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1.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221096202, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832998

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Innate immune system senses danger signals of COVID-19 infection and produce an orchestration of cellular, complement and cytokines cascades. These led to the approach using immunosuppressive agents. It is intriguing whether certain biomarkers can aid the proper administration of such drugs. METHODS: Plasma specimens of 58 COVID-19 patients with differing severity, from very mild illness (group A), mild (group B), moderate (group C), and severe/critical illness (group D) were assayed for cyto-chemokines and terminal complement complex (SC5b-9) during the course of diseases. None received anti-IL-6 therapy, there was no mortality in this cohort. RESULTS: IP-10 and RANTES levels were dominant cytokines. IP-10 levels increased significantly in all groups when compared between pre-nadir and nadir phases (group A, p =0.428; group B =0.034; group C =0.159; group D <0.001) and in groups B and D when compared between nadir and recovery phases (p <0.001). RANTES levels were elevated in all groups across all phases with no significant differences. SC5b-9 levels increased significantly as compared to healthy controls [pre-nadir- group A versus healthy, p =0.122; group B-D versus healthy, p =0.021); nadir-group A versus healthy, p =0.003; group B-D versus healthy, p <0.001; recovery phase (p <0.001)] but not between groups A and B-D at pre-nadir (p=0.606). CONCLUSION: The absence of significant pro-inflammatory responses and early elevation of IP-10 levels and complement activation may be favorable and necessary for viral elimination in COVID-19 patients. Expression of distinct cyto-chemokines during each clinical phase may be useful for guiding proper therapeutic interventions on alleviating thrombo-inflammation responses to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemokine CXCL10 , Complement Activation , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokine CCL5/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 815833, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731775

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus may vary from asymptomatic to severe infection with multi-organ failure and death. Increased levels of circulating complement biomarkers have been implicated in COVID-19-related hyperinflammation and coagulopathy. We characterized systemic complement activation at a cellular level in 49-patients with COVID-19. We found increases of the classical complement sentinel C1q and the downstream C3 component on circulating blood monocytes from COVID-19 patients when compared to healthy controls (HCs). Interestingly, the cell surface-bound complement inhibitor CD55 was also upregulated in COVID-19 patient monocytes in comparison with HC cells. Monocyte membrane-bound C1q, C3 and CD55 levels were associated with plasma inflammatory markers such as CRP and serum amyloid A during acute infection. Membrane-bounds C1q and C3 remained elevated even after a short recovery period. These results highlight systemic monocyte-associated complement activation over a broad range of COVID-19 disease severities, with a compensatory upregulation of CD55. Further evaluation of complement and its interaction with myeloid cells at the membrane level could improve understanding of its role in COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Complement Inactivating Agents/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 152, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701655

ABSTRACT

The complement system constitutes the innate defense against pathogens. Its dysregulation leads to diseases and is a critical determinant in many viral infections, e.g., COVID-19. Factor H (FH) is the main regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation and could be a therapy to restore homeostasis. However, recombinant FH is not available. Engineered FH versions may be alternative therapeutics. Here, we designed a synthetic protein, MFHR13, as a multitarget complement regulator. It combines the dimerization and C5-regulatory domains of human FH-related protein 1 (FHR1) with the C3-regulatory and cell surface recognition domains of human FH, including SCR 13. In summary, the fusion protein MFHR13 comprises SCRs FHR11-2:FH1-4:FH13:FH19-20. It protects sheep erythrocytes from complement attack exhibiting 26 and 4-fold the regulatory activity of eculizumab and human FH, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MFHR13 and FHR1 bind to all proteins forming the membrane attack complex, which contributes to the mechanistic understanding of FHR1. We consider MFHR13 a promising candidate as therapeutic for complement-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/metabolism , Complement Activation , Complement Factor H/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bryopsida/genetics , Bryopsida/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sheep
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700705, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686468

