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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662708

ABSTRACT

We aimed to analyze the situation of the first two epidemic waves in Myanmar using the publicly available daily situation of COVID-19 and whole-genome sequencing data of SARS-CoV-2. From March 23 to December 31, 2020, there were 33,917 confirmed cases and 741 deaths in Myanmar (case fatality rate of 2.18%). The first wave in Myanmar from March to July was linked to overseas travel, and then a second wave started from Rakhine State, a western border state, leading to the second wave spreading countrywide in Myanmar from August to December 2020. The estimated effective reproductive number (Rt) nationwide reached 6-8 at the beginning of each wave and gradually decreased as the epidemic spread to the community. The whole-genome analysis of 10 Myanmar SARS-CoV-2 strains together with 31 previously registered strains showed that the first wave was caused by GISAID clade O or PANGOLIN lineage B.6 and the second wave was changed to clade GH or lineage B.1.36.16 with a close genetic relationship with other South Asian strains. Constant monitoring of epidemiological situations combined with SARS-CoV-2 genome analysis is important for adjusting public health measures to mitigate the community transmissions of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Myanmar/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
2.
Science ; 374(6568): 680-682, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501518
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1860-1867, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389860

ABSTRACT

In the 10 months since the first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the United States on January 20, 2020 (1), approximately 13.8 million cases and 272,525 deaths have been reported in the United States. On October 30, the number of new cases reported in the United States in a single day exceeded 100,000 for the first time, and by December 2 had reached a daily high of 196,227.* With colder weather, more time spent indoors, the ongoing U.S. holiday season, and silent spread of disease, with approximately 50% of transmission from asymptomatic persons (2), the United States has entered a phase of high-level transmission where a multipronged approach to implementing all evidence-based public health strategies at both the individual and community levels is essential. This summary guidance highlights critical evidence-based CDC recommendations and sustainable strategies to reduce COVID-19 transmission. These strategies include 1) universal face mask use, 2) maintaining physical distance from other persons and limiting in-person contacts, 3) avoiding nonessential indoor spaces and crowded outdoor spaces, 4) increasing testing to rapidly identify and isolate infected persons, 5) promptly identifying, quarantining, and testing close contacts of persons with known COVID-19, 6) safeguarding persons most at risk for severe illness or death from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, 7) protecting essential workers with provision of adequate personal protective equipment and safe work practices, 8) postponing travel, 9) increasing room air ventilation and enhancing hand hygiene and environmental disinfection, and 10) achieving widespread availability and high community coverage with effective COVID-19 vaccines. In combination, these strategies can reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, long-term sequelae or disability, and death, and mitigate the pandemic's economic impact. Consistent implementation of these strategies improves health equity, preserves health care capacity, maintains the function of essential businesses, and supports the availability of in-person instruction for kindergarten through grade 12 schools and preschool. Individual persons, households, and communities should take these actions now to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission from its current high level. These actions will provide a bridge to a future with wide availability and high community coverage of effective vaccines, when safe return to more everyday activities in a range of settings will be possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guidelines as Topic , Public Health Practice , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Humans , United States/epidemiology
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(15): 446-450, 2020 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389842

