findings demonstrate that partnering with health care facilities and developing the systems needed for rapid implementation of sentinel surveillance, coupled with capacity for genetic sequencing before an outbreak, can help inform timely containment and mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sentinel Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis , Travel-Related Illness , Young Adult
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that S100A9 may involve in the pathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the role of S100A9 was unclear in the CAP. The goal was to explore the correlations of serum S100A9 with the severity and prognosis of CAP patients based on a prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 220 CAP patients and 110 control subjects were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Serum S100A9 and inflammatory cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Serum S100A9 was elevated in CAP patients on admission. Serum S100A9 was gradually elevated parallelly with CAP severity scores. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were increased and blood routine parameters were changed in CAP patients compared with control subjects. Correlation analysis found that serum S100A9 was positively associated with CAP severity scores, blood routine parameters (WBC, NLR and MON) and inflammatory cytokines. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there were positive associations between serum S100A9 and CAP severity scores. Besides, the prognosis of CAP was tracked. Serum higher S100A9 on the early stage elevated the death of risk and hospital stay among CAP patients. CONCLUSION: Serum S100A9 is positively correlated with the severity of CAP. On admission, serum higher S100A9 elevates the risk of death and hospital stay in CAP patients, suggesting that S100A9 may exert a certain role in the pathophysiology of CAP and regard as a serum diagnostic and managing biomarker for CAP.


Subject(s)
Calgranulin B/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6008-6015, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298507

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease whose clinical manifestation ranges from asymptomatic to severe respiratory failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the place of serum surfactant-D (SP-D) and angiopoetin-2 (Ang-2) levels in predicting severity of disease in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: Sixty-four patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between September 2020 and February 2021, 50 patients diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia and a 50-member healthy control group were included in the study. Plasma samples and clinical data were collected within 72 h after admission, during hospital stay. Serum SP-D and Ang-2 concentrations were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: SP-D and Ang-2 levels were significantly higher in the mild-moderate pneumonia and severe/critical patient groups compared to the asymptomatic and noncomplicated COVID-19 patients (p < 0.001 for all groups). Serum SP-D and Ang-2 levels of severe-critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than CAP patients (p < 0.001). Powerful correlation was present between clinical severity of COVID-19 and SP-D and Ang-2 levels (r = 0.885 p < 0.001 and r = 0.913 p < 0.001, respectively). Cut-off values of 37.7 ng/ml (AUC = 0.763, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.667-0.860) for SP-D and 4208.3 pg/ml (AUC = 0.659, p = 0.004, 95% CI = 0.554-0.763) for Ang-2 were identified as predictors of COVID-19 disease at receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. CONCLUSION: SP-D and Ang-2 are predictive factors in differentiating COVID-19 patients and determining severity of disease. These data may be important for the initiation of treatment in the early stage of the disease in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiopoietin-2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung Injury/metabolism , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Severity of Illness Index
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on dialysis are vulnerable to contracting COVID-19 infection, with mortality as high as 31 % in this group. Population demographics in the UAE are dissimilar to many other countries and data on antibody responses to COVID-19 is also limited. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients who developed COVID-19, the impact of the screening strategy, and to assess the antibody response to a subset of dialysis patients. METHODS: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of COVID19 infection in all our haemodialysis patients, who were tested regularly for COVID 19, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. In addition, IgG antibody serology was also performed to assess response to COVID-19 in a subset of patients. RESULTS: 152 (13 %) of 1180 dialysis patients developed COVID-19 during the study period from 1st of March to the 1st of July 2020. Of these 81 % were male, average age of 52​ years and 95 % were on in-centre haemodialysis. Family and community contact was most likely source of infection in most patients. Fever (49 %) and cough (48 %) were the most common presenting symptoms, when present. Comorbidities in infected individuals included hypertension (93 %), diabetes (49 %), ischaemic heart disease (30 %). The majority (68 %) developed mild disease, whilst 13 % required critical care. Combinations of drugs including hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir, ritonavir, camostat, tocilizumab and steroids were used based on local guidelines. The median time to viral clearance defined by two negative PCR tests was 15 days [IQR 6-25]. Overall mortality in our cohort was 9.2 %, but ICU mortality was 65 %. COVID-19 IgG antibody serology was performed in a subset (n = 87) but 26 % of PCR positive patients (n = 23) did not develop a significant antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports a lower mortality in this patient group compared with many published series. Asymptomatic PCR positivity was present in 40 %. Rapid isolation of positive patients may have contributed to the relative lack of spread of COVID-19 within our dialysis units. The lack of antibody response in a few patients is concerning.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology , Viremia/diagnosis
11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(9): 1070-1087, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223640

