Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 101
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory tract infection (RTI) incidence varies between people, but little is known about why. The aim of this study is therefore to identify risk factors for acquiring RTIs. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 16,908 participants in the PRIMIT study, a pre-pandemic randomised trial showing handwashing reduced incidence of RTIs in the community. Data was analysed using multivariable logistic regression analyses of self-reported RTI acquisition. RESULTS: After controlling for handwashing, RTI in the previous year (1 to 2 RTIs: adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.13, p<0.001; 3 to 5 RTIs: aOR 3.89, 95% CI 3.49 to 4.33, p<0.001; ≥6 RTIs: OR 5.52, 95% CI 4.37 to 6.97, p<0.001); skin conditions that prevent handwashing (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.55, p<0.001); children under 16 years in the household (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12, 1.43, p<0.001); chronic lung condition (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.32, p = 0.026); female sex (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.18, p = 0.005), and post-secondary education (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17, p = 0.01) increased the likelihood of RTI. Those over the age of 65 years were less likely to develop an infection (aOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p = 0.009). Household crowding and influenza vaccination do not influence RTI acquisition. A post-hoc exploratory analysis found no evidence these subgroups differentially benefited from handwashing. CONCLUSIONS: Previous RTIs, chronic lung conditions, skin conditions that prevent handwashing, and the presence of household children predispose to RTI acquisition. Further research is needed to understand how host and microbial factors explain the relationship between previous and future RTIs.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 452, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a serious problem that threatens the health of newborns. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of hospitalized term and preterm infants with community-acquired viral pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of community-acquired viral pneumonia in the Neonatal Department. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples were collected for pathogen detection, and clinical data were collected. We analysed pathogenic species and clinical characteristics among these infants. RESULTS: RSV is the main virus in term infants, and parainfluenza virus (PIV) 3 is the main virus in preterm infants. Patients infected with PIV3 were more susceptible to coinfection with bacteria than those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (p < 0.05). Preterm infants infected with PIV3 were more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants (p < 0.05), mainly gram-negative bacteria (especially Klebsiella pneumonia). Term infants with bacterial infection were more prone to fever, cyanosis, moist rales, three concave signs, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, respiratory failure and the need for higher level of oxygen support and mechanical ventilation than those with simple viral infection (p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia in neonatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was high. CONCLUSIONS: RSV and PIV3 were the leading causes of neonatal viral CAP. PIV3 infection is the main cause of viral CAP in preterm infants, and these individuals are more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Term infants with CAP coinfected with bacteria were more likely to have greater disease severity than those with single viral infections.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Virus Diseases , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 43(6): 924-935, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133782

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic upended our approach to imaging community-acquired pneumonia, and this will alter our diagnostic algorithms for years to come. In light of these changes, it is worthwhile to consider several postpandemic scenarios of community-acquired pneumonia: (1) patient with pneumonia and recent positive COVID-19 testing; (2) patient with air space opacities and history of prior COVID-19 pneumonia (weeks earlier); (3) multifocal pneumonia with negative or unknown COVID-19 status; and (4) lobar or sublobar pneumonia with negative or unknown COVID-19 status. In the setting of positive COVID-19 testing and typical radiologic findings, the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia is generally secure. The diagnosis prompts vigilance for thromboembolic disease acutely and, in severely ill patients, for invasive fungal disease. Persistent or recurrent air space opacities following COVID-19 infection may more often represent organizing pneumonia than secondary infection. When COVID-19 status is unknown or negative, widespread airway-centric disease suggests infection with mycoplasma, Haemophilus influenzae, or several respiratory viruses. Necrotizing pneumonia favors infection with pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and anaerobes. Lobar or sublobar pneumonia will continue to suggest the diagnosis of pneumococcus or consideration of other pathogens in the setting of local outbreaks. A positive COVID-19 test accompanied by these imaging patterns may suggest coinfection with one of the above pathogens, or when the prevalence of COVID-19 is very low, a false positive COVID-19 test. Clinicians may still proceed with testing for COVID-19 when radiologic patterns are atypical for COVID-19, dependent on the patient's exposure history and the local epidemiology of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Streptococcus pneumoniae
