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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(8)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986361

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: First Nations Peoples of Australia have not been included in the development nor prioritised in pre-2009 pandemic plans despite being a priority population in Australian health policy. Marginalised groups experience amplified barriers and systemic disadvantage in emergencies, however, their voices have not been heard in past pandemic responses. Through effective engagement with disadvantaged and oppressed groups, health authorities can gain a deeper understanding of how to design and implement pandemic control strategies. There have been limited studies with First Nations Peoples that has focused on pandemic planning and response strategies. Deliberative inclusive approaches such as citizens juries have been a way to uncover public perceptions. METHODS: Qualitative thematic research methods were used to conduct the study. We convened five First Nations Community Panels in three locations in Australia between 2019 and 2020. We used an Indigenist research approach, community-based Participatory Action Research framework and 'yarning' to understand whether Community Panels were an acceptable and appropriate way of engaging First Nations Peoples. Forty First Nations participants were purposively recruited through local and cultural networks. Panels heard evidence supporting various pandemic response strategies, and cross-questioned public health experts. RESULTS: All 40 participants from the 5 panels verbally indicated strong support of the Community Panels approach as an effective way of engaging First Nations Peoples in making decisions about pandemic planning and response strategies. The main theme of 'respect' centred on the overarching principle that First Nations Peoples are important in the context of continuation of culture and ongoing political resistance. CONCLUSION: First Nations Community Panels are a way of enabling active participation of First Nations peoples, increasing knowledge and understanding, and a way for government and policymakers to respectfully listen to First Nations opinions and values.


Subject(s)
Community-Based Participatory Research , Pandemics , Australia , Community-Based Participatory Research/methods , Health Policy , Humans , Public Health
2.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 99-107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Birmingham AIDS Outreach (BAO) is one of three study sites partnering with the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (Pitt Public Health) for a National Institutes of Health-funded randomized controlled trial on a financial management intervention for people with HIV who are experiencing homelessness or housing instability. After the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in March 2020, the study team used a community-engaged approach to adapt research protocols at this site. We sought to describe a community-engaged approach to restarting National Institutes of Health-funded research during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Partners at Pitt Public Health and BAO developed a set of agency-wide COVID-19 policies and procedures for BAO organized around Rhodes' critical elements of community engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The challenges presented by COVID-19 in the research sector have provided an opportunity to reevaluate study activities and increase the extent to which research is conducted in a community-centered manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Community Participation , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Stakeholder Participation
3.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 91-97, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Realist reviews have shown the effectiveness of participatory action research but the realist approach has not been used in combination with a participatory approach in qualitative data analysis. OBJECTIVES: To study the links between preexisting conditions in neighborhoods and the kind of actions taken at the community level during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Toronto, a community-university research partnership used a critical realist approach to analyze qualitative interviews with grassroots leaders. This article describes the procedures developed to enable participation of the full community- academic team in the analysis. METHODS: One analyst coded paragraphs in all 46 interviews for preexisting conditions (contexts), actions taken (intervention components), the often implicit factors that underpinned the actions (mechanisms), and observed results (outcomes) as stated by the interviewees. Each interview was summarized in terms of the contexts (C), actions (I), mechanisms (M) and outcomes (O) identified and one to seven midrange CIMO hypotheses were developed for each interview. A second level of analysis involved sense-making workshops with the community partner and a cross-section of interviewees using the CIMO statements. CONCLUSIONS: This article describes the realist approach to analysis and the changes that were made to enable a mixed team of community leaders and academics to generate overall statements of impact. This is a novel approach to qualitative data analysis, with a range of implications for the use of this technique in participatory research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Based Participatory Research , Health Services Research , Humans , Research Design , Universities
4.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 83-90, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-engaged research is a well-established approach to tackling health disparities in communities of color. However, the devastation caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) calls for a reexamination of the practice of community-engaged research. Syndemic framework characterizes the clustering and synergistic interactions between two or more diseases amid an underlay of social and environmental threats. This framework has been used to explain the disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19 in communities of color and may have utility in guiding future community-engaged research. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the process by which a syndemic framework was used to generate discussions on lessons learned from COVID-19 and describes the ensuing collaborative writing process that emerged from this discourse. METHODS: This article was developed by the Community Engagement Working Group (CEWG) of the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based epidemiologic study focused on cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson, Mississippi Metropolitan Area. By drawing upon a syndemic framework and lessons from COVID-19, the CEWG identified gaps and opportunities to enhance community-engaged research. CONCLUSIONS: Using syndemic framework as a starting point, the CEWG identified the following as aspects of community-engaged research that may warrant further consideration: 1) the need to examine multiple dimensions and assets of a community, 2) the need to view communities through an intersectionality lens, 3) the need to acknowledge the impact of historical and current trauma on the community, and 4) the need to provide support to community-engaged researchers who may be members of minoritized groups themselves and therefore, experience similar trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , African Americans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Syndemic
5.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 77-82, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research is a particularly powerful approach to research with American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities who have been subject to a history of mistreatment and unethical research. In person meetings, discussion, and engagement with tribal members and the community have become an essential component of community-based participatory research in AIAN communities. With the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, AIAN communities have moved to close or sharply curtail in-person activities, precluding in-person research methods. Current best practices for research with AIAN communities assumes in-person engagement; little guidance exists on engaging AIAN communities in research using virtual technologies. Our study, Native Women, Young, Strong, Empowered Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (Native WYSE CHOICES), was intentionally designed before the pandemic to be virtual, including recruitment, enrollment, intervention, and assessment with urban AIAN young women. OBJECTIVES: We present our perspectives on virtual research with AIAN communities, including the critical role of our advisory partners to inform the virtual intervention design and recruitment methods in the formative stages of our project. METHODS: Experiential reflection among research team and community partners. CONCLUSIONS: Virtual technologies, such as videoconferencing, social media, and mobile health apps, offer many tools to reach communities, especially in a pandemic. The virtualization of research with AIAN communities requires a significant investment in time, resources and planning to mitigate disadvantages; it cannot fully replace in-person-based community-based participatory research approaches, but may offer many strengths and unique advantages for research, especially in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alaskan Natives , COVID-19 , Indians, North American , Community-Based Participatory Research , Female , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 69-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a greater health impact on ethnoracial minorities, including migrants. Migrants in marginalized communities are harder to reach for health information sharing. Meanwhile, the pandemic has impacted in-person, community-based research. Such research is important during a pandemic, warranting the adaptation of engagement methods. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzes methodological processes for adapting community-based research to a virtual environment due to COVID-19 restrictions. Our participatory action research, with refugee-and immigrant-run community-based organizations (RI-CBOs) in a U.S. midwestern metropolitan area, sought to understand organizational activities, including COVID-19 responses, and foster organizational capacity building. METHODS: Partnered with one RI-CBO, we co-developed three methods. Netnography facilitated nonparticipant observation of the RI-CBO's online meetings to inform the community about the pandemic. Online surveys were designed to document the RI-CBO's activities while serving as a foundation to develop a sustainable record-keeping system. Remote interviews sought to contextualize the data. RESULTS: The methodological transition to an online environment prioritized interaction, focusing on user friendliness and efficiency. Community partners intensively engaged in the adaptation process. Netnography captured how the RI-CBO used multimedia to connect community members with COVID-19 information and resources. Surveys and interviews provided data about organizational activities as the pandemic spread and community needs increased. CONCLUSIONS: Adapting to online modalities drew on four priorities: ease of access, time sensitivity, capacity building, and co-production of data. Methodological insights may be applicable to participatory action research with RI-CBOs and other CBOs in the face of challenges similar to those prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Community-Based Participatory Research , Health Services Research , Humans , Pandemics
7.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 59-68, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, medical students organized grass-roots volunteer initiatives to address community-level needs. These required community partnerships and extra-institutional resources to effectively operate. Due to curricular constraints, these efforts often lacked familiarity and working knowledge of existing university infrastructure on how to engage with established community partnerships and resources. OBJECTIVES: The authors call for institutions to capitalize upon the response experience gained by medical students during the pandemic. This includes 1) formally integrating the infrastructure and community relationships established by student COVID-19 volunteer initiatives into existing university community-engagement systems, and 2) incorporating asset-based community development (ABCD) into medical student curricula as a framework for community engagement and disaster response. METHODS: A case study from the University of Nebraska Medical Center presents student COVID-19 response initiatives, their outcomes, and how their approach emulated the ABCD model. The ABCD model asserts that communities should use asset mapping to identify the skills and resources of community members, rather than using deficiency-oriented approaches. Further, the case study demonstrates how the use of an established ABCD model could have contributed to a more effective and efficient COVID-19 student response. CONCLUSIONS: Experiences at University of Nebraska Medical Center support the value of using a modified ABCD model to facilitate community relationships related to rapid health response. Formal integration of the ABCD model within a university's centralized office of community engagement will increase access and foster town-gown reciprocal relationships, empowering students, academic health centers, and surrounding communities in times of crisis and calm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Students , Universities
8.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 45-58, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and activism against structural racism heightened awareness of racial-ethnic disparities and disproportionate burden among the underserved. The opioid crisis further compounds these phenomena, increasing vulnerability for substance use disorders (SUD). Community-based participatory research can facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration, yet literature on these approaches to prevent and reduce SUD and associated stigma remains limited. OBJECTIVE: Discrimination, stigma, and multiple crises with health care and systemic barriers increasingly marginalize the underserved, specifically around SUD. The Detroit Area Mental Health Leadership Team (DAMHLT, since 2015), aims to optimize SUD prevention, enhance resiliency and advocacy to advance knowledge on SUD research and influence community-level research and practice. LESSONS LEARNED: DAMHLT's approach on bidirectionality, community level access to real-time epidemiological data, advocacy (i.e., institutional responsiveness) and dissemination may be translational to other partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: As we move through an ever-changing pandemic, DAMHLT's lessons learned can inform partnership dynamics and public health strategies such as hesitancy on public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Public Health , Racial Groups , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
9.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 39-44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974211

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a constant struggle for many communities and food needs are often amplified during times of crisis. The objective of this article is to describe the progress in our community food policy council partnership by presenting the elements of success in facilitating policy change and programs that have helped our community in rural Pennsylvania respond to a variety of challenges, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis. We also critically examine ongoing challenges and implications for our work. The elements that have contributed to sustaining our collective work include having a common agenda; collaboration; maintaining independent but mutually supporting member organizational goals; valuing those who are most impacted; and continuous communication. By applying these elements of partnership, the council remains focused on healthy food access, particularly during this COVID-19 crisis and ongoing food-related inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Nutrition Policy , Rural Population
10.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 33-38, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974210

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social inequity is a primary driver of health disparities, creating multiple barriers to good health. These inequities were exacerbated during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, with Latinx communities suffering more than others. Grassroots collaborations have long existed to address disparities. OBJECTIVE: We describe the creation and work of the Latinx Advocacy Team and Interdisciplinary Network for COVID-19 (LATIN-19; http://latin19.org/), a multisector coalition in North Carolina created to address the unique challenges of COVID-19 in the Latinx community. METHODS: We discuss challenges and solutions that LATIN-19 addressed and the impact of LATIN-19 on community partners and members. RESULTS: LATIN-19 learned of challenges including, lack of awareness, need for data systems to track disparities, the need to increase access to resources, the need for policy changes, and the need to coordinate services by community organizations. CONCLUSIONS: LATIN-19 represents a grassroots organization that has had an impact on community and community organizations that spans beyond COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , North Carolina/epidemiology , Policy
11.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 23-32, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To ensure equity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine access, it is critical that Black and Latine communities receive trustworthy COVID-19 information. This study uses community-based participatory research to understand sources of COVID-19 information for Black and Latine adults, how trustworthy that information is, and relationships between information sources and COVID-19 vaccine intention. METHODS: We co-created a survey in Spanish and English and distributed it to Black and Latine adults residing in the Pittsburgh area. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 574 participants who completed the survey. Participants reported accessing a variety of COVID-19 information sources and generally trusted these sources. Few sources of information were associated with COVID-19 vaccine intention. We also review lessons learned from our community-academic collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: Trustworthy COVID-19 information sources may not be sufficient for increasing vaccine intention. Results can help other community-academic partnerships working to improve COVID-19 vaccine equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Community-Based Participatory Research , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 13-22, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Denver COVID-19 Joint Task Force is a multisector community partnership which formed to coordinate Denver's pandemic response in people experiencing homelessness (PEH). OBJECTIVES: Describe how interdisciplinary community partners collaborated to develop, implement, and pilot severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and isolation protocols in congregate shelters, and discuss lessons learned and subsequently applied. METHODS: In March through May 2020, community partners collaborated to design, implement and conduct pilot testing paired with isolation in a subset of PEH at a congregate shelter to assess feasibility and inform protocol development.Results and Lessons Learned: We performed SARS-CoV-2 testing in 52 PEH with 14 (27%) testing positive or inconclusive. Thirteen (93%) positive or inconclusive participants were transferred to isolation hotels with 9 of 13 (69%) transferred within 72 hours of testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings informed development of coronavirus disease 2019 surveillance testing and isolation protocols for PEH and highlight the value of community partnerships in nimbly responding to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 5-12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the accelerated spread of COVID-19 and current shelter-in-place orders from many local governments, African American (AA) communities see to be more vulnerable as emerging data show disproportionate rates of infection and mortality among AAs across the nation. OBJECTIVES: In a sample of AA church members, to conduct a rapid community assessment during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research team, partnering with the local AA church community and including trained lay health workers, conducted the assessment via telephone and online. RESULTS: Although most participants reported high confidence regarding recommendations for physical distancing, more than 60% reported elevated anxiety and stress, and 10% indicated that they needed more information about staying healthy and safe during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research with lay health workers is an effective method to implement a community needs assessment, problem-solve with community members, and build community health infrastructure during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pandemics
15.
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res ; 29(2): 126-154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964470

ABSTRACT

This paper presents how a community mobilization program to prevent suicide was adapted to an online format to accommodate the impossibility of in-person delivery in Alaska Native communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The intervention, Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES), was created collaboratively by researchers and Alaska Native communities with the goal of bringing community members together to create research-informed and community-led suicide prevention activities in their communities. To continue our work during the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions, we adapted the PC CARES model to a synchronous remote delivery format. This shift included moving from predominantly Alaska Native participants to one of a mainly non-Native school staff audience. This required a pivot from Alaska Native self-determination toward cultural humility and community collaboration for school-based staff, with multilevel youth suicide prevention remaining the primary aim. This reorientation can offer important insight into how to build more responsive programs for those who are not from the communities they serve. Here, we provide a narrative overview of our collaborative adaptation process, illustrated by data collected during synchronous remote facilitation of the program, and reflect on how the shift in format and audience impacted program delivery and content. The adaptation process strove to maintain the core animating features of self-determination for Alaska Native communities and people as well as the translation of scientific knowledge to practice for greater impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Indians, North American , Suicide , Adolescent , Alaska , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Pandemics , Suicide/prevention & control
16.
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res ; 29(2): 32-48, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964465

ABSTRACT

In this manuscript, we present changes in study design and analytical strategy due to the COVID-19 pandemic for Nen UnkUmbi/EdaHiYedo ("We Are Here Now," or NE). NE is a community-based participatory research multi-level randomized control trial using a stepped wedge design to address sexual and reproductive health disparities among American Indian youth. Adaptations in NE's research design, data collection, and analysis due to the COVID-19 pandemic were made based on meetings with tribally based research team members and outside non-Indigenous researchers involved in NE, as well as the study's Community Advisory Board and the Data Safety Monitoring Board. Based on these iterative discussions, decisions were made to: 1) reorganize the sequence of NE's stepped wedge design clusters, and 2) include additional quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis in the research design that specifically addressed the impact of COVID-19 on the research participants. These adaptations have the potential to foster greater scientific knowledge in understanding how to address unanticipated 3-way interaction effects in randomized control trials with tribal communities. Findings can also contribute to understanding how public health disasters impact sexual and reproductive health among American Indian youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Indians, North American , Adolescent , American Indians or Alaska Natives , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Pandemics , Reproductive Health
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 865944, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952804

ABSTRACT

Psychosocial, social and structural conditions have rarely been studied among transgender women in the U.S.-Mexico Border. This study used Photovoice methodology to empower migrant transgender women of color (TWC) to reflect on realities from their own perspectives and experiences and promote critical dialogue, knowledge, and community action. Sixteen participants documented their daily experiences through photography, engaged in photo-discussions to assess needs and identify opportunities, and developed a community-informed Call to Action. Four major themes emerged from the participants' photographs, discussions, and engagement: (1) mental health, (2) migration experiences and challenges, (3) stigma, discrimination, and resiliency, and (4) impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Through active community engagement, a Call to Action was developed. A binational advisory committee of decision makers and scholars reviewed a set of recommendations to better respond to the needs of TWC in the U.S.-Mexico Border. Photovoice served as an empowerment tool for TWC to assess the myriad of syndemic conditions, including mental health, stigma, discrimination and COVID-19, affecting them daily and identify initiatives for change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transgender Persons , Transients and Migrants , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community-Based Participatory Research/methods , Female , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 877593, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933898

ABSTRACT

In this community case study, we describe the process within an academic-community partnership of adapting UNIDOS, a community health worker (CHW)-led community-clinical linkages (CCL) intervention targeting Latinx adults in Arizona, to the evolving landscape of the COVID-19 pandemic. Consistent with community-based participatory research principles, academic and community-based partners made decisions regarding changes to the intervention study protocol, specifically the intervention objectives, participant recruitment methods, CHW trainings, data collection measures and management, and mode of intervention delivery. Insights from this case study demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research in successfully modifying the intervention to the conditions of the pandemic and also the cultural background of Latinx participants. This case study also illustrates how a CHW-led CCL intervention can address social determinants of health, in which the pandemic further exposed longstanding inequities along racial and ethnic lines in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Health Workers , Community-Based Participatory Research/methods , Humans , Racial Groups , United States
19.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(4 Suppl 4): S143-S150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865016

ABSTRACT

In Pierce County, Washington, 6 Communities of Focus face tough health disparities. To engage members of communities that have been marginalized for generations, Tacoma-Pierce County Health Department piloted participatory budgeting. Through this 5-step process, the health department and its partners make investments significant enough to bring community members to the table, codesign solutions, and put the final decision-making power to fund programs and services in their hands. Sharing power through this process is an innovative approach and has been adapted during the COVID-19 pandemic to build trust essential to resilience and recovery. After a series of successful projects bringing participatory budgeting to scale, the Public Health Centers for Excellence is piloting participatory policy making and disseminating both practices broadly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Budgets , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 811-812, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865443

ABSTRACT

Recruitment is a bottleneck for research - especially digital health studies. Studies often focus on those who are easy to reach or already engaged in their health, leaving those who are uninterested or un-engaged, as "un-reached". This contributes to the "digital divide". COVID-19 restrictions made recruitment more difficult. During a virtual workshop of our peers, we discussed recruitment of un-reached groups for digital health studies, especially during COVID-times. All agreed; we need to go where the un-reached are by collaborating with community-based services and organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Digital Divide , Pandemics , Patient Selection , Research Design/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Community-Based Participatory Research/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peer Group
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