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2.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(6): 506-514, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533595

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) have been postulated to be at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection due to inherent dysregulation of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system. Only limited data have been available to explore this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the interrelationship(s) between COVID-19 and HAE. Methods: Self-reported COVID-19 infection, complications, morbidity, and mortality were surveyed by using an online questionnaire. The participants included subjects with HAE with C1 inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency (HAE-C1INH) and subjects with HAE with normal C1-inhibitor (HAE-nl-C1INH), and household controls (normal controls). The impact of HAE medications was examined. Results: A total of 1162 participants who completed the survey were analyzed, including: 695 subjects with HAE-C1INH, 175 subjects with HAE-nl-C1INH, and 292 normal controls. The incidence of reported COVID-19 was not significantly different between the normal controls (9%) and the subjects with HAE-C1INH (11%) but was greater in the subjects with HAE-nl-C1INH (19%; p = 0.006). Obesity was positively correlated with COVID-19 across the overall population (p = 0.012), with a similar but nonsignificant trend in the subjects with HAE-C1INH. Comorbid autoimmune disease was a risk factor for COVID-19 in the subjects with HAE-C1INH (p = 0.047). COVID-19 severity and complications were similar in all the groups. Reported COVID-19 was reduced in the subjects with HAE-C1INH who received prophylactic subcutaneous C1INH (5.6%; p = 0.0371) or on-demand icatibant (7.8%; p = 0.0016). The subjects with HAE-C1INH and not on any HAE medications had an increased risk of COVID-19 compared with the normal controls (24.5%; p = 0.006). Conclusion: The subjects with HAE-C1INH who were not taking HAE medications had a significantly higher rate of reported COVID-19 infection. Subcutaneous C1INH and icatibant use were associated with a significantly reduced rate of reported COVID-19. The results implicated potential roles for the complement cascade and tissue kallikrein-kinin pathways in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in patients with HAE-C1INH.


Subject(s)
Angioedema/metabolism , Angioedemas, Hereditary/complications , Bradykinin/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins/genetics , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/genetics , Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II/metabolism , Angioedemas, Hereditary/drug therapy , Angioedemas, Hereditary/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kallikreins , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518489

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Although the exact factors promoting disease progression in COVID-19 are not fully elucidated, unregulated activation of the complement system (CS) seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the lectin pathway (LP) has been implicated in previous autopsy studies. The primary purpose of our study is to investigate the role of the CS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with varying degrees of disease severity. METHODS: In a single-center prospective observational study, 154 hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Serum samples on admission to the COVID-19 ward were collected for analysis of CS pathway activities and concentrations of LP proteins [mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-3 (FCN-3)] & C1 esterase inhibitor (C1IHN). The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death. RESULTS: The patients were predominately male and had multiple comorbidities. ICU admission was required in 16% of the patients and death (3%) or mechanical ventilation occurred in 23 patients (15%). There was no significant difference in LP activity, MBL and FCN-3 concentrations according to different peak disease severities. The median alternative pathway (AP) activity was significantly lower (65%, IQR 50-94) in patients with death/invasive ventilation compared to patients without (87%, IQR 68-102, p=0.026). An optimal threshold of <65.5% for AP activity was derived from a ROC curve resulting in increased odds for death or mechanical ventilation (OR 4,93; 95% CI 1.70-14.33, p=0.003) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Classical pathway (CP) activity was slightly lower in patients with more severe disease (median 101% for death/mechanical ventilation vs 109%, p=0.014). C1INH concentration correlated positively with length of stay, inflammatory markers and disease severity on admission but not during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our results point to an overactivated AP in critically ill COVID-19 patients in vivo leading to complement consumption and consequently to a significantly reduced AP activity in vitro. The LP does not seem to play a role in the progression to severe COVID-19. Apart from its acute phase reaction the significance of C1INH in COVID-19 requires further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/immunology , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(3): 467-488, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344212

ABSTRACT

Human C1-Inhibitor (C1INH), also known as C1-esterase inhibitor, is an important multifunctional plasma glycoprotein that is uniquely involved in a regulatory network of complement, contact, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems. C1INH belongs to a superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) and exhibits its inhibitory activities towards several target proteases of plasmatic cascades, operating as a major antiinflammatory protein in the circulation. In addition to its inhibitory activities, C1INH is also involved in non-inhibitory interactions with some endogenous proteins, polyanions, cells and infectious agents. While C1INH is essential for multiple physiological processes, it is better known for its deficiency with regards to Hereditary Angioedema (HAE), a rare autosomal dominant disease clinically manifested by recurrent acute attacks of increased vascular permeability and edema. Since the link was first established between functional C1INH deficiency in plasma and HAE in the 1960s, tremendous progress has been made in the biochemical characterization of C1INH and its therapeutic development for replacement therapies in patients with C1INH-dependent HAE. Various C1INH biological activities, recent advances in the HAE-targeted therapies, and availability of C1INH commercial products have prompted intensive investigation of the C1INH potential for the treatment of clinical conditions other than HAE. This article provides an updated overview of the structural and biological activities of C1INH, its role in HAE pathogenesis, and recent advances in the research and therapeutic development of C1INH; it also considers some trends for using C1INH therapeutic preparations for applications other than angioedema, from sepsis and endotoxin shock to severe thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angioedemas, Hereditary , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein , Angioedemas, Hereditary/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008805, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181166