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24292, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Significant uncertainty has existed about the safety of reopening college and university campuses before the COVID-19 pandemic is better controlled. Moreover, little is known about the effects that on-campus students may have on local higher-risk communities. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the range of potential community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality under various university reopening plans and uncertainties. METHODS: We developed campus-only, community-only, and campus × community epidemic differential equations and agent-based models, with inputs estimated via published and grey literature, expert opinion, and parameter search algorithms. Campus opening plans (spanning fully open, hybrid, and fully virtual approaches) were identified from websites and publications. Additional student and community exposures, infections, and mortality over 16-week semesters were estimated under each scenario, with 10% trimmed medians, standard deviations, and probability intervals computed to omit extreme outliers. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to inform potential effective interventions. RESULTS: Predicted 16-week campus and additional community exposures, infections, and mortality for the base case with no precautions (or negligible compliance) varied significantly from their medians (4- to 10-fold). Over 5% of on-campus students were infected after a mean of 76 (SD 17) days, with the greatest increase (first inflection point) occurring on average on day 84 (SD 10.2 days) of the semester and with total additional community exposures, infections, and mortality ranging from 1-187, 13-820, and 1-21 per 10,000 residents, respectively. Reopening precautions reduced infections by 24%-26% and mortality by 36%-50% in both populations. Beyond campus and community reproductive numbers, sensitivity analysis indicated no dominant factors that interventions could primarily target to reduce the magnitude and variability in outcomes, suggesting the importance of comprehensive public health measures and surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Community and campus COVID-19 exposures, infections, and mortality resulting from reopening campuses are highly unpredictable regardless of precautions. Public health implications include the need for effective surveillance and flexible campus operations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Universities/organization & administration , COVID-19/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Risk Assessment , Uncertainty , United States/epidemiology
5.
Saudi Med J ; 43(9): 1000-1006, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the seroprevalence of the community-acquired bacterial that causes atypical pneumonia among confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) patients. METHODS: In this cohort study, we retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila among randomly selected 189 confirmed COVID-19 patients at their time of hospital presentation via commercial immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against these bacteria. We also carried out quantitative measurements of procalcitonin in patients' serum. RESULTS: The seropositivity for L. pneumophila was 12.6%, with significant distribution among patientsolder than 50 years (χ2 test, p=0.009), while those of M. pneumoniae was 6.3% and C. pneumoniae was 2.1%, indicating an overall co-infection rate of 21% among COVID-19 patients. No significant difference (χ2 test, p=0.628) in the distribution of bacterial co-infections existed between male and female patients. Procalcitonin positivity was confirmed amongst 5% of co-infected patients. CONCLUSION: Our study documented the seroprevalence of community-acquired bacteria co-infection among COVID-19 patients. In this study, procalcitonin was an inconclusive biomarker for non-severe bacterial co-infections among COVID-19 patients. Consideration and proper detection of community-acquired bacterial co-infection may minimize misdiagnosis during the current pandemic and positively reflect disease management and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(166)2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079388

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory infections include acute bronchitis, influenza, community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbation of COPD and acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis. They are a major cause of death worldwide and often affect the most vulnerable: children, elderly and the impoverished. In this paper, we review the clinical presentation, diagnosis, severity assessment and treatment of adult outpatients with lower respiratory infections. The paper is divided into sections on specific lower respiratory infections, but we also dedicate a section to COVID-19 given the importance of the ongoing pandemic. Lower respiratory infections are heterogeneous entities, carry different risks for adverse events, and require different management strategies. For instance, while patients with acute bronchitis are rarely admitted to hospital and generally do not require antimicrobials, approximately 40% of patients seen for community-acquired pneumonia require admission. Clinicians caring for patients with lower respiratory infections face several challenges, including an increasing population of patients with immunosuppression, potential need for diagnostic tests that may not be readily available, antibiotic resistance and social aspects that place these patients at higher risk. Management principles for patients with lower respiratory infections include knowledge of local surveillance data, strategic use of diagnostic tests according to surveillance data, and judicious use of antimicrobials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bronchitis , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Child , Humans , Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Bronchitis/diagnosis , Bronchitis/drug therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
7.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(12): 1537-1550, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062697

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although viruses are an underestimated cause of community-acquired pneumonias (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonias (HAP)/ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, they have an impact on morbidity and mortality. AREAS COVERED: In this perspective article, we discuss the available data regarding the management of severe influenza CAP and herpesviridae HAP/VAP. We review diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in order to give clear messages and address unsolved questions. EXPERT OPINION: Influenza CAP affects yearly thousands of people; however, robust data regarding antiviral treatment in the most critical forms are scarce. While efficacy of oseltamivir has been investigated in randomized controlled trials (RCT) in uncomplicated influenza, only observational data are available in ICU patients. Herpesviridae are an underestimated cause of HAP/VAP in ICU patients. Whilst incidence of herpesviridae identification in samples from lower respiratory tract of ICU patients is relatively high (from 20% to 50%), efforts should be made to differentiate local reactivation from true lung infection. Only few randomized controlled trials evaluated the efficacy of antiviral treatment in herpesviridae reactivation/infection in ICU patients and all were exploratory or negative. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of such treatment in specific populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Virus Diseases , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 763, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic was met with strict containment measures. We hypothesized that societal infection control measures would impact the number of hospital admissions for respiratory tract infections, as well as, the spectrum of pathogens detected in patients with suspected community acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: This study is based on aggregated surveillance data from electronic health records of patients admitted to the hospitals in Bergen Hospital Trust from January 2017 through June 2021, as well as, two prospective studies of patients with suspected CAP conducted prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic (pre-COVID cohort versus COVID cohort, respectively). In the prospective cohorts, microbiological detections were ascertained by comprehensive PCR-testing in lower respiratory tract specimens. Mann-Whitney's U test was used to analyse continuous variables. Fisher's exact test was used for analysing categorical data. The number of admissions before and during the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 was compared using two-sample t-tests on logarithmic transformed values. RESULTS: Admissions for respiratory tract infections declined after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (p < 0.001). The pre-COVID and the COVID cohorts comprised 96 and 80 patients, respectively. The proportion of viruses detected in the COVID cohort was significantly lower compared with the pre-COVID cohort [21% vs 36%, difference of 14%, 95% CI 4% to 26%; p = 0.012], and the proportion of bacterial- and viral co-detections was less than half in the COVID cohort compared with the pre-COVID cohort (19% vs 45%, difference of 26%, 95% CI 13% to 41%; p < 0.001). The proportion of bacteria detected was similar (p = 0.162), however, a difference in the bacterial spectrum was observed in the two cohorts. Haemophilus influenzae was the most frequent bacterial detection in both cohorts, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pre-COVID and Staphylococcus aureus in the COVID cohort. CONCLUSION: During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of admissions with pneumonia and the microbiological detections in patients with suspected CAP, differed from the preceding year. This suggests that infection control measures related to COVID-19 restrictions have an overall and specific impact on respiratory tract infections, beyond reducing the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Urol J ; 19(5): 386-391, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026216

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether there were any changes in the rates of urinary tract infection (UTI) and antibiotic resistance in pediatric patients during the pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine culture samples collected due to suspected UTI were searched retrospectively from our hospital database, and the patients with growth in urine culture were identified. They were divided into 2 groups as Group A (before COVID-19, March 11, 2019- March 11, 2020) and Group B (COVID-19 period, March 11, 2020- March 11, 2021). Also, COVID-19 period was divided into 3 subgroups (March 2020- June 2020: first epidemic peak, July 2020 - November 2020: normalization process, December 2020- March 2021: second epidemic peak). We adjusted the patient age as <1, 1-6 and 7-18 years. Age, gender, microorganism strain types, and their antibiotic resistance patterns were compared between the 2 groups Results: This cross-sectional study included 250 eligible patients (Group A, n=182 and Group B, n=68) with a mean age of 10.91 ± 5.58 years. The male/female ratio was higher in Group B than in Group A (p = .004). Incidence of UTIs was lower in the curfew and restriction periods due to epidemic peaks than normalization process (p = .001). The proportion of E.coli decreased from 80.2% to 61.8% during the pandemic period when compared to pre-pandemic period (p = .001). Group B had lower rates of resistance to ampicillin, fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin for E.coli than Group A (p = .001, p = .012 and p = .001, respectively). Also, Group B had higher rate of uncommon microorganisms and lower rate of resistance to nitrofurantoin for E.coli than Group A in patients aged 7-18 years (p = .003 and p = .023, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic process has caused alterations in community-acquired UTIs in children. More hygienic lifestyle may be considered as the main factor in this change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Escherichia coli Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Child , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Nitrofurantoin , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli
10.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 239, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021290