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), arose late in 2019, with disease pathology ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory distress with multi-organ failure requiring mechanical ventilator support. It has been found that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives intracellular complement activation in lung cells that tracks with disease severity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible remain unclear. To shed light on the potential mechanisms, we examined publicly available RNA-Sequencing data using CIBERSORTx and conducted a Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to address this knowledge gap. In complement to these findings, we used bioinformatics tools to analyze publicly available RNA sequencing data and found that upregulation of complement may be leading to a downregulation of T-cell activity in lungs of severe COVID-19 patients. Thus, targeting treatments aimed at the modulation of classical complement and T-cell activity may help alleviate the proinflammatory effects of COVID-19, reduce lung pathology, and increase the survival of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Complement Activation/genetics , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Lung/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Humans , Intracellular Space/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/microbiology , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 317, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671550

ABSTRACT

Activation of the serum-resident complement system begins a cascade that leads to activation of membrane-resident complement receptors on immune cells, thus coordinating serum and cellular immune responses. Whilst many molecules act to control inappropriate activation, Properdin is the only known positive regulator of the human complement system. By stabilising the alternative pathway C3 convertase it promotes complement self-amplification and persistent activation boosting the magnitude of the serum complement response by all triggers. In this work, we identify a family of tick-derived alternative pathway complement inhibitors, hereafter termed CirpA. Functional and structural characterisation reveals that members of the CirpA family directly bind to properdin, inhibiting its ability to promote complement activation, and leading to potent inhibition of the complement response in a species specific manner. We provide a full functional and structural characterisation of a properdin inhibitor, opening avenues for future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Arthropod Proteins/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/immunology , Complement Inactivating Agents/chemistry , Complement Inactivating Agents/immunology , Properdin/immunology , Rhipicephalus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Arthropod Proteins/genetics , Complement Activation , Complement C3/chemistry , Complement C3/immunology , Complement Pathway, Alternative , Humans , Kinetics , Properdin/chemistry , Properdin/genetics , Rhipicephalus/chemistry , Rhipicephalus/genetics , Sequence Alignment
6.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 275-286, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661973

ABSTRACT

The humoral arm of innate immunity includes diverse molecules with antibody-like functions, some of which serve as disease severity biomarkers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The present study was designed to conduct a systematic investigation of the interaction of human humoral fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Of 12 PRMs tested, the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) bound the viral nucleocapsid and spike proteins, respectively. MBL bound trimeric spike protein, including that of variants of concern (VoC), in a glycan-dependent manner and inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in three in vitro models. Moreover, after binding to spike protein, MBL activated the lectin pathway of complement activation. Based on retention of glycosylation sites and modeling, MBL was predicted to recognize the Omicron VoC. Genetic polymorphisms at the MBL2 locus were associated with disease severity. These results suggest that selected humoral fluid-phase PRMs can play an important role in resistance to, and pathogenesis of, COVID-19, a finding with translational implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Glycosylation , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/genetics , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology , Serum Amyloid P-Component/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells
7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(5): 1445-1455, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642687

ABSTRACT

There is an unmet need of models for early prediction of morbidity and mortality of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We aimed to a) identify complement-related genetic variants associated with the clinical outcomes of ICU hospitalization and death, b) develop an artificial neural network (ANN) predicting these outcomes and c) validate whether complement-related variants are associated with an impaired complement phenotype. We prospectively recruited consecutive adult patients of Caucasian origin, hospitalized due to COVID-19. Through targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified variants in complement factor H/CFH, CFB, CFH-related, CFD, CD55, C3, C5, CFI, CD46, thrombomodulin/THBD, and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS13). Among 381 variants in 133 patients, we identified 5 critical variants associated with severe COVID-19: rs2547438 (C3), rs2250656 (C3), rs1042580 (THBD), rs800292 (CFH) and rs414628 (CFHR1). Using age, gender and presence or absence of each variant, we developed an ANN predicting morbidity and mortality in 89.47% of the examined population. Furthermore, THBD and C3a levels were significantly increased in severe COVID-19 patients and those harbouring relevant variants. Thus, we reveal for the first time an ANN accurately predicting ICU hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients, based on genetic variants in complement genes, age and gender. Importantly, we confirm that genetic dysregulation is associated with impaired complement phenotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/mortality , Neural Networks, Computer , COVID-19/epidemiology , Complement Activation/genetics , Complement Factor H/genetics , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Genetic , Morbidity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Thrombomodulin/genetics
8.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 240-256, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endothelial and complement activation were both associated with immunothrombosis, a key determinant of COVID-19 severity, but their interrelation has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen (VWF:Ag) concentration, VWF collagen binding activity (VWF:CBA), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity (ADAMTS13:Ac), and their ratios in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and to investigate how these parameters and their constellation with complement activation relate to disease severity and in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: Samples of 102 hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 positivity were included in our observational cohort study. Patients were stratified according to the peak severity of COVID-19 disease in agreement with the World Health Organization ordinal scale. Twenty-six convalescent plasma donors with previous COVID-19 disease formed the control group. VWF:Ag concentration and VWF:CBA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); ADAMTS13:Ac was determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Complement C3 and C3a were measured by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. Clinical covariates and markers of inflammation were extracted from hospital records. RESULTS: VWF:Ag and VWF:CBA were elevated in all groups of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and increased in parallel with disease severity. ADAMTS13:Ac was decreased in patients with severe COVID-19, with the lowest values in nonsurvivors. High (> 300%) VWF:Ag concentrations or decreased (< 67%) ADAMTS13:Ac were associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease or in-hospital mortality. The concomitant presence of decreased ADAMTS13:Ac and increased C3a/C3 ratio-indicating complement overactivation and consumption-was a strong independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an interaction between the VWF-ADAMTS13 axis and complement overactivation and consumption plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C3/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Complement Activation , Convalescence , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
9.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 211(1): 37-48, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626115

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underlying the SARS-CoV-2-triggered hyperacute thrombo-inflammatory response that causes multi-organ damage in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. Several lines of evidence implicate overactivation of complement. To delineate the involvement of complement in COVID-19, we prospectively studied 25 ICU-hospitalized patients for up to 21 days. Complement biomarkers in patient sera and healthy controls were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Correlations with respiratory function and mortality were analyzed. Activation of complement via the classical/lectin pathways was variably increased. Strikingly, all patients had increased activation of the alternative pathway (AP) with elevated levels of activation fragments, Ba and Bb. This was associated with a reduction of the AP negative regulator, factor (F) H. Correspondingly, terminal pathway biomarkers of complement activation, C5a and sC5b-9, were significantly elevated in all COVID-19 patient sera. C5a and AP constituents Ba and Bb, were significantly associated with hypoxemia. Ba and FD at the time of ICU admission were strong independent predictors of mortality in the following 30 days. Levels of all complement activation markers were sustained throughout the patients' ICU stays, contrasting with the varying serum levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Severely ill COVID-19 patients have increased and persistent activation of complement, mediated strongly via the AP. Complement activation biomarkers may be valuable measures of severity of lung disease and the risk of mortality. Large-scale studies will reveal the relevance of these findings to thrombo-inflammation in acute and post-acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Complement Activation , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 72: 126-134, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606183

ABSTRACT

Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46), a ubiquitously expressed complement regulatory protein, serves as a cofactor for serine protease factor I to cleave and inactivate C3b and C4b deposited on host cells. However, CD46 also plays roles in human reproduction, autophagy, modulating T cell activation and effector functions and is a member of the newly identified intracellular complement system (complosome). CD46 also is a receptor for 11 pathogens ('pathogen magnet'). While CD46 deficiencies contribute to inflammatory disorders, its overexpression in cancers and role as a receptor for some adenoviruses has led to its targeting by oncolytic agents and adenoviral-based therapeutic vectors, including coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. This review focuses on recent advances in identifying disease-causing CD46 variants and its pathogen connections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Membrane Cofactor Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Autophagy , Complement Activation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Membrane Cofactor Protein/genetics , Oncolytic Virotherapy , Polymorphism, Genetic , Reproduction
11.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594167

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
13.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(2): 77-84, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585843

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivation of the complement and coagulation systems is recognized as part of the clinical syndrome of COVID-19. Here we review systemic complement activation and local complement activation in response to the causative virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and their currently known relationships to hyperinflammation and thrombosis. We also provide an update on early clinical findings and emerging clinical trial evidence that suggest potential therapeutic benefit of complement inhibition in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Complement System Proteins , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation , Humans , Inflammation , Thrombosis
14.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576961

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the role of complement (C') in infections with highly prevalent circulating human coronaviruses such as OC43, a group of viruses of major public health concern. Treatment of OC43-infected human lung cells with human serum resulted in C3 deposition on their surfaces and generation of C5a, indicating robust C' activation. Real-time cell viability assays showed that in vitro C'-mediated lysis of OC43 infected cells requires C3, C5 and C6 but not C7, and was substantially delayed as compared to rapid C'-mediated killing of parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5)-infected cells. In cells co-infected with OC43 and PIV5, C'-mediated lysis was delayed, similar to OC43 infected cells alone, suggesting that OC43 infection induced dominant inhibitory signals. When OC43-infected cells were treated with human serum, their cell surfaces contained both Vitronectin (VN) and Clusterin (CLU), two host cell C' inhibitors that can alter membrane attack complex (MAC) formation and C'-mediated killing. VN and CLU were not bound to OC43-infected cells after treatment with antibody-depleted serum. Reconstitution experiments with purified IgG and VN showed that human antibodies are both necessary and sufficient for VN recruitment to OC43-infected lung cells-novel findings with implications for CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/metabolism , Clusterin/metabolism , Complement Inactivator Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Lung/virology , Vitronectin/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Survival/immunology , Complement Activation , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Parainfluenza Virus 5/immunology
15.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542798

ABSTRACT

Overactivation of the complement system has been characterized in severe COVID-19 cases. Complement components are known to trigger NETosis via the coagulation cascade and have also been reported in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. In this longitudinal study, we investigated systemic and local complement activation and NETosis in COVID-19 patients that underwent mechanical ventilation. Results confirmed significantly higher baseline levels of serum C5a (24.5 ± 39.0 ng/mL) and TCC (11.03 ± 8.52 µg/mL) in patients compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Furthermore, systemic NETosis was significantly augmented in patients (5.87 (±3.71) × 106 neutrophils/mL) compared to healthy controls (0.82 (±0.74) × 106 neutrophils/mL) (p < 0.0001). In tracheal fluid, baseline TCC levels but not C5a and NETosis, were significantly higher in patients. Kinetic studies of systemic complement activation revealed markedly higher levels of TCC and CRP in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. In contrast, kinetic studies showed decreased local NETosis in tracheal fluid but comparable local complement activation in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. Systemic TCC and NETosis were significantly correlated with inflammation and coagulation markers. We propose that a ratio comprising systemic inflammation, complement activation, and chest X-ray score could be rendered as a predictive parameter of patient outcome in severe SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Complement C5a , Cytokines/blood , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Viral Load
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 767981, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528824

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to constitute a serious public health threat worldwide. Protective antibody-mediated viral neutralization in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been firmly characterized. Where the effects of the antibody response are generally considered to be beneficial, an important biological question regarding potential negative outcomes of a SARS-CoV-2 antibody response has yet to be answered. We determined the distribution of IgG subclasses and complement activation levels in plasma from convalescent individuals using in-house developed ELISAs. The IgG response towards SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) after natural infection appeared to be mainly driven by IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses, which are the main ligands for C1q mediated classical complement pathway activation. The deposition of the complement components C4b, C3bc, and TCC as a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were depending primarily on the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and significantly correlated with both IgG levels and disease severity, indicating that individuals with high levels of IgG and/or severe disease, might have a more prominent complement activation during viral infection. Finally, freshly isolated monocytes and a monocyte cell line (THP-1) were used to address the cellular mediated inflammatory response as a consequence of Fc-gamma receptor engagement by SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. Monocytic Fc gamma receptor charging resulted in a significant rise in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Our results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies might drive significant inflammatory responses through the classical complement pathway and via cellular immune-complex activation that could have negative consequences during COVID-19 disease. We found that increased classical complement activation was highly associated to COVID-19 disease severity. The combination of antibody-mediated complement activation and subsequent cellular priming could constitute a significant risk of exacerbating COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Complement Activation , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , THP-1 Cells
17.
J Gen Virol ; 102(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490495

ABSTRACT

The highly pathogenic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a severe respiratory virus. Recent reports indicate additional central nervous system (CNS) involvement. In this study, human DPP4 transgenic mice were infected with MERS-CoV, and viral antigens were first detected in the midbrain-hindbrain 4 days post-infection, suggesting the virus may enter the brainstem via peripheral nerves. Neurons and astrocytes throughout the brain were infected, followed by damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB), as well as microglial activation and inflammatory cell infiltration, which may be caused by complement activation based on the observation of deposition of complement activation product C3 and high expression of C3a receptor (C3aR) and C5a receptor (C5aR1) in neurons and glial cells. It may be concluded that these effects were mediated by complement activation in the brain, because of their reduction resulted from the treatment with mouse C5aR1-specific mAb. Such mAb significantly reduced nucleoprotein expression, suppressed microglial activation and decreased activation of caspase-3 in neurons and p38 phosphorylation in the brain. Collectively, these results suggest that MERS-CoV infection of CNS triggers complement activation, leading to inflammation-mediated damage of brain tissue, and regulating of complement activation could be a promising intervention and adjunctive treatment for CNS injury by MERS-CoV and other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/blood supply , Brain/immunology , Brain/virology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microglia/immunology , Microglia/pathology
18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 479-494, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to kidney allograft endothelial cells that does not activate the classic complement cascade can trigger the recruitment of innate immune effectors, including NK cells. Activated NK cells contribute to microvascular inflammation leading to chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Recipient NK cells can also trigger antibody-independent microvascular inflammation by sensing the absence of self HLA class I molecules ("missing self") on allograft endothelial cells. This translational study investigated whether the condition of missing self amplifies DSA-dependent NK cell activation to worsen chronic AMR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 1682 kidney transplant recipients who underwent an allograft biopsy at Lyon University Hospital between 2004 and 2017, 135 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AMR and were enrolled in the study. Patients with complement-fixing DSAs identified by a positive C3d binding assay (n=73, 54%) had a higher risk of transplant failure (P=0.002). Among the remaining patients with complement-independent chronic AMR (n=62, 46%), those in whom missing self was identified through donor and recipient genotyping exhibited worse allograft survival (P=0.02). In multivariable analysis, only proteinuria (HR: 7.24; P=0.01) and the presence of missing self (HR: 3.57; P=0.04) were independent predictors for transplant failure following diagnosis of chronic AMR. Cocultures of human NK cells and endothelial cells confirmed that addition of missing self to DSA-induced NK cell activation increased endothelial damage. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of missing self at the time of diagnosis of chronic AMR identifies patients at higher risk for kidney transplant failure.


Subject(s)
Allografts/pathology , Complement Activation/physiology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/blood , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Adult , Allografts/immunology , Cell Culture Techniques , Complement C3d/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Female , Graft Rejection/blood , Graft Rejection/pathology , Graft Survival , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 387-396, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483190

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and vascular injury, which characterize morbidity in COVID-19 disease, are frequently observed in the skin. Several pathomechanisms, such as inflammation caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated uptake into endothelial cells or SARS-CoV-2-initiated host immune responses, contribute to microthrombus formation and the appearance of vascular skin lesions. Besides pathophysiologic mechanisms observed in the skin, this review describes the clinical appearance of cutaneous vascular lesions and their association with COVID-19 disease, including acro-ischemia, reticular lesions, and cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Clinicians need to be aware that skin manifestations may be the only symptom in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that inflammatory and thrombotic SARS-CoV-2-driven processes observed in multiple organs and tissues appear identically in the skin as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Microvessels/immunology , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Skin/immunology , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/pathology , Vasculitis/physiopathology , Virus Internalization
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 692598, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463471

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence at the end of 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide at a very rapid pace. While most infected individuals have an asymptomatic or mild disease, a minority, mainly the elderly, develop a severe disease that may lead to a fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS results from a highly inflammatory immunopathology process that includes systemic manifestations and massive alveolar damages that impair gas exchange. The present review summarizes our current knowledge in the rapidly evolving field of SARS-CoV-2 immunopathology, emphasizing the role of specific T cell responses. Indeed, accumulating evidence suggest that while T-cell response directed against SARS-CoV-2 likely plays a crucial role in virus clearance, it may also participate in the immunopathology process that leads to ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Complement Activation , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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