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2.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 46(3): 472-480, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909855

ABSTRACT

The Mississippi IDeA Networks of Biomedical Research Excellence (INBRE) supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (Grant P20GM103476) launched the new Mississippi INBRE Outreach Scholars (MIOS) summer research program in 2019. The program was designed to offer students community outreach and research experiences related to the study of behavioral and health disparities life sciences. The program was adapted in early 2020 to offer the program in a fully online format in the summer of 2020. This article details the program adaptations and discusses program evaluation data related to scholars' perceptions of program benefits and expectations and their confidence in research-related skills. The program evaluation was a mixed-method approach that included a qualitative postprogram survey and a pre-post quantitative survey. Scholars identified technical and communication skill building and resilience as areas of personal growth. Overall, the program met scholars' expectations for the program and significantly improved their confidence on 8 of the 19 (with confidence interval estimated differences from 0.3 to 2.56, where a difference of 1 is an improvement across 1 anchor on a Likert-type scale) various research-related tasks/skills after completion of the program. The analyses presented demonstrated that a combined qualitative and quantitative analysis approach is useful for examining the extent to which programs such as Mississippi INBRE are meeting goals of providing a rich research experience in health disparities for a diverse student body. Future longitudinal data may be examined to explore the long-term impact of MIOS on career preparation and choices and graduate education.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The Mississippi INBRE Outreach Scholars program is a summer research program for Mississippi college students that was successfully adapted to a fully online environment amidst the coronavirus-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Biological Science Disciplines , Biomedical Research/standards , Community-Institutional Relations , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Mississippi , Program Evaluation/methods , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virtual Reality
6.
Am J Med Qual ; 37(4): 348-355, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769450

ABSTRACT

Despite disproportionately higher rates of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 among Black and Hispanic adults in the United States, ethnoracial disparities in vaccination rates emerged rapidly. The objective of this quality improvement study was to rapidly develop and implement an equity-focused community outreach intervention that facilitated COVID-19 vaccine appointments. Using the Plan-Do-Study-Act model, this multipronged, primary care-based outreach intervention developed call/recall systems that addressed vaccine hesitancy and facilitated real-time vaccine scheduling. Through 5058 calls to 2794 patients, 1519 patients were successfully reached. Of the 750 patients eligible for vaccine scheduling, 129 (17.2%) had a vaccine appointment scheduled by the caller and 72 (9.6%) indicated a plan to self-schedule. Low confidence in the vaccine was the most cited reason for declining assistance with a vaccine appointment. Primary care practices may wish to consider introducing similar outreach interventions in the future to address ethnoracial inequities in vaccination distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Community-Institutional Relations , Humans , United States , Vaccination
7.
Nurs Manage ; 53(3): 36-42, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730724
8.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 397-400, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701451

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, media accounts emerged describing faith-based organizations (FBOs) working alongside health departments to support the COVID-19 response. In May 2021, the Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) sent an electronic survey to the 59 ASTHO member jurisdictions and four major US cities to assess state and territorial engagement with FBOs. Findings suggest that public health officials in many jurisdictions were able to work effectively with FBOs during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide essential education and mitigation tools to diverse communities. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):397-400. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306620).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Faith-Based Organizations/organization & administration , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Community-Institutional Relations , Faith-Based Organizations/economics , Health Equity , Health Promotion/economics , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health Administration , SARS-CoV-2 , State Government , United States/epidemiology , /ethnology
9.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674081

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to drastic public health measures, including school closures to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Reopening educational settings by using diagnostic testing approaches in schools can help accelerate the safe return of students and staff to on-site learning by quickly and accurately identifying cases, limiting the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and ultimately preventing unnecessary school and work absenteeism. Although the National Institutes of Health has identified community partnerships as the foundation for reducing health disparities, we found limited application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in school engagement. Guided by the CBPR conceptual model, we provide case studies of 2 established and long-standing school-academic partnerships built on CBPR processes and practices that have served as a research infrastructure to reach underserved children and families during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The process described in this article can serve as an initial platform to continue to build capacity toward increasing health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Community-Institutional Relations , Pandemics , Return to School , Vulnerable Populations , Academic Medical Centers , American Indians or Alaska Natives , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mexican Americans , Rural Population , Schools
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674079

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced the suspension of in-person education in schools serving students in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) across the United States. As time passed, teachers, students, and parents struggled with remote education. With limited guidance at the federal level, physicians and school leaders across the country collaborated to develop local solutions for schools. This article describes the lessons learned from the development of 4 academic-community partnerships and collaboration among these partnerships to provide national leadership on managing COVID-19 mitigation in the K-12 environment. In addition, we describe a pathway forward for using academic-community partnerships to improve child health.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19 , Community-Institutional Relations , Pandemics , Schools , Humans
13.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505089

ABSTRACT

School-aged children experienced substantial challenges to health and well-being as a result of school-building closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In hopes of supporting equitable and safe school reopening for every student across North Carolina (NC) and improving child health, researchers from Duke University and the University at North Carolina at Chapel Hill established the ABC Science Collaborative (ABCs) in July 2020. The ABCs collected data related to in-school severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission and adherence to mitigation strategies. These data were presented to NC government officials, including the NC Department of Health and Human Services, the NC Department of Public Instruction, and Democratic and Republican representatives from the NC General Assembly. These data-sharing practices led to the implementation of in-person school legislation in early 2021 in which in-person school access for every student was required, the full-time in-person reopening of NC public schools was supported, and weekly reporting to the ABCs of coronavirus disease 2019 infections from >1 000 000 children and adults was required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Pandemics , Return to School , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Community-Institutional Relations , Humans , North Carolina , Schools
14.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503799