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite improvements in medical science and public health, mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has barely changed throughout the last 15 years. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has once again highlighted the central importance of acute respiratory infections to human health. The "network of excellence on Community Acquired Pneumonia" (CAPNETZ) hosts the most comprehensive CAP database worldwide including more than 12,000 patients. CAPNETZ connects physicians, microbiologists, virologists, epidemiologists, and computer scientists throughout Europe. Our aim was to summarize the current situation in CAP research and identify the most pressing unmet needs in CAP research. METHODS: To identify areas of future CAP research, CAPNETZ followed a multiple-step procedure. First, research members of CAPNETZ were individually asked to identify unmet needs. Second, the top 100 experts in the field of CAP research were asked for their insights about the unmet needs in CAP (Delphi approach). Third, internal and external experts discussed unmet needs in CAP at a scientific retreat. RESULTS: Eleven topics for future CAP research were identified: detection of causative pathogens, next generation sequencing for antimicrobial treatment guidance, imaging diagnostics, biomarkers, risk stratification, antiviral and antibiotic treatment, adjunctive therapy, vaccines and prevention, systemic and local immune response, comorbidities, and long-term cardio-vascular complications. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia is a complex disease where the interplay between pathogens, immune system and comorbidities not only impose an immediate risk of mortality but also affect the patients' risk of developing comorbidities as well as mortality for up to a decade after pneumonia has resolved. Our review of unmet needs in CAP research has shown that there are still major shortcomings in our knowledge of CAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e1154-e1164, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies hypothesized that this was due to reduced pneumococcal transmission resulting from nonpharmaceutical interventions. We used multiple ongoing cohort surveillance projects in children <5 years to test this hypothesis. METHODS: The first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in February 2020, resulting in a full lockdown, followed by several partial restrictions. Data from ongoing surveillance projects captured the incidence dynamics of community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP), nonalveolar lower respiratory infections necessitating chest X-rays (NA-LRIs), nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage in nonrespiratory visits, nasopharyngeal respiratory virus detection (by polymerase chain reaction), and nationwide IPD. Monthly rates (January 2020 through February 2021 vs mean monthly rates 2016-2019 [expected rates]) adjusted for age and ethnicity were compared. RESULTS: CAAP and bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia were strongly reduced (incidence rate ratios [IRRs]: .07 and .19, respectively); NA-LRIs and nonpneumonia IPD were also reduced by a lesser magnitude (IRRs: .46 and .42, respectively). In contrast, pneumococcal carriage prevalence was only slightly reduced, and density of colonization and pneumococcal serotype distributions were similar to previous years. The decline in pneumococcus-associated disease was temporally associated with a full suppression of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, and human metapneumovirus, often implicated as co-pathogens with pneumococcus. In contrast, adenovirus, rhinovirus, and parainfluenza activities were within or above expected levels. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in pneumococcal and pneumococcus-associated diseases occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel were not predominantly related to reduced pneumococcal carriage and density but were strongly associated with the disappearance of specific respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumococcal Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Israel/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Streptococcus pneumoniae
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i77-i83, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Kuwait and initiatives underway addressing it. Identifying any areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rise in AMR within Kuwait and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National initiatives to address AMR, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used locally for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from a clinician in Kuwait were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: In Kuwait there have been some initiatives addressing AMR such as annual campaigns for proper use of antibiotics. Antibiotic use is high but there appears to be a low understanding in the general public about their appropriate use. However, there is legislation in place prohibiting over-the-counter purchase of antibiotics. Only international guidelines for CA-RTIs are used. A more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Kuwait, could make management guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve clinical patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i70-i76, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Saudi Arabia and initiatives addressing it. Identifying areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize a further rise in AMR within Saudi Arabia and improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National AMR initiatives, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used locally for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from a clinician in Saudi Arabia were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: Various initiatives are underway in Saudi Arabia, including a National Action Plan for AMR, which was published in 2017. However, AMR is rising and knowledge about appropriate antibiotic use seems to be lacking among physicians and the general public. Various international guidelines are utilized by clinicians in Saudi Arabia, but a more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Saudi Arabia could make management guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i61-i69, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial reistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Russia and any initiatives addressing it. Identifying any areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rise in AMR within Russia and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National AMR initiatives, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, in particular for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used locally for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from both a local clinician and a local clinical microbiologist were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: Russia launched a national strategy in 2017 to prevent the spread of AMR and the WHO reports that as of 2020-21, it is being implemented and actively monitored. Reports suggest outpatient antibiotic use of antibiotics is high and that non-prescription access and self-medication are very common. Antibiotic susceptibility studies in Russia include PeHASus, a multicentre epidemiological study focusing on susceptibilities of community-acquired respiratory pathogens and international studies such as Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR), Antimicrobial Testing Leadership and Surveillance (ATLAS) and SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. International guidelines are used to support the development of local guidelines in Russia, and for the common CA-RTIs Russian clinicians use of several country-specific local antibiotic prescribing guidelines. A standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Russia, could make guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i43-i50, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review AMR in Mexico and initiatives addressing it. Identifying any areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rises in AMR and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National AMR initiatives in Mexico, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines commonly used in Mexico for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) were also reviewed, along with local antibiotic availability. Insights from a local clinician were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican national AMR strategy was published in 2018. This comprised similar objectives to the Global Action Plan from the World Health Assembly (2015) and was compulsory, requiring full compliance from members of the National Health System. Historically, antibiotic consumption in Mexico has been high, however, between 2000 and 2015, consumption fell, in sharp contrast to the majority of countries. Mexico lacks a national surveillance network for AMR, however there are several ongoing global surveillance studies providing local antibiotic susceptibility data. International and local antibiotic prescribing guidelines for CA-RTIs are used. A more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date local surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections, could make guideline use more locally relevant. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development in Mexico and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
16.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i35-i42, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review the situation with respect to AMR in Brazil and initiatives addressing it. Identifying areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rises in AMR within Brazil and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National initiatives to address AMR, antibiotic use and prescribing in Brazil, and availability of susceptibility data, particularly for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines for CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) commonly used locally were also reviewed, along with local antibiotic availability. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazil there have been some initiatives addressing AMR such as the National Action Plan for AMR, established in 2018. Antibiotic consumption in Brazil is high but a ban on over-the-counter sales of antibiotics has led to a decrease in consumption. Local antibiotic susceptibility testing needs to be increased and the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) study in Brazil will provide useful data for pathogens causing CA-RTIs. A more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Brazil, could make guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve clinical outcomes for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i26-i34, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review the current situation with respect to AMR in Vietnam and initiatives addressing it. Identifying areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize any further rises in AMR within Vietnam and improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National initiatives to address AMR in Vietnam, antibiotic use and prescribing, and availability of susceptibility data, in particular for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines for CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) commonly used locally were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from clinicians in Vietnam were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: In Vietnam there have been some initiatives addressing AMR; Vietnam was the first country in the Western Pacific Region to develop a national action plan to combat AMR, which according to the WHO is being implemented. Vietnam also has one of the highest rates of AMR in Asia due, in part, to the overuse of antimicrobial drugs, both in the animal health sector and in humans in both hospitals and the community. In addition, despite a 2005 law requiring antibiotic prescription, there is unrestricted access to over-the-counter antibiotics. Several global surveillance studies provide antibiotic susceptibility data for CA-RTI pathogens in Vietnam including Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) and SENTRY (small isolate numbers only). For management of the common CA-RTIs in Vietnam there are several country-specific local antibiotic prescribing guidelines and in addition, there is a range of international guidelines referred to, but these may have been created based on pathogen resistance patterns that might be very different to those in Vietnam. Expert clinician opinion confirms the high resistance rates among common respiratory pathogens. A more standardized inclusive approach in developing local guidelines, using up-to-date surveillance data of isolates from community-acquired infections in Vietnam, could make management guideline use more locally relevant for clinicians. This would pave the way for a higher level of appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improved adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve clinical outcomes for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Acute Disease , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Vietnam/epidemiology
18.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(Suppl_1): i10-i17, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the biggest threats to global public health. Selection of resistant bacteria is driven by inappropriate use of antibiotics, amongst other factors. COVID-19 may have exacerbated AMR due to unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Country-level knowledge is needed to understand options for action. OBJECTIVES: To review the current situation with respect to AMR in India and initiatives addressing it. Identifying areas where more information is required will provide a call to action to minimize further rises in AMR and to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: National AMR initiatives, antibiotic use and prescribing in India, and availability of susceptibility data, in particular for the key community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-RTI) pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) were identified. National and international antibiotic prescribing guidelines for specific CA-RTIs (community-acquired pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis) commonly used locally were also reviewed, plus local antibiotic availability. Insights from a local clinician and clinical microbiologist were sought to contextualize this information. CONCLUSIONS: Many initiatives have been launched since AMR was recognized as a national priority and organizations such as the Indian Academy of Paediatrics and the Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership have worked to build awareness. The Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare published a 5 year national action plan on AMR. However, the burden of infectious disease and consumption of antibiotics in India is high. There have been national surveillance studies generating local data along with international studies such as Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) and Antimicrobial Testing Leadership and Surveillance (ATLAS). For common RTIs, clinicians use a range of international and national guidelines. However, a more standardized inclusive approach to developing local guidelines, using up-to-date local surveillance data from community-acquired infections, could make guidelines more locally relevant. This would encourage more appropriate antibiotic prescribing and improve adherence. This would, in turn, potentially limit AMR development and improve patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
19.
World J Pediatr ; 18(11): 746-752, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the pathogenic characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a children's hospital before and after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to provide testimony for preventing CAP in the future. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed. The information was collected from the electronic medical record system of the hospital. A total of 2739 children were included from February 1, 2019, to January 31, 2021. RESULTS: Among these 2739 patients were 1507 (55.02%) males and 1232 (44.98%) females; the median age was 3.84 years. There were 2364 cases during the pre-COVID-19 period and 375 cases during the post-COVID-19 period. The number of hospitalized children after the pandemic was 84.14% lower. The median age after the onset was 1.5 years younger than that before the onset (4.08 years old) (Z = - 7.885, P < 0.001). After the pandemic, the proportion of CAP in school-age children and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and influenza virus pneumonia (IVP) decreased significantly. During the pre-COVID-19 period, the proportions of detected pathogens were as follows: MP (59.56%) > bacteria (50.42%) > viruses (29.57%) > fungi (3.43%). During the post-COVID-19 period, the pathogen proportions were bacteria (56.53%) > viruses (53.60%) > MP (23.47%) > fungi (3.73%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in the number of children with CAP hospitalized after the pandemic, especially among school-age children, and the pathogen proportions of CAP with MP and IV were significantly decreased. We inferred that CAP was effectively prevented in school-age children because of the strong mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Viruses , Bacteria , Beijing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
20.
Microb Pathog ; 171: 105735, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996427

ABSTRACT

To improve the identification and subsequent intervention of COVID-19 patients at risk for ICU admission, we constructed COVID-19 severity prediction models using logistic regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis and compared them with the four existing scoring systems (PSI, CURB-65, SMARTCOP, and MuLBSTA). In this prospective multi-center study, 296 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled and split into the General-Ward-Care group (N = 238) and the ICU-Admission group (N = 58). The PSI model (AUC = 0.861) had the best results among the existing four scoring systems, followed by SMARTCOP (AUC = 0.770), motified-MuLBSTA (AUC = 0.761), and CURB-65 (AUC = 0.712). Data from 197 patients (training set) were analyzed for modeling. The beta coefficients from logistic regression were used to develop a severity prediction model and risk score calculator. The final model (NLHA2) included five covariates (consumes alcohol, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, and AKP). The NLHA2 model (training: AUC = 0.959; testing: AUC = 0.857) had similar results to the PSI model, but with fewer variable items. ANN analysis was used to build another complex model, which had higher accuracy (training: AUC = 1.000; testing: AUC = 0.907). Discrimination and calibration were further verified through bootstrapping (2000 replicates), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit testing, and Brier score calculation. In conclusion, the PSI model is the best existing system for predicting ICU admission among COVID-19 patients, while two newly-designed models (NLHA2 and ANN) performed better than PSI, and will provide a new approach for the development of prognostic evaluation system in a novel respiratory viral epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL