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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 153, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic halted non-emergency surgery across Scotland. Measures to mitigate the risks of transmitting COVID-19 are creating significant challenges to restarting all surgical services safely. We describe the development of a risk stratification tool to prioritise patients for cataract surgery taking account both specific risk factors for poor outcome from COVID-19 infection as well as surgical 'need'. In addition we report the demographics and comorbidities of patients on our waiting list. METHODS: A prospective case review of electronic records was performed. A risk stratification tool was developed based on review of available literature on systemic risk factors for poor outcome from COVID-19 infection as well as a surgical 'need' score. Scores derived from the tool were used to generate 6 risk profile groups to allow prioritised allocation of surgery. RESULTS: There were 744 patients awaiting cataract surgery of which 66 (8.9 %) patients were 'shielding'. One hundred and thirty-two (19.5 %) patients had no systemic comorbidities, 218 (32.1 %) patients had 1 relevant systemic comorbidity and 316 (46.5 %) patients had 2 or more comorbidities. Five hundred and ninety patients (88.7 %) did not have significant ocular comorbidities. Using the risk stratification tool, 171 (23 %) patients were allocated in the highest 3 priority stages. Given an aging cohort with associated increase in number of systemic comorbidities, the majority of patients were in the lower priority stages 4 to 6. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has created an urgent challenge to deal safely with cataract surgery waiting lists. This has driven the need for a prompt and pragmatic change to the way we assess risks and benefits of a previously regarded as low-risk intervention. This is further complicated by the majority of patients awaiting cataract surgery being elderly with comorbidities and at higher risk of mortality related to COVID-19. We present a pragmatic method of risk stratifying patients on waiting lists, blending an evidence-based objective assessment of risk and patient need combined with an element of shared decision-making. This has facilitated safe and successful restarting of our cataract service.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction , Cataract/epidemiology , Pandemics , Waiting Lists , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Scotland/epidemiology
2.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 846-855, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083929

ABSTRACT

Hypertension has been identified as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated adverse outcomes. This study examined the association between preinfection blood pressure (BP) control and COVID-19 outcomes using data from 460 general practices in England. Eligible patients were adults with hypertension who were tested or diagnosed with COVID-19. BP control was defined by the most recent BP reading within 24 months of the index date (January 1, 2020). BP was defined as controlled (<130/80 mm Hg), raised (130/80-139/89 mm Hg), stage 1 uncontrolled (140/90-159/99 mm Hg), or stage 2 uncontrolled (≥160/100 mm Hg). The primary outcome was death within 28 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were COVID-19 diagnosis and COVID-19-related hospital admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between BP control and outcomes. Of the 45 418 patients (mean age, 67 years; 44.7% male) included, 11 950 (26.3%) had controlled BP. These patients were older, had more comorbidities, and had been diagnosed with hypertension for longer. A total of 4277 patients (9.4%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 877 died within 28 days. Individuals with stage 1 uncontrolled BP had lower odds of COVID-19 death (odds ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.62-0.92]) compared with patients with well-controlled BP. There was no association between BP control and COVID-19 diagnosis or hospitalization. These findings suggest BP control may be associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes, possibly due to these patients having more advanced atherosclerosis and target organ damage. Such patients may need to consider adhering to stricter social distancing, to limit the impact of COVID-19 as future waves of the pandemic occur.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure/drug effects , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
3.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 856-867, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083643