ABSTRACT

Background: This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the diagnostic utility of nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples for viral pathogens other than influenza in adults with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).Methods: A multidisciplinary panel developed a Population-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome question, conducted a pragmatic systematic review, and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations.Results: The panel evaluated the literature to develop recommendations regarding whether routine diagnostics should include nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples for viral pathogens other than influenza in suspected CAP. The evidence addressing this topic was generally adjudicated to be of very low quality because of risk of bias and imprecision. Furthermore, there was little direct evidence supporting a role for routine nucleic acid-based testing of respiratory samples in improving critical outcomes such as overall survival or antibiotic use patterns. However, on the basis of direct and indirect evidence, recommendations were made for both outpatient and hospitalized patients with suspected CAP. Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was not addressed in the literature at the time of the evidence review.Conclusions: The panel formulated and provided their rationale for recommendations on nucleic acid-based diagnostics for viral pathogens other than influenza for patients with suspected CAP.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Pneumonia/virology , Societies, Medical , Viruses/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 352, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying the causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is challenging due to the disease's complex etiology and the limitations of traditional microbiological diagnostic methods. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS)-based metagenomics allow pan-pathogen detection in a single assay, and may have significant advantages over culture-based techniques. RESULTS: We conducted a cohort study of 159 CAP patients to assess the diagnostic performance of a clinical metagenomics assay and its impact on clinical management and patient outcomes. When compared to other techniques, clinical metagenomics detected more pathogens in more CAP cases, and identified a substantial number of polymicrobial infections. Moreover, metagenomics results led to changes in or confirmation of clinical management in 35 of 59 cases; these 35 cases also had significantly improved patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical metagenomics could be a valuable tool for the diagnosis and treatment of CAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2100043628 .


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Metagenomics/methods , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Pneumonia/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sputum/microbiology , Young Adult
13.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(1)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 may produce neurological manifestations, including its occurrence in children, and newborns, which has been little reported so far in newborns with COVID-19. CASE: We present a case in Colombia, of community-acquired neonatal infection of SARS-CoV-2, with suggestive symptoms, such as fever, and showing neurological findings, such as drowsiness, poor suction and mild hypotonia for a short time. DISCUSSION: The clinical manifestations of SARS-COV-2 in neonates are beginning to be described in detail. We report a case of SARS-COV-2-associated neurological compromise in a newborn, with features of drowsiness, poor suction and hypotonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colombia , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Muscle Hypotonia/virology , Sleepiness
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 322: 110755, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152350

ABSTRACT

Over a year after the initial emergence of the disease, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to strain healthcare systems worldwide. The value of feedback and connection between clinical care, public health, and death investigation systems has never been more clear. To this end, knowledge of the radiologic and histopathologic features of fatal COVID-19 is critical for those working with the living and the dead. Most of the medical descriptions of COVID-19 are either focused on clinical in vivo medical imaging or autopsies performed following an intensive course of treatment over days to weeks prior to death, rather than deaths in the community prior to hospitalization. Here we report the postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and lung histopathology in five fatal cases of COVID-19 that were subject to medicolegal death investigation. All individuals died in the community without medical treatment, or after a brief terminal admission to hospital. In these cases, the main PMCT findings included: diffuse lung changes including ground glass-type opacifications, a "crazy paving" appearance, variable areas of more dense consolidation, and relatively few areas of spared/less involved lung parenchyma. The unifying histopathology was diffuse alveolar damage in various stages of cellular evolution. In all cases, the pattern of PMCT and the lung histopathology corroborated the diagnosis of COVID-19. We propose the routine use of PMCT as a potential screening tool for the identification of COVID-19 related fatalities in the medicolegal setting where a paucity of historical information may not otherwise permit the identification of this disease prior to autopsy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Female , Forensic Pathology/methods , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(5): 1338-1345, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of patients on admission to hospital with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia who can develop poor outcomes has not yet been comprehensively assessed. OBJECTIVE: To compare severity scores used for community-acquired pneumonia to identify high-risk patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. DESIGN: PSI, CURB-65, qSOFA, and MuLBSTA, a new score for viral pneumonia, were calculated on admission to hospital to identify high-risk patients for in-hospital mortality, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or use of mechanical ventilation. Area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC), sensitivity, and specificity for each score were determined and AUROC was compared among them. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia included in the SEMI-COVID-19 Network. KEY RESULTS: We examined 10,238 patients with COVID-19. Mean age of patients was 66.6 years and 57.9% were males. The most common comorbidities were as follows: hypertension (49.2%), diabetes (18.8%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12.8%). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (34.7%) and acute kidney injury (13.9%) were the most common complications. In-hospital mortality was 20.9%. PSI and CURB-65 showed the highest AUROC (0.835 and 0.825, respectively). qSOFA and MuLBSTA had a lower AUROC (0.728 and 0.715, respectively). qSOFA was the most specific score (specificity 95.7%) albeit its sensitivity was only 26.2%. PSI had the highest sensitivity (84.1%) and a specificity of 72.2%. CONCLUSIONS: PSI and CURB-65, specific severity scores for pneumonia, were better than qSOFA and MuLBSTA at predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Additionally, qSOFA, the simplest score to perform, was the most specific albeit the least sensitive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Aged , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(2): 1097-1100, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the value of inflammatory factors procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the early diagnosis and evaluation of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of 140 patients with pneumonia in our hospital, including 70 who had COVID-19 and 70 who had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), were statistically analyzed. The levels of PCT, IL-6, and CRP were measured and statistically analyzed to determine the differences between the two groups. The differences in the COVID-19 group were analyzed after subgrouping into the ordinary type, severe type, and critical type. RESULTS: The PCT and CRP levels in the COVID-19 group were statistically lower than those in the CAP group (p < 0.05), but IL-6 was not statistically different between the two groups (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences existed in IL-6 and CRP when comparing the COVID-19 subgroups of the critical type, severe type, and ordinary type (p < 0.05). However, there was no clinical meaning in the evaluation of the difference in PCT levels among the three subgroups with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: PCT and CRP could be used as indicators in the differentiation between COVID-19 and CAP, but IL-6 was of little significance in the differentiation. The higher the IL-6 and CRP, the more severe the condition of COVID-19 might be.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interleukin-6/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/diagnosis
18.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(705): e258-e265, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an essential consideration in patients presenting to primary care with respiratory symptoms; however, accurate diagnosis is difficult when clinical and radiological examinations are not possible, such as during telehealth consultations. AIM: To develop and test a smartphone-based algorithm for diagnosing CAP without need for clinical examination or radiological inputs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective cohort study using data from participants aged >12 years presenting with acute respiratory symptoms to a hospital in Western Australia. METHOD: Five cough audio-segments were recorded and four patient-reported symptoms (fever, acute cough, productive cough, and age) were analysed by the smartphone-based algorithm to generate an immediate diagnostic output for CAP. Independent cohorts were recruited to train and test the accuracy of the algorithm. Diagnostic agreement was calculated against the confirmed discharge diagnosis of CAP by specialist physicians. Specialist radiologists reported medical imaging. RESULTS: The smartphone-based algorithm had high percentage agreement (PA) with the clinical diagnosis of CAP in the total cohort (n = 322, positive PA [PPA] = 86.2%, negative PA [NPA] = 86.5%, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.95); in participants 22-<65 years (n = 192, PPA = 85.7%, NPA = 87.0%, AUC = 0.94), and in participants aged ≥65 years (n = 86, PPA = 85.7%, NPA = 87.5%, AUC = 0.94). Agreement was preserved across CAP severity: 85.1% (n = 80/94) of participants with CRB-65 scores 1 or 2, and 87.7% (n = 57/65) with a score of 0, were correctly diagnosed by the algorithm. CONCLUSION: The algorithm provides rapid and accurate diagnosis of CAP. It offers improved accuracy over current protocols when clinical evaluation is difficult. It provides increased capabilities for primary and acute care, including telehealth services, required during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Remote Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cough/diagnosis , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
19.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 8715756, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066954

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonresponding pneumonia is responsible for the most mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, thus far, it is not clear whether viral infection plays an important role in the etiology of nonresponding CAP and whether there is a significant difference in the clinical characteristics between viral and nonviral nonresponding CAP. Methods: From 2016 to 2019, nonresponding CAP patients were retrospectively enrolled in our study. All patients received bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and virus detection in BAL fluid by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data were collected. Results: A total of 43 patients were included. The median age was 62 years, and 65.1% of patients were male. Overall, 20 patients (46.5%) were identified with viral infection. Of these viruses, influenza virus (n = 8) and adenovirus (n = 7) were more frequently detected, and others included herpes simplex virus, human enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, human coronavirus 229E, rhinovirus, and parainfluenza virus. Compared with nonviral nonresponding CAP, only ground-glass opacity combined with consolidation was a more common imaging manifestation in viral nonresponding CAP. However, no obvious differences were found in clinical and laboratory findings between the presence and the absence of viral infections. Conclusions: Viral infections were particularly frequent in adults with nonresponding CAP. The ground-glass opacity combined with consolidation was a specific imaging manifestation for viral nonresponding CAP, while the clinical and laboratory data showed no obvious differences between viral and nonviral nonresponding CAP.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Neonatology ; 117(5): 641-645, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059919

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has been well described in adults. Further, the impact on older children and during the perinatal time is becoming better studied. As community spread increases, it is important to recognize that neonates are vulnerable to community spread as well. The impact that community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 has in the neonatal time period is unclear, as this population has unique immunity considerations. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case series of SARS-CoV-2 in neonates through community acquisition in the USA. DESIGN: This is an early retrospective study of patients admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) identified as having SAR-CoV-2 through positive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of nasopharyngeal swabs. FINDINGS: Three patients who required admission to the NICU between the ages of 17 and 33 days old were identified. All 3 had ill contacts in the home or had been to the pediatrician and presented with mild to moderate symptoms including fever, rhinorrhea, and hypoxia, requiring supplemental oxygen during their hospital stay. One patient was admitted with neutropenia, and the other 2 patients became neutropenic during hospitalization. None of the patients had meningitis or multiorgan failure. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Infants with community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 may require hospitalization due to rule-out sepsis guidelines if found to have fever and/or hypoxia. Caregivers of neonates should exercise recommended guidelines before contact with neonates to limit community spread of SARS-CoV-2 to this potentially vulnerable population, including isolation, particularly as asymptomatic cases become prevalent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care, Neonatal/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Colorado , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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