ABSTRACT

Safely returning underserved youth to school during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic through diagnostic testing and health education is imperative to mitigate the ongoing negative impact of COVID-19 and reduce health inequalities in underserved communities. The Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics-Underserved Populations program is a consortium of research projects across the United States funded by the National Institutes of Health to understand the factors associated with the disproportionate burden of the pandemic among underserved populations and to leverage mitigation strategies, including diagnostic testing, with a focus on reducing health disparities. In this article, we provide an overview and introduce the articles from 8 Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics-Underserved Populations projects featured in the supplement "Navigating a Pandemic in the K-12 Setting: Keeping Our School Communities Safe" published in Pediatrics. These projects funded in the program's first phase focus on COVID-19 diagnostic testing approaches for youth and employees at schools in underserved communities to support safe in-person learning. In the articles comprising the supplement, researchers present barriers and facilitators of the community engagement process necessary to establish school-academic partnerships. These efforts showcase school-based implementation testing strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic but are translatable to tackling other challenges related to reducing health disparities.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Return to School , Schools , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Community-Institutional Relations , Humans , United States
17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1681, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma is a significant public health issue, negatively impacting a range of health outcomes. Providers and administrators in public mental health systems recognize the widespread experience of trauma, as well as their limited ability to address trauma within their communities. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health funded nine regionally based community partnerships to build capacity to address trauma. We describe partnership and community capacity-building efforts and examine community impact, defined as successful linkages to resources and changes in stress tolerance capacities among community members. METHODS: We conceptualized community capacity-building as dissemination of trauma-informed education and training, community outreach and engagement, and linkage of community members to resources. We measured trauma-informed trainings among partnership members (N = 332) using the Trauma-Informed Organizational Toolkit. Outreach, engagement and linkages were documented using Event and Linkage Trackers. We examined changes in the type of successful linkage after the issuance of statewide mandatory restrictions in response to COVID-19. We examined changes in stress tolerance capacities among community members (N = 699) who were engaged in ongoing partnership activities using the 10-item Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale; the 28-item Coping Orientation to Problems; and the pictorial Inclusion of Community in Self Scale. RESULTS: Training and education opportunities were widespread: 66% of members reported opportunities for training in 13 or more trauma-informed practices. Partnerships conducted over 7800 community capacity-building events with over 250,000 attendees. Nearly 14,000 successful linkages were made for a wide range of resources, with consistent linkage success prior to (85%) and during (87%) the pandemic. In response to COVID-19, linkage type significantly shifted from basic services and health care to food distribution (p < .01). Small but significant improvements occurred in coping through emotional and instrumental support; and sense of community connectedness (p < .05 each). CONCLUSIONS: Community-based partnerships demonstrated effective capacity-building strategies. Despite the pandemic, community members did not report reduced stress tolerance, instead demonstrating gains in external help-seeking (use of emotional and instrumental supports) and perception of community connectedness. Future work will use qualitative methods to examine the impact of community capacity-building and the sustainability of this approach for addressing the impact of trauma within communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Capacity Building , Community-Institutional Relations , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Separating ill or possibly infectious people from their healthy community is one of the core principles of non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, there is scarce evidence on how to successfully implement quarantine orders. We investigated a community quarantine for an entire village in Germany (Neustadt am Rennsteig, March 2020) with the aim of better understanding the successful implementation of quarantine measures. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Neustadt am Rennsteig six weeks after the end of a 14-day mandatory community quarantine. The sample size consisted of 562 adults (64% of the community), and the response rate was 295 adults, or 52% (33% of the community). FINDINGS: National television was reported as the most important channel of information. Contact with local authorities was very limited, and partners or spouses played a more important role in sharing information. Generally, the self-reported information level was judged to be good (211/289 [73.0%]). The majority of participants (212/289 [73.4%]) approved of the quarantine, and the reported compliance was 217/289 (75.1%). A self-reported higher level of concern as well as a higher level of information correlated positively with both a greater acceptance of quarantine and self-reported compliant behaviour. INTERPRETATION: The community quarantine presented a rare opportunity to investigate a public health intervention for an entire community. In order to improve the implementation of public health interventions, public health risk communication activities should be intensified to increase both the information level (potentially leading to better compliance with community quarantine) and the communication level (to facilitate rapport and trust between public health authorities and their communities).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Community-Institutional Relations , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) household contact tracing is a form of targeted active case-finding for which community health workers ('outreach teams') in South Africa are primarily responsible for its implementation. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to understand the role of outreach teams in delivering TB household contact tracing. METHODS: The study took place in three districts of South Africa between May 2016 and February 2017. We conducted 78 in-depth interviews (IDI) (comprising 35 key stakeholders, 31 TB index patients and 12 HHCs) and five focus group discussions (FGD) (40 outreach team members in four FGDs and 12 community stakeholders in one FGD). RESULTS: Outreach teams contributed positively by working across health-related programmes, providing home-based care and assisting with tracing of persons lost to TB care. However, outreach teams had a limited focus on TB household contact tracing activities, likely due to the broad scope of their work and insufficient programmatic support. Outreach teams often confused TB household contact tracing activities with finding persons lost to TB care. The community also had some reservations on the role of outreach teams conducting TB household contact tracing activities. CONCLUSIONS: Creating awareness among outreach workers and clinic personnel about the importance of and activities related to TB household contact tracing would be required to strengthen the delivery of TB household contact tracing through the community-based primary health care teams. We need better monitoring and evaluation systems, stronger integration within a realistic scope of work, adequate training on TB household contact tracing and TB infection prevention control measures. Involving the community and educating them on the role of outreach teams could improve acceptance of future activities. These timely results and lessons learned should inform contact tracing approaches in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control Practitioners/psychology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Community-Institutional Relations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , South Africa , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
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