ABSTRACT

Older age and cardiovascular comorbidities are well-known risk factors for all-cause mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypertension and age are the 2 principal determinants of arterial stiffness (AS). This study aimed to estimate AS in patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization and analyze its association with all-cause in-hospital mortality. This observational, retrospective, multicenter cohort study analyzed 12 170 patients admitted to 150 Spanish centers included in the SEMI-COVID-19 Network. We compared AS, defined as pulse pressure ≥60 mm Hg, and clinical characteristics between survivors and nonsurvivors. Mean age was 67.5 (±16.1) years and 42.5% were women. Overall, 2606 (21.4%) subjects died. Admission systolic blood pressure (BP) <120 and ≥140 mm Hg was a predictor of higher all-cause mortality (23.5% and 22.8%, respectively, P<0.001), compared with systolic BP between 120 and 140 mm Hg (18.6%). The 4379 patients with AS (36.0%) were older and had higher systolic and lower diastolic BP. Multivariate analysis showed that AS and systolic BP <120 mm Hg significantly and independently predicted all-cause in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]: 1.27, P=0.0001; ORadj: 1.48, P=0.0001, respectively) after adjusting for sex (males, ORadj: 1.6, P=0.0001), age tertiles (second and third tertiles, ORadj: 2.0 and 4.7, P=0.0001), Charlson Comorbidity Index (second and third tertiles, ORadj: 4.8 and 8.6, P=0.0001), heart failure, and previous and in-hospital antihypertensive treatment. Our data show that AS and admission systolic BP <120 mm Hg had independent prognostic value for all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vascular Stiffness , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
4.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 357-364, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to compare severe clinical outcome between initially asymptomatic and symptomatic infections and to identify risk factors associated with high patient mortality among initially asymptomatic patients. METHODS: In this retrospective, nationwide cohort study, we included 5621 patients who had been discharged from isolation or died from COVID-19 by 30 April 2020. The mortality rate and admission rate to intensive care unit (ICU) were compared between initially asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. We established a prediction model for patient mortality through risk factor analysis among initially asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of initially asymptomatic patients upon admission was 25.8%. The mortality rates were not different between groups (3.3% vs. 4.5%, p = .17). However, initially symptomatic patients were more likely to receive ICU care compared to initially asymptomatic patients (4.1% vs. 1.0%, p < .0001). The age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index score (CCIS) was the most potent predictor for patient mortality in initially asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality risk was not determined by the initial presence of symptom among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The CCIS was the most potent predictors for mortality. The clinicians should predict the risk of death by evaluating age and comorbidities but not the initial presence of symptom. Key messages The mortality rate was not different between initially asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients were more likely to admitted to the intensive care unit. Age and comorbidities were the potent risk factors for mortality.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /physiopathology , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e39, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081712

ABSTRACT

People living in urban slums or informal settlements are among the most vulnerable communities, highly susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vulnerable to the consequences of the measures taken to control the spread of the virus. Fear and stigma related to infection, mistrust between officials and the population, the often-asymptomatic nature of the disease is likely to lead to under-reporting. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in a large slum in South India 3 months after the index case and recruited 499 adults (age >18 years). The majority (74.3%) were females and about one-third of the population reported comorbidities. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibody for COVID-19 was 57.9% (95% CI 53.4-62.3). Age, education, occupation and the presence of reported comorbidities were not associated with seroprevalence (P-value >0.05). Case-to-undetected-infections ratio was 1:195 and infection fatality rate was calculated as 2.94 per 10 000 infections. We estimated seroprevalence of COVID-19 was very high in our study population. The focus in this slum should shift from infection prevention to managing the indirect consequences of the pandemic. We recommend seroprevalence studies in such settings before vaccination to identify the vulnerability of COVID-19 infection to optimise the use of insufficient resources. It is a wake-up call to societies and nations, to dedicate paramount attention to slums into recovery and beyond - to build, restore and maintain health equity for the 'Health and wellbeing of all'.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Poverty Areas , Adult , Age Factors , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vulnerable Populations/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(4): 1739-1745, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080067

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of CoVID-19 infection rapidly increases worldwide. Most of the continents affecting from CoVID-19 and still widening its burden disease (Jones DS, 2020; Lai et al., 2020). Along with its fatality rates, CoVID-19 has caused physiological disturbances in the society and termed as "coronophobia". CoVID-19 with renal failure, severe pneumonia and respiratory syndrome patients have been reported to increase the severity of disease conditions (Sevim et al., 2020). Also, CoVID-19 with cancer patients increase the higher risk of infections. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific treatment against CoVID-19 and drug research centres continuously investigating the potential drug against CoVID-19 (Osama and Amer, 2020). For the past 20 years two major coronavirus epidemics have occurred in public includes SARS-CoV approximately 8000 cases and 800 deaths and MERS-CoV 2,500 cases and 800 deaths and these continuing sporadically (Cascella et al., 2020).


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Age Factors , /prevention & control , Comorbidity , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Prevalence , Public Health , Sex Factors
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Latin America. We present findings from a nationwide study in Argentina. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is disease severity measures and risk factors are associated with admission to an intensive care unit and mortality? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the COVID-19 database of the Integrated Argentina Health Information System, encompassing the period of March 3rd to October 2nd, 2020, using a standardized case report form that included information on contact history, clinical signs and symptoms, and clinical diagnosis. Information was collected at the initial site of care and follow-up conducted through calls by the regional healthcare authorities. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as having a positive result through sequencing or real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. RESULTS: RT-PCR testing was positive in 738,776 cases. Complete datasets were available for analysis in 207,079 cases. Mean age was 42.9±18.8 years, 50.0% were males. Frequent co-existing conditions included hypertension (19.2%), diabetes (9.7%), asthma (6.1%) and obesity (5.2%). Most common symptoms included fever (58.5%), cough (58.0%), headache (45.4%), and sore throat (42.1%). Death or ICU admission were independently associated with older age, male, coma, dyspnea or tachypnea, and seizures, with underlying co-morbidities such as immunodeficiency, chronic renal failure, and liver disease showing the strongest effects. INTERPRETATION: Most cases of COVID-19 diagnosed in Argentina were mild and had a favorable outcome, but fatality rates were relatively elevated. Risk factors for adverse outcome included older age, male sex, coma and seizures, and the concurrent presence of several morbidities. These data may be useful for healthcare providers and healthcare policy makers of low-middle income and Latin American countries to guide decisions toward optimized care during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , /physiopathology , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 169, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our main objectives were to estimate the incidence of illnesses presumably caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection during the lockdown period and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: Participants from 3 adult cohorts in the general population in France were invited to participate in a survey on COVID-19. The main outcome was COVID-19-Like Symptoms (CLS), defined as a sudden onset of cough, fever, dyspnea, ageusia and/or anosmia, that lasted more than 3 days and occurred during the 17 days before the survey. We used delayed-entry Cox models to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Between April 2, 2020 and May 12, 2020, 279,478 participants were invited, 116,903 validated the questionnaire and 106,848 were included in the analysis. Three thousand thirty-five cases of CLS were reported during 62,099 person-months of follow-up. The cumulative incidences of CLS were 6.2% (95% Confidence Interval (95%CI): 5.7%; 6.6%) on day 15 and 8.8% (95%CI 8.3%; 9.2%) on day 45 of lockdown. The risk of CLS was lower in older age groups and higher in French regions with a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in participants living in cities > 100,000 inhabitants (vs rural areas), when at least one child or adolescent was living in the same household, in overweight or obese people, and in people with chronic respiratory diseases, anxiety or depression or chronic diseases other than diabetes, cancer, hypertension or cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CLS in the general population remained high during the first 2 weeks of lockdown, and decreased significantly thereafter. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were identified.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Cough , Female , Fever , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
9.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 29(1): 2309499020988176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079201

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study we investigated on the personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, recycling, and disposal among spine surgeons in the Asia Pacific region. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among spine surgeons in Asia Pacific. The questionnaires were focused on the usage, recycling and disposal of PPE. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-two surgeons from 19 countries participated in the survey. When we sub-analysed the differences between countries, the provision of adequate PPE by hospitals ranged from 37.5% to 100%. The usage of PPE was generally high. The most used PPE were surgical face masks (88.7%), followed by surgical caps (88.3%), gowns (85.6%), sterile gloves (83.3%) and face shields (82.0%). The least used PPE were powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) (23.0%) and shoes/boots (45.0%). The commonly used PPE for surgeries involving COVID-19 positive patients were N95 masks (74.8%), sterile gloves (73.0%), gowns (72.1%), surgical caps (71.6%), face shields (64.4%), goggles (64.0%), shoe covers (58.6%), plastic aprons (45.9%), shoes/boots (45.9%), surgical face masks (36.5%) and PAPRs (21.2%). Most PPE were not recycled. Biohazard bins were the preferred method of disposal for all types of PPE items compared to general waste. CONCLUSIONS: The usage of PPE was generally high among most countries especially for surgeries involving COVID-19 positive patients except for Myanmar and Nepal. Overall, the most used PPE were surgical face masks. For surgeries involving COVID-19 positive patients, the most used PPE were N95 masks. Most PPE were not recycled. Biohazard bins were the preferred method of disposal for all types of PPE.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Orthopedics , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Societies, Medical , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Asia , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Spinal Diseases/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Intern Med J ; 51(1): 102-105, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078975

ABSTRACT

We report the high frequency of early mortality in COVID-19 patients (48.6% of 72 deaths). Early deaths were not explained by differences in age, sex and comorbidities, but they had a more severe disease at hospital admission compared with late deaths. These data highlight the importance of outpatient monitoring for the early identification of COVID-19 patients who require hospital admission.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Pandemics , Aged , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
11.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 37(4): 611-619, 2020.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Development of severe disease and death from COVID-19 is more frequent in patients with comorbidities. Some studies report an increased frequency of severe COVID-19 in cancer patients. This review aims to describe the risk of infection and developing severe COVID-19 in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review was carried out through an exhaustive search of literature in PubMed and Scopus until May 2020. A secondary search was performed to include more studies. RESULTS: The initial search identified 2,192 records, which included 17 publications with at least 10 infected cancer patients. Also, 5 articles were added from the additional search of the references cited by those 17 publications. Ten publications were from Chinese authors. Data analysis showed that COVID-19 infection is more frequent in cancer patients, and frequent therapeutic visits to the healthcare facility may be the cause. The presence of neoplasia predisposed patients to develop severe disease. Advanced age, associated comorbidities, advanced malignancy, and the presence of serum inflammatory markers increased the risk of developing severe disease. Initial studies indicate that the use of systemic treatment may also be a predisposing factor. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of becoming infected by COVID-19 and developing severe disease is higher in the oncological population.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Age Factors , /physiopathology , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Saudi Med J ; 42(2): 170-180, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare risk factors and clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients with or without diabetes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: Data of 350 COVID-19 positive patients, admitted to Al Kuwait Hospital in Dubai, UAE, from February to May 2020 was collected retrospectively, including demographic data, clinical symptoms, blood tests, as well as radiographical assessments, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. The design of the study is a retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients with diabetes belong to an older age group, had a higher percentage of male patients, exhibited more lymphopenia and neutrophilia, and higher ferritin levels. Additionally, patients with diabetes presented fever and shortness of breath (SOB), displayed more bilateral airspace consolidation and opacities in their chest x-ray and CT scans, compared to non-diabetics. A higher percentage of critical, ICU-admitted, and death of COVID-19 cases in the diabetic group was also reported. This was along with a concomitant increase in C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase levels. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is considered a comorbidity as diabetic patients showed more severe COVID-19 symptoms that led to critical clinical outcomes such as ICU admission and death.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
13.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: All countries are facing decisions about which population groups to prioritize for access to COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine products have been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Our objective is to define the key target populations, their size, and priority for a COVID-19 vaccination program in the context of China. METHODS: On the basis of utilitarian and egalitarian principles, we define and estimate the size of tiered target population groups for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, considering evolving goals as vaccine supplies increase, detailed information on the risk of illness and transmission, and past experience with vaccination during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. Sensitivity analyses considered higher vaccine coverages and scaled up vaccine delivery relative to the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: Essential workers, including staff in the healthcare, law enforcement, security, nursing homes, social welfare institutes, community services, energy, food and transportation sectors, and overseas workers/students (49.7 million) could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services in the early phase of a vaccination program. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. In later stages, the vaccination program could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (784.8 million), in order to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. Given 10 million doses administered per day, and a two-dose vaccination schedule, it would take 1 week to vaccinate essential workers but likely up to 7 months to vaccinate 70% of the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework is general but could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program. Additionally, this exercise could be generalized to inform other national and regional strategies for use of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
/therapeutic use , Health Personnel , Immunization Programs/methods , Patient Selection , Police , Adolescent , Aged , /mortality , Child , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Ethical Theory , Female , Food Industry , Health Priorities , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nursing Homes , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy Making , Pregnancy , Transportation , Vaccination , Young Adult
14.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075940

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread across the globe at unprecedented speed and is showing no signs of slowing down. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to significant health burden in infected patients especially in those with underlying comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between comorbidities and their role in the exacerbation of disease in COVID-19 patients leading to fatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using data from MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases published from 1 December 2019 to 15 September 2020. Fifty-three articles were included in the systematic review. Of those 53 articles, 8 articles were eligible for meta-analysis. Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus were identified to be the most prevalent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Our meta-analysis showed that cancer, chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were independently associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients. Chronic kidney disease was statistically the most prominent comorbidity leading to death. However, despite having high prevalence, obesity was not associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients.IMPORTANCE COVID-19 has plagued the world since it was first identified in December 2019. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analysis were limited by various factors such as the usage of non-peer reviewed data and were also limited by the lack of clinical data on a global scale. Comorbidities are frequently cited as risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, the degree to which specific comorbidities impact the disease is debatable. Our study selection involves a global reach and covers all comorbidities that were reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COVID-19 leading to fatal outcomes, which allows us to identify the specific comorbidities that have higher risk in patients. The study highlights COVID-19 high-risk groups. However, further research should focus on the status of comorbidities and prognosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , /mortality , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): 114-119, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Non-injury-related factors have been extensively studied in major trauma and have been shown to have a significant impact on patient outcomes. Mental illness and associated medication use has been proven to have a negative effect on bone health and fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collated data retrospectively from the records of orthopaedic inpatients in a non-COVID and COVID period. We analysed demographic data, referral and admission numbers, orthopaedic injuries, surgery performed and patient comorbidities, including psychiatric history. RESULTS: There were 824 orthopaedic referrals and 358 admissions (six/day) in the non-COVID period, with 38/358 (10.6%) admissions having a psychiatric diagnosis and 30/358 (8.4%) also having a fracture. This was compared with 473 referrals and 195 admissions (three/day) in the COVID period, with 73/195 (37.4%) admissions having a documented psychiatric diagnosis and 47/195 (24.1%) having a fracture. DISCUSSION: There was a reduction in the number of admissions and referrals during the pandemic, but a simultaneous three-fold rise in admissions with a psychiatric diagnosis. The proportion of patients with both a fracture and a psychiatric diagnosis more than doubled and the number of patients presenting due to a traumatic suicide attempt almost tripled. CONCLUSION: While total numbers using the orthopaedic service decreased, the impact of the pandemic and lockdown disproportionately affects those with mental health problems, a group already at higher risk of poorer functional outcomes and non-union. It is imperative that adequate support is in place for patients with vulnerable mental health during these periods, particularly as we look towards a potential 'second wave' of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Fractures, Bone/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/trends , Suicide, Attempted/trends , Adult , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Female , Foreign Bodies/epidemiology , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Humans , Joint Dislocations/epidemiology , Joint Dislocations/surgery , London/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Orthopedic Procedures , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(3): 297-304, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health inequities among people with HIV may be compounded by disparities in the prevalence of comorbidities associated with an increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. SETTING: Complex sample survey designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of adults with diagnosed HIV in the United States. METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of having ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity associated with severe illness from COVID-19 and prevalence differences (PDs) by race/ethnicity, income level, and type of health insurance. We considered PDs ≥5 percentage points to be meaningful from a public health perspective. RESULTS: An estimated 37.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 36.6 to 39.2] of adults receiving HIV care had ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity associated with severe illness from COVID-19. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks or African Americans were more likely [adjusted PD, 7.8 percentage points (95% CI: 5.7 to 10.0)] and non-Hispanic Asians were less likely [adjusted PD, -13.7 percentage points (95% CI: -22.3 to -5.0)] to have ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity after adjusting for age differences. There were no meaningful differences between non-Hispanic Whites and adults in other racial/ethnic groups. Those with low income were more likely to have ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity [PD, 7.3 percentage points (95% CI: 5.1 to 9.4)]. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults receiving HIV care, non-Hispanic Blacks and those with low income were more likely to have ≥1 diagnosed comorbidity associated with severe COVID-19. Building health equity among people with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic may require reducing the impact of comorbidities in heavily affected communities.


Subject(s)
/complications , Continental Population Groups , Ethnic Groups , HIV Infections/complications , Poverty , /epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
17.
Biosci Rep ; 41(2)2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072179

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global catastrophe. The elderly and people with comorbidity are facing a serious complication of the disease. The entry and infection strategy of SARS-CoV-2 in a host cell is raised by an amazing way of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 (ACE2) receptor recognition and imbalance of ACE/ACE2 in various organs, especially in the lungs. Here it has been discussed the role of interferon and protease during the receptor recognition (begining of infection) and followed by the impact of cytokine and hypoxia in the context of the balance of ACE/ACE2. It has also very concisely delineated the biochemistry and mechanism of ACE/ACE2 balance in different stages of infection and its role in comorbidity.


Subject(s)
/blood , /etiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , /pathogenicity , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Cytokines/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Virus Internalization
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246447, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069626

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on clinical care and lifestyles globally. The State of Michigan reports over 80,000 positive COVID-19 tests between March 1, 2020 and July 29, 2020. We surveyed 8,041 Michigan Medicine biorepository participants in late June 2020. We found that 55% of COVID-19 cases reported no known exposure to family members or to someone outside the house diagnosed with COVID-19. A significantly higher rate of COVID-19 cases were employed as essential workers (45% vs 19%, p = 9x10-12). COVID-19 cases reporting a fever were more likely to require hospitalization (categorized as severe; OR = 4.4 [95% CI: 1.6-12.5, p = 0.005]) whereas respondents reporting rhinorrhea was less likely to require hospitalization (categorized as mild-to-moderate; OR = 0.16 [95% CI: 0.04-0.73, p = 0.018]). African-Americans reported higher rates of being diagnosed with COVID-19 (OR = 4.0 [95% CI: 2.2-7.2, p = 5x10-6]), as well as higher rates of exposure to family or someone outside the household diagnosed with COVID-19, an annual household income < $40,000, living in rental housing, and chronic diseases. During the Executive Order in Michigan, African Americans, women, and the lowest income group reported worsening health behaviors and higher overall concern for the potential detrimental effects of the pandemic. The higher risk of contracting COVID-19 observed among African Americans may be due to the increased rates of working as essential employees, lower socioeconomic status, and exposure to known positive cases. Continued efforts should focus on COVID-19 prevention and mitigation strategies, as well as address the inequality gaps that result in higher risks for both short-term and long-term health outcomes.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adult , African Americans , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 155, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in serious concerns in China and abroad. To investigate clinical features of confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 in west China, and to examine differences between severe versus non-severe patients. METHODS: Patients admitted for COVID-19 between January 21 and February 11 from fifteen hospitals in Sichuan Province, China were included. Experienced clinicians trained with methods abstracted data from medical records using pre-defined, pilot-tested forms. Clinical characteristics between severe and non-severe patients were compared. RESULTS: Of the 169 patients included, 147 were laboratory-confirmed, 22 were suspected. For confirmed cases, the most common symptoms from onset to admission were cough (70·7%), fever (70·5%) and sputum (33·3%), and the most common chest CT patterns were patchy or stripes shadowing (78·0%); throughout the course of disease, 19·0% had no fever, and 12·4% had no radiologic abnormality; twelve (8·2%) received mechanical ventilation, four (2·7%) were transferred to ICU, and no death occurred. Compared to non-severe cases, severe ones were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (62·5% vs 26·2%, P = 0·001), to present with cough (92·0% vs 66·4%, P = 0·02), sputum (60·0% vs 27·9%, P = 0·004) and shortness of breath (40·0% vs 8·2%, P <  0·0001), and to have more frequent lymphopenia (79·2% vs 43·7%, P = 0·003) and eosinopenia (84·2% vs 57·0%, P = 0·046). CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms of patients in west China were relatively mild, and an appreciable proportion of infected cases had no fever, warranting special attention.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , China , Comorbidity , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lymphopenia , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Endocr Pract ; 27(2): 90-94, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Cancer may be a risk factor for worse outcomes in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infections. However, there is a significant variability across cancer types in the extent of disease burden and modalities of cancer treatment that may impact morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Therefore, we evaluated COVID-19 outcomes in patients with a differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) history. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with a history of DTC and SARS-CoV2 infection from 2 academic Los Angeles healthcare systems. Demographic, thyroid cancer, and treatment data were analyzed for associations with COVID-19 outcomes. RESULTS: Of 21 patients with DTC and COVID-19, 8 (38.1%) were hospitalized and 2 (9.5%) died from COVID-19. Thyroid cancer initial disease burden and extent, treatment, or current response to therapy (eg, excellent vs incomplete) were not associated with COVID-19 severity in DTC patients. However, older age and the presence of a comorbidity other than DTC were significantly associated with COVID-19 hospitalization (P = .047 and P = .024, respectively). COVID-19-attributed hospitalization and mortality in DTC patients was lower than that previously reported in cancer patients, although similar to patients with nonthyroid malignancies in these centers. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that among patients with DTC, advanced age and comorbid conditions are significant contributors to the risk of hospitalization from SARS-CoV2 infection, rather than factors associated with thyroid cancer diagnosis, treatment, or disease burden. This multicenter report of clinical outcomes provides additional data to providers to inform DTC patients regarding their risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Neoplasms , Aged , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology
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