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis is a recognized complication of Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and is often associated with poor prognosis. There is a well-recognized link between coagulation and inflammation, however, the extent of thrombotic events associated with COVID-19 warrants further investigation. Poly(A) Binding Protein Cytoplasmic 4 (PABPC4), Serine/Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor Clade G Member 1 (SERPING1) and Vitamin K epOxide Reductase Complex subunit 1 (VKORC1), which are all proteins linked to coagulation, have been shown to interact with SARS proteins. We computationally examined the interaction of these with SARS-CoV-2 proteins and, in the case of VKORC1, we describe its binding to ORF7a in detail. We examined the occurrence of variants of each of these proteins across populations and interrogated their potential contribution to COVID-19 severity. Potential mechanisms, by which some of these variants may contribute to disease, are proposed. Some of these variants are prevalent in minority groups that are disproportionally affected by severe COVID-19. Therefore, we are proposing that further investigation around these variants may lead to better understanding of disease pathogenesis in minority groups and more informed therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Blood Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/genetics , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/metabolism , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/metabolism , Warfarin/administration & dosage
7.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148106

ABSTRACT

Complement, contact activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis are serum protein cascades that need strict regulation to maintain human health. Serum glycoprotein, a C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), is a key regulator (inhibitor) of serine proteases of all the above-mentioned pathways. Recently, an autotransporter protein, virulence-associated gene 8 (Vag8), produced by the whooping cough pathogen, Bordetella pertussis, was shown to bind to C1-INH and interfere with its function. Here, we present the structure of the Vag8-C1-INH complex determined using cryo-electron microscopy at a 3.6-Å resolution. The structure shows a unique mechanism of C1-INH inhibition not employed by other pathogens, where Vag8 sequesters the reactive center loop of C1-INH, preventing its interaction with the target proteases.IMPORTANCE The structure of a 10-kDa protein complex is one of the smallest to be determined using cryo-electron microscopy at high resolution. The structure reveals that C1-INH is sequestered in an inactivated state by burial of the reactive center loop in Vag8. By so doing, the bacterium is able to simultaneously perturb the many pathways regulated by C1-INH. Virulence mechanisms such as the one described here assume more importance given the emerging evidence about dysregulation of contact activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis leading to COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bordetella pertussis/pathogenicity , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/metabolism , Immune Evasion , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Binding Sites , Blood Coagulation , Bordetella pertussis/chemistry , Bordetella pertussis/metabolism , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/chemistry , Complement System Proteins/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Fibrinolysis , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Type V Secretion Systems/genetics , Type V Secretion Systems/metabolism , Virulence , Virulence Factors, Bordetella
8.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2535-2543, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks can be provoked with psychological factors. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of anxiety, depression and stress related to COVID-19 pandemic on disease activity of HAE patients during the quarantine period (QP) and the return to normal period (RTNP). METHODS: This study was conducted between March 2020 and September 2020 in four allergy centres. Demographic, clinical features and mental health status were evaluated in QP (from March to the beginning of June) and RTNP (from June to the beginning of September) applied by the government. The 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS10) was used to define the severity of HAE attacks. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) and Fear of COVID-19 (FC-19) scale were performed to assess mental health status. RESULTS: 139 HAE patients were included in the study. In QP, median attack numbers and median VAS10 scores were 5 (min-max: 0-45) and 6 (min-max: 0-10), respectively. HAE attack numbers, DASS-21 stress, anxiety, depression and total DASS-21 scores, and FC-19 scores were higher in QP than RTNP (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). However, there was no difference in attack severity scores between the two periods (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the restriction measures during COVID-19 outbreak cause an increase in the number of HAE attacks in relation to anxiety, depression, stress and fear of COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, it is important to provide psychological support to HAE patients during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angioedemas, Hereditary , COVID-19 , Angioedemas, Hereditary/diagnosis , Angioedemas, Hereditary/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085035

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) can develop into a severe respiratory syndrome that results in up to 40% mortality. Acute lung inflammatory edema is a major pathological finding in autopsies explaining O2 diffusion failure and hypoxemia. Only dexamethasone has been shown to reduce mortality in severe cases, further supporting a role for inflammation in disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells employing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor, which is highly expressed in lung alveolar cells. ACE2 is one of the components of the cellular machinery that inactivates the potent inflammatory agent bradykinin, and SARS-CoV-2 infection could interfere with the catalytic activity of ACE2, leading to the accumulation of bradykinin. Methods: In this case control study, we tested two pharmacological inhibitors of