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread rapidly around the world since it was first recognized in late 2019. Most early reports of person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission have been among household contacts, where the secondary attack rate has been estimated to exceed 10% (1), in health care facilities (2), and in congregate settings (3). However, widespread community transmission, as is currently being observed in the United States, requires more expansive transmission events between nonhousehold contacts. In February and March 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated a large, multifamily cluster of COVID-19. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their close contacts were interviewed to better understand nonhousehold, community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This report describes the cluster of 16 cases of confirmed or probable COVID-19, including three deaths, likely resulting from transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at two family gatherings (a funeral and a birthday party). These data support current CDC social distancing recommendations intended to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. U.S residents should follow stay-at-home orders when required by state or local authorities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chicago/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Family , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05013, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty with respect to SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children (0-19 years) with controversy on effectiveness of school-closures in controlling the pandemic. It is of equal importance to evaluate the risk of transmission in children who are often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic carriers that may incidentally transmit SARS-CoV-2 in different settings. We conducted this review to assess transmission and risks for SARS-CoV-2 in children (by age-groups or grades) in community and educational-settings compared to adults. METHODS: Data for the review were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WHO COVID-19 Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database, WanFang Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Google Scholar, and preprints from medRixv and bioRixv) covering a timeline from December 1, 2019 to April 1, 2021. Population-screening, contact-tracing and cohort studies reporting prevalence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in children were included. Data were extracted according to PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Ninety studies were included. Compared to adults, children showed comparable national (risk ratio (RR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-1.060 and subnational (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66-1.01) prevalence in population-screening studies, and lower odds of infection in community/household contact-tracing studies (odds ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.84). On disaggregation, adolescents observed comparable risk (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.74-2.04) with adults. In educational-settings, children attending daycare/preschools (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.38-0.72) were observed to be at lower-risk when compared to adults, with odds of infection among primary (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55-1.31) and high-schoolers (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.71-2.38) comparable to adults. Overall, children and adolescents had lower odds of infection in educational-settings compared to community and household clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Children (<10 years) showed lower susceptibility to COVID-19 compared to adults, whereas adolescents in communities and high-schoolers had comparable risk. Risks of infection among children in educational-settings was lower than in communities. Evidence from school-based studies demonstrate it is largely safe for children (<10 years) to be at schools, however older children (10-19 years) might facilitate transmission. Despite this evidence, studies focusing on the effectiveness of mitigation measures in educational settings are urgently needed to support both public health and educational policy-making for school reopening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Family Characteristics , Schools , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Humans , Risk Assessment
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(30): 1044-1047, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332446

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination remains the most effective means to achieve control of the pandemic. In the United States, COVID-19 cases and deaths have markedly declined since their peak in early January 2021, due in part to increased vaccination coverage (1). However, during June 19-July 23, 2021, COVID-19 cases increased approximately 300% nationally, followed by increases in hospitalizations and deaths, driven by the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant* of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Available data indicate that the vaccines authorized in the United States (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) offer high levels of protection against severe illness and death from infection with the Delta variant and other currently circulating variants of the virus (2). Despite widespread availability, vaccine uptake has slowed nationally with wide variation in coverage by state (range = 33.9%-67.2%) and by county (range = 8.8%-89.0%).† Unvaccinated persons, as well as persons with certain immunocompromising conditions (3), remain at substantial risk for infection, severe illness, and death, especially in areas where the level of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission is high. The Delta variant is more than two times as transmissible as the original strains circulating at the start of the pandemic and is causing large, rapid increases in infections, which could compromise the capacity of some local and regional health care systems to provide medical care for the communities they serve. Until vaccination coverage is high and community transmission is low, public health practitioners, as well as schools, businesses, and institutions (organizations) need to regularly assess the need for prevention strategies to avoid stressing health care capacity and imperiling adequate care for both COVID-19 and other non-COVID-19 conditions. CDC recommends five critical factors be considered to inform local decision-making: 1) level of SARS-CoV-2 community transmission; 2) health system capacity; 3) COVID-19 vaccination coverage; 4) capacity for early detection of increases in COVID-19 cases; and 5) populations at increased risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19. Among strategies to prevent COVID-19, CDC recommends all unvaccinated persons wear masks in public indoor settings. Based on emerging evidence on the Delta variant (2), CDC also recommends that fully vaccinated persons wear masks in public indoor settings in areas of substantial or high transmission. Fully vaccinated persons might consider wearing a mask in public indoor settings, regardless of transmission level, if they or someone in their household is immunocompromised or is at increased risk for severe disease, or if someone in their household is unvaccinated (including children aged <12 years who are currently ineligible for vaccination).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , United States/epidemiology
7.
Pediatrics ; 148(4)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: When the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began, experts raised concerns about in-person instruction in the setting of high levels of community transmission. We describe secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within North Carolina kindergarten through 12th-grade school districts during a winter surge to determine if mitigation strategies can hinder within-school transmission. METHODS: From October 26, 2020, to February 28, 2021, 13 North Carolina school districts participating in The ABC Science Collaborative were open for in-person instruction, adhered to basic mitigation strategies, and tracked community- and school-acquired SARS-CoV-2 cases. Public health officials adjudicated each case. We combined these data with that from August 2020 to evaluate the effect of the SARS-CoV-2 winter surge on infection rates as well as weekly community- and school-acquired cases. We evaluated the number of secondary cases generated by each primary case as well as the role of athletic activities in school-acquired cases. RESULTS: More than 100 000 students and staff from 13 school districts attended school in person; of these, 4969 community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections were documented by molecular testing. Through contact tracing, North Carolina local health department staff identified an additional 209 infections among >26 000 school close contacts (secondary attack rate <1%). Most within-school transmissions in high schools (75%) were linked to school-sponsored sports. School-acquired cases slightly increased during the surge; however, within-school transmission rates remained constant, from presurge to surge, with ∼1 school-acquired case for every 20 primary cases. CONCLUSIONS: With adherence to basic mitigation strategies, within-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can be interrupted, even during a surge of community infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Schools , Adolescent , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Community-Acquired Infections/ethnology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Contact Tracing , Humans , Masks , North Carolina/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Race Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S19-S25, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 has become a pandemic emerging infectious disease it is important to examine whether there was a spatiotemporal clustering phenomenon in the globe during the rapid spread after the first outbreak reported from southern China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The open data on the number of COVID-19 cases reported at daily basis form the globe were used to assess the evolution of outbreaks with international air link on the same latitude and also including Taiwan. The dynamic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model was used to evaluate continental transmission from December 2019 to March 2020 before the declaration of COVID-19 pandemic with basic reproductive number and effective reproductive number before and after containment measurements. RESULTS: For the initial COVID-19 outbreak in China, the estimated reproductive number was reduced from 2.84 during the overwhelming outbreaks in early January to 0.43 after the strict lockdown policy. It is very surprising to find there were three countries (including South Korea, Iran, and Italy) and the Washington state of the USA on the 38° North Latitude involved with large-scale community-acquired outbreaks since the first imported COVID-19 cases from China. The propagation of continental transmission was augmented from hotspot to hotspot with higher reproductive number immediately before the declaration of pandemic. By contrast, there was not any large community-acquired outbreak in Taiwan. CONCLUSION: The propagated spatiotemporal transmission from China to other hotspots may explain the emerging pandemic that can only be exempted by timely border control and preparedness of containment measurements according to Taiwan experience.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
10.
QJM ; 113(12): 841-850, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066397

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel virus with continuously evolving transmission trends. Contact tracing and quarantining of positive cases are chief strategies of disease control that has been accepted globally, though scientific knowledge regarding household transmission of the COVID-19 through contact of positive case is sparse. Current systematic review was planned to assess global statistics and characteristics of household secondary attack rate (SAR) of COVID-19. Eligible articles were retrieved through search of-MEDLINE, SCOPUS and EMBASE for the period December 2019 to 15 June 2020. Search terms were developed to identify articles reporting household SARs in various countries. After initial screening of 326 articles, 13 eligible studies were included in the final evidence synthesis. We found that SAR varies widely across countries with lowest reported rate as 4.6% and highest as 49.56%. The rates were unaffected by confounders such as population of the country, lockdown status and geographic location. Review suggested greater vulnerability of spouse and elderly population for secondary transmission than other household members. It was also observed that quarantining and isolation are most effective strategies for prevention of the secondary transmission of the disease. Symptomatic status of the index case emerged to be a critical factor, with very low transmission probability during asymptomatic phase. Present review findings recommend that adequate measures should be provided to protect the vulnerable population as only case tracing and quarantining might be insufficient. It should be combined with advisory for limiting household contacts and active surveillance for symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Family Characteristics , Family Health , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Public Health ; 192: 30-32, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and can affect people of any age with potential for serious symptoms. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, global infection rates have been on the rise with world leaders looking to slow and stop viral transmission. This study is looking at suburban cohabitation/familial infection to compare to similar studies from other countries. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of medical records was collected using the Connecticut Electronic Disease Surveillance System. METHODS: A total of 406 cases who tested positive for SARS-COV-2 from February to June 2020 were reviewed from three towns located in Connecticut, USA. Cohabitation infection rates were identified using the home addresses of those with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 test results, with the first documented case being the index case, and additional home members being the secondary cases. RESULTS: Secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 developed in 126 of 406 household contacts (31%). Linear regression indicated positive relationship between cohabitation and age. CONCLUSIONS: The cohabitation infection attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 is significantly higher than previously reported. Age of household contacts and spousal relationship to the index case are risk factors for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within a household.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Family Characteristics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953853

ABSTRACT

On 11 March 2020 the SARS-CoV-2 virus was officially declared a pandemic and measures were set up in various countries to avoid its spread among the population. This paper aims to analyse the perception of risk of COVID-19 infection in the Spanish population. A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study was conducted with a total of 16,372 Spanish participants. An online survey was used to gather data for 5 consecutive days over the compulsory lockdown period which was established after the state of emergency was declared. There is an association between socio-demographic variables and risk perception, and a very strong relationship between this perception and contact and direct experience with the virus in a family, social or professional setting. We also found that compared to working from home, working outside the home increased the perception of risk of infection and the perception of worsening health. Understanding the public perception of the risk of COVID-19 infection is fundamental for establishing effective prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Risk Assessment , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Spain
14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(1): 162-169, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-891916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 disease. There are concerns regarding limited testing capacity and the exclusion of cases from unproven screening criteria. Knowing COVID-19 risks can inform testing. This study derived and assessed a model to predict risk of SARS-CoV-2 in community-based people. METHODS: All people presenting to a community-based COVID-19 screening center answered questions regarding symptoms, possible exposure, travel, and occupation. These data were anonymously linked to SARS-CoV-2 testing results. Logistic regression was used to derive a model to predict SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bootstrap sampling evaluated the model. RESULTS: A total of 9172 consecutive people were studied. Overall infection rate was 6.2% but this varied during the study period. SARS-CoV-2 infection likelihood was primarily influenced by contact with a COVID-19 case, fever symptoms, and recent case detection rates. Internal validation found that the SARS-CoV-2 Risk Prediction Score (SCRiPS) performed well with good discrimination (c-statistic 0.736, 95%CI 0.715-0.757) and very good calibration (integrated calibration index 0.0083, 95%CI 0.0048-0.0131). Focusing testing on people whose expected SARS-CoV-2 risk equaled or exceeded the recent case detection rate would increase the number of identified SARS-CoV-2 cases by 63.1% (95%CI 54.5-72.3). CONCLUSION: The SCRiPS model accurately estimates the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in community-based people undergoing testing. Using SCRiPS can importantly increase SARS-CoV-2 infection identification when testing capacity is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Risk Assessment/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 439-445, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-862264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clusters of COVID-19 cases amplify the pandemic and are critical targets for intervention, but comprehensive cluster-level data are not collected systematically by federal or most state public health entities. This analysis characterizes COVID-19 clusters among vulnerable populations housed in congregate living settings across an entire community and describes early mitigation efforts. METHODS: The Cuyahoga County Board of Health identified and interviewed COVID-19 cases and exposed contacts, assessing possible connections to congregate living facilities within its jurisdiction from March 7, 2020, to May 15, 2020, during the first phase of the pandemic, while state of Ohio stay-at-home orders were in effect. A multi-disciplinary team-based response network was mobilized to support active case finding and develop facility-focused containment strategies. RESULTS: We identified a cascade of 45 COVID-19 clusters across community facilities (corrections, nursing, assisted living, intermediate care, extended treatment, shelters, group homes). Attack rates were highest within small facilities (P < .01) and large facilities requiring extensive support to implement effective containment measures. For 25 clusters, we identified an index case who frequently (88%) was a healthcare worker. Engagement of clinical, community, and government partners through public health coordination efforts created opportunities to rapidly develop and coordinate effective response strategies to support the facilities facing the dawning impact of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Active cluster investigations can uncover the dynamics of community transmission affecting both residents of congregate settings and their caregivers and help to target efforts toward populations with ongoing challenges in access to detection and control resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Public Health Practice , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Contact Tracing , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel , Humans , Incidence , Ohio/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200183, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-750955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread around the world during 2020, but the precise time in which the virus began to spread locally is difficult to trace for most countries. Here, we estimate the probable onset date of the community spread of SARS-CoV-2 for heavily affected countries from Western Europe and the Americas on the basis of the cumulative number of deaths reported during the early stage of the epidemic. Our results support that SARS-CoV-2 probably started to spread locally in all western countries analysed between mid-January and mid-February 2020, thus long before community transmission was officially recognised and control measures were implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Americas/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(12): 1665-1671, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738931

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be transmitted as an aerosol (ie, airborne) has substantial public health implications. Objective: To investigate potential transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection with epidemiologic evidence from a COVID-19 outbreak. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study examined a community COVID-19 outbreak in Zhejiang province. On January 19, 2020, 128 individuals took 2 buses (60 [46.9%] from bus 1 and 68 [53.1%] from bus 2) on a 100-minute round trip to attend a 150-minute worship event. The source patient was a passenger on bus 2. We compared risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among at-risk individuals taking bus 1 (n = 60) and bus 2 (n = 67 [source patient excluded]) and among all other individuals (n = 172) attending the worship event. We also divided seats on the exposed bus into high-risk and low-risk zones according to the distance from the source patient and compared COVID-19 risks in each zone. In both buses, central air conditioners were in indoor recirculation mode. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by viral genome sequencing results. Attack rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated for different groups, and the spatial distribution of individuals who developed infection on bus 2 was obtained. Results: Of the 128 participants, 15 (11.7%) were men, 113 (88.3%) were women, and the mean age was 58.6 years. On bus 2, 24 of the 68 individuals (35.3% [including the index patient]) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 after the event. Meanwhile, none of the 60 individuals in bus 1 were infected. Among the other 172 individuals at the worship event, 7 (4.1%) subsequently received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Individuals in bus 2 had a 34.3% (95% CI, 24.1%-46.3%) higher risk of getting COVID-19 compared with those in bus 1 and were 11.4 (95% CI, 5.1-25.4) times more likely to have COVID-19 compared with all other individuals attending the worship event. Within bus 2, individuals in high-risk zones had moderately, but nonsignificantly, higher risk for COVID-19 compared with those in the low-risk zones. The absence of a significantly increased risk in the part of the bus closer to the index case suggested that airborne spread of the virus may at least partially explain the markedly high attack rate observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study and case investigation of a community outbreak of COVID-19 in Zhejiang province, individuals who rode a bus to a worship event with a patient with COVID-19 had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than individuals who rode another bus to the same event. Airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 seems likely to have contributed to the high attack rate in the exposed bus. Future efforts at prevention and control must consider the potential for airborne spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Community-Acquired Infections , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/methods , Air Pollution , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1210-1213, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738429

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and transmission chain of COVID-19 in two families, and to provide scientific evidence for effective prevention and control measures. Methods: Field epidemiological investigation was conducted for the COVID-19 cases occurred in two families and the close contacts in a county of Baotou city in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Descriptive statistical analysis on epidemiological data was conducted. Results: The infection source of the COVID-19 cases in the two families was a man who had living history in Wuhan. After his return, his parents were infected by him. A few days later, the members of a neighbor family were found to be infected, and relatives of this family were also infected after dining together repeatedly. Finally, ten confirmed cases and three suspected cases of COVID-19 were detected in the two families. Conclusions: Human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 can occur not only in a family but also in neighborhoods. The cases in two families had close relationship, indicating the necessity to strengthen the health education about COVID-19 prevention and control and the management of groups at high risk to reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in families and neighborhoods.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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