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2.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(6): 599-609, 2021 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498473

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a major cause of global mortality in developed countries. The adequacy of the antibiotic treatment is essential for the good evolution of the patients. When selecting the antimicrobial, the severity of the patient, the characteristics of the antibiotics, and the profile of the patient to be treated should be considered. Recommendations for the selection of antibiotic treatment may differ between the patient who requires admission and the one who can be treated as outpatient. Beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides are the most widely used antimicrobials in this last circumstance. However, not all are the same in terms of efficacy, safety and ecological impact. This review delves into the aforementioned aspects to improve decision-making and offers concrete recommendations for the selection of antibiotic treatment. Likewise, it includes recommendations for performing sequential therapy. Finally, a brief review is made about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on this pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
3.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(4): 289-297, 2021 Aug.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329311

ABSTRACT

Oral antibiotics are among the most frequently used medications in the community. Its adverse effects are generally considered to be infrequent and mild, and include allergies, toxicities and drug interactions. Antibiotics are able to harm patients by various mechanisms, not always well known. Knowledge of the clinically relevant antibiotic-associated adverse effects can allow a judicious use based on the principle first do no harm, primun non nocere. In this review we explore the main adverse effects of oral antibiotics with specific focus on ß-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Medication Therapy Management , Administration, Oral , Humans , Patient Safety
5.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(12): 1772-1776, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A wide range of bacterial infections occur in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, particularly in those with severe coronaviral disease. Some of these are community-acquired co-infections. OBJECTIVE: To review recent data that indicate the occurrence of hospital-onset bacterial infections, including with antibiotic-resistant isolates, in COVID-19 patients. SOURCES: Using PubMed, the literature was searched using terms including: 'COVID-19'; 'SARS-CoV-2'; 'bacterial infection'; 'healthcare-associated infection'; 'antibiotic resistance'; 'antimicrobial resistance'; 'multi-drug resistance'; 'Streptococcus'; 'Staphylococcus'; 'Pseudomonas'; 'Escherichia'; 'Klebsiella'; 'Enterococcus'; 'Acinetobacter'; 'Haemophilus'; 'MRSA'; 'VRE'; 'ESBL'; 'NDM-CRE'; 'CR-Ab'; 'VRSA'; 'MDR'. CONTENT: There is a growing number of reports of bacterial infections acquired by patients with severe COVID-19 after hospital admission. Antibiotic-resistant pathogens found to cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in COVID-19 patients include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. COVID-19 has impacted bacterial HAIs in a number of ways with an increase in the incidence of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii reported at some hospital sites compared with before the pandemic. Recommended guidelines for antimicrobial stewardship in COVID-19 patient treatment are discussed regarding minimization of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Other studies have reported a decrease in methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci cases, which has been attributed to enhanced infection prevention and control practices introduced to minimize intra-hospital spread of COVID-19. IMPLICATIONS: Poorer outcomes have been observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with an antibiotic-resistant infection. Although heightened IPC measures have been accompanied by a reduction in some HAIs at specific sites, in other situations, COVID-19 has been associated with an increase in bacterial HAI incidence. Further research is needed to define the cost-benefit relationship of maintaining COVID-19-related infection prevention and control protocols beyond the pandemic to reduce the burden of HAIs. In addition, the longer-term impact of high usage of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic requires evaluation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbapenems , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Pandemics
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 516, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Empiric antibiotics for community acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) are often prescribed to patients with COVID-19, despite a low reported incidence of co-infections. Stewardship interventions targeted at facilitating appropriate antibiotic prescribing for CABP among COVID-19 patients are needed. We developed a guideline for antibiotic initiation and discontinuation for CABP in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of this intervention on the duration of empiric CABP antibiotic therapy among patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective, quasi-experimental study of adult patients admitted between 3/1/2020 to 4/25/2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were initiated on empiric CABP antibiotics. Patients were excluded if they were initiated on antibiotics > 48 h following admission or if another source of infection was identified. The primary outcome was the duration of antibiotic therapy (DOT) prior to the guideline (March 1 to March27, 2020) and after guideline implementation (March 28 to April 25, 2020). We also evaluated the clinical outcomes (mortality, readmissions, length of stay) among those initiated on empiric CABP antibiotics. RESULTS: A total of 506 patients with COVID-19 were evaluated, 102 pre-intervention and 404 post-intervention. Prior to the intervention, 74.5% (n = 76) of patients with COVID-19 received empiric antibiotics compared to only 42% of patients post-intervention (n = 170), p < 0.001. The median DOT in the post-intervention group was 1.3 days shorter (p < 0.001) than the pre-intervention group, and antibiotics directed at atypical bacteria DOT was reduced by 2.8 days (p < 0.001). More patients in the post-intervention group were initiated on antibiotics based on criteria consistent with our guideline (68% versus 87%, p = 0.001). There were no differences between groups in terms of clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: Following the implementation of a guideline outlining recommendations for initiating and discontinuing antibiotics for CABP among COVID-19 inpatients, we observed a reduction in antibiotic prescribing and DOT. The guideline also resulted in a significant increase in the rate of guideline-congruent empiric antibiotic initiation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Coinfection/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(11): 1406-1414, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241509

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed in inflammatory diseases and have recently experienced a boom in the treatment of COVID-19. Small studies have shown an effect of glucocorticoids on inflammatory marker levels, but definitive proof is lacking. We investigated the influence of prednisone on inflammatory biomarkers in a previous multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that compared a 7-day treatment course of 50-mg prednisone to placebo in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. We compared levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), leukocyte and neutrophil count between patients with and without glucocorticoid treatment at baseline and on days 3, 5, and 7 and at discharge by Wilcoxon tests and analysis of variance. A total of 356 patient data sets in the prednisone group and 355 in the placebo group were available for analysis. Compared to placebo, use of prednisone was associated with reductions in levels of CRP on days 3, 5, and 7 (mean difference of 46%, P < .001 for each time point). For PCT, no such difference was observed. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were higher in the prednisone group at all time points (mean difference of 27% for leukocytes and 33% for neutrophils, P <.001 for all time points). We conclude that after administration of glucocorticoids in community-acquired pneumonia, patients had lower CRP levels and increased leukocyte and neutrophil count as compared to the placebo group. PCT levels were not different between treatment groups. PCT levels thus may more appropriately mirror the resolution of infection compared to more traditional inflammatory markers.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Leukocyte Count/methods , Pneumonia , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Procalcitonin/blood , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers, Pharmacological/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Statistics, Nonparametric
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2222-2226, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153139

ABSTRACT

This is the first known community transmission case of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the United States, with significant public health implications. Diagnosis of COVID-19 is currently confirmed with PCR based testing of appropriate respiratory samples. Given the absence of travel or known exposure history, this patient did not meet the criteria for testing according to CDC guidelines at the time of her presentation. Since this case, any patient with severe disease (eg, ARDS or pneumonia) requiring hospitalization without an explanatory diagnosis can be tested even if no clear source of exposure is identified. While influencing national health policies for revising screening criteria, this case also highlighted significant knowledge gaps in diagnosis and treatment and a desperate need for early, widespread, fast and cheap testing for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Shock, Septic/etiology , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
9.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(2): 81-92, 2021 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145772

ABSTRACT

From a microbiological point of view, both empirical and targeted antimicrobial treatment in respiratory infection is based on the sensitivity profile of isolated microorganisms and the possible resistance mechanisms that they may present. The latter may vary in different geographic areas according to prescription profiles and vaccination programs. Beta-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides are the most commonly used antimicrobials during the exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia. In their prescription, different aspects such as intrinsic activity, bactericidal effect or their ability to prevent the development of resistance must be taken into account. The latter is related to the PK/PD parameters, the mutant prevention concentration and the so-called selection window. More recently, the potential ecological impact has grown in importance, not only on the intestinal microbiota, but also on the respiratory one. Maintaining the state of eubiosis requires the use of antimicrobials with a low profile of action on anaerobic bacteria. With their use, the resilience of the bacterial populations belonging to the microbiota, the state of resistance of colonization and the collateral damage related to the emergence of resistance to the antimicrobials in pathogens causing the infections and in the bacterial populations integrating the microbiota.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/drug effects , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Disease Progression , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Moraxella catarrhalis/drug effects , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects
11.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(159)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079204

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Corticosteroids have been considered in medicine for a long time, and they are broadly prescribed. In infectious diseases, corticosteroids have been regarded as a thread due to their immunosuppressive effects and therefore their anti-inflammatory properties. MAIN: In recent years, there have been several studies published that aimed to determine the role of corticosteroids in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), because, despite significant advances in new antibiotics and supportive care, deaths of patients with CAP remain unacceptably high. While the 2007 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) CAP guidelines did not mention the use of corticosteroids in the management of CAP, the recently published 2019 IDSA/ATS guidelines recommended their use in patients with septic shock refractory to vasopressors and fluid resuscitation. Regarding viral infection, the use of corticosteroids in patients with influenza has shown to be associated with significantly higher mortality and higher incidence of nosocomial infection, while in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) there is a good body of evidence of the benefit of corticosteroids in terms of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of corticosteroids has been considered as a potential alternative co-adjuvant treatment in patients with pneumonia. In patients with COVID-19, the evidence is quite strong and there is a clear benefit of the use of corticosteroids in those patients presenting severe forms of disease.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Patient Safety , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(4)2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048648

ABSTRACT

The role of procalcitonin in identifying community-associated bacterial infections among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is not yet established. In 2,443 patients of whom 148 had bacterial coinfections, mean procalcitonin levels were significantly higher with any bacterial infection (13.16 ± 51.19 ng/ml; P = 0.0091) and with bacteremia (34.25 ± 85.01 ng/ml; P = 0.0125) than without infection (2.00 ± 15.26 ng/ml). Procalcitonin (cutoff, 0.25 or 0.50 ng/ml) did not reliably identify bacterial coinfections but may be useful in excluding bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Procalcitonin/therapeutic use , Aged , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 132, 2020 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Its disease burden varies by age and etiology and is time dependent. We aimed to investigate the annual and seasonal patterns in etiologies of pediatric CAP requiring hospitalization. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in 30,994 children (aged 0-18 years) with CAP between 2010 and 2015 at 23 nationwide hospitals in South Korea. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia was clinically classified as macrolide-sensitive MP, macrolide-less effective MP (MLEP), and macrolide-refractory MP (MRMP) based on fever duration after initiation of macrolide treatment, regardless of the results of in vitro macrolide sensitivity tests. RESULTS: MP and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the two most commonly identified pathogens of CAP. With the two epidemics of MP pneumonia (2011 and 2015), the rates of clinical MLEP and MRMP pneumonia showed increasing trends of 36.4% of the total MP pneumonia. In children < 2 years of age, RSV (34.0%) was the most common cause of CAP, followed by MP (9.4%); however, MP was the most common cause of CAP in children aged 2-18 years of age (45.3%). Systemic corticosteroid was most commonly administered for MP pneumonia. The rate of hospitalization in intensive care units was the highest for RSV pneumonia, and ventilator care was most commonly needed in cases of adenovirus pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides fundamental data to establish public health policies to decrease the disease burden due to CAP and improve pediatric health.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Adenoviridae Infections/etiology , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Male , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/etiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
15.
Pharmacol Ther ; 217: 107663, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713921

ABSTRACT

While the world is grappling with the consequences of a global pandemic related to SARS-CoV-2 causing severe pneumonia, available evidence points to bacterial infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the most common cause of severe community acquired pneumonia (SCAP). Rapid diagnostics and molecular testing have improved the identification of co-existent pathogens. However, mortality in patients admitted to ICU remains staggeringly high. The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America have updated CAP guidelines to help streamline disease management. The common theme is use of timely, appropriate and adequate antibiotic coverage to decrease mortality and avoid drug resistance. Novel antibiotics have been studied for CAP and extend the choice of therapy, particularly for those who are intolerant of, or not responding to standard treatment, including those who harbor drug resistant pathogens. In this review, we focus on the risk factors, microbiology, site of care decisions and treatment of patients with SCAP.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Disease Management , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Pneumonia/mortality
16.
Front Med ; 15(1): 139-143, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597942

ABSTRACT

The rationale for the antibiotic treatment of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults was analyzed to develop a clinical reference standard for this condition. Clinical data from 166 patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia across 14 hospitals in Beijing from November 2010 to December 2017 were collected. The indications for medications were evaluated, and the rationale for the use of antibiotics was analyzed. A total of 163 (98.3%) patients with viral pneumonia were treated with antibiotics. A combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) was used as markers to analyze the possible indications for antibiotic use. With threshold levels set at 0.25 µg/L for PCT and 20 mg/L for CRP, the rate of unreasonable use of antibiotics was 55.2%. By contrast, at a CRP level threshold of 60 mg/L, the rate of antibiotic misuse was 77.3%. A total of 39 of the 163 (23.9%) patients did not meet the guidelines for drug selection for viral CAP in adults. The unreasonable use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of viral CAP in adults is a serious concern. Clinicians must reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Calcitonin , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Protein Precursors
17.
CMAJ ; 192(27): E756-E767, 2020 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-262616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Very little direct evidence exists on use of corticosteroids in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Indirect evidence from related conditions must therefore inform inferences regarding benefits and harms. To support a guideline for managing COVID-19, we conducted systematic reviews examining the impact of corticosteroids in COVID-19 and related severe acute respiratory illnesses. METHODS: We searched standard international and Chinese biomedical literature databases and prepublication sources for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies comparing corticosteroids versus no corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). For acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), influenza and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we updated the most recent rigorous systematic review. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses to pool relative risks and then used baseline risk in patients with COVID-19 to generate absolute effects. RESULTS: In ARDS, according to 1 small cohort study in patients with COVID-19 and 7 RCTs in non-COVID-19 populations (risk ratio [RR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55 to 0.93, mean difference 17.3% fewer; low-quality evidence), corticosteroids may reduce mortality. In patients with severe COVID-19 but without ARDS, direct evidence from 2 observational studies provided very low-quality evidence of an increase in mortality with corticosteroids (hazard ratio [HR] 2.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 5.29, mean difference 11.9% more), as did observational data from influenza studies. Observational data from SARS and MERS studies provided very low-quality evidence of a small or no reduction in mortality. Randomized controlled trials in CAP suggest that corticosteroids may reduce mortality (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.98, 3.1% lower; very low-quality evidence), and may increase hyperglycemia. INTERPRETATION: Corticosteroids may reduce mortality for patients with COVID-19 and ARDS. For patients with severe COVID-19 but without ARDS, evidence regarding benefit from different bodies of evidence is inconsistent and of very low quality.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
19.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(7): 817-825, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Viruses are more common than bacteria in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Little is known, however, about the frequency of respiratory viral testing and its associations with antimicrobial utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The study included 179 US hospitals. PATIENTS: Adults admitted with pneumonia between July 2010 and June 2015. METHODS: We assessed the frequency of respiratory virus testing and compared antimicrobial utilization, mortality, length of stay, and costs between tested versus untested patients, and between virus-positive versus virus-negative patients. RESULTS: Among 166,273 patients with pneumonia on admission, 40,787 patients (24.5%) were tested for respiratory viruses, 94.8% were tested for influenza, and 20.7% were tested for other viruses. Viral assays were positive in 5,133 of 40,787 tested patients (12.6%), typically for influenza and rhinovirus. Tested patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities than untested patients, but patients with positive viral assays were older and had more comorbidities than those with negative assays. Blood cultures were positive for bacterial pathogens in 2.7% of patients with positive viral assays versus 5.3% of patients with negative viral tests (P < .001). Antibacterial courses were shorter for virus-positive versus -negative patients overall (mean 5.5 vs 6.4 days; P < .001) but varied by bacterial testing: 8.1 versus 8.0 days (P = .60) if bacterial tests were positive; 5.3 versus 6.1 days (P < .001) if bacterial tests were negative; and 3.3 versus 5.2 days (P < .001) if bacterial tests were not obtained (interaction P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: A minority of patients hospitalized with pneumonia were tested for respiratory viruses; only a fraction of potential viral pathogens were assayed; and patients with positive viral tests often received long antibacterial courses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Viruses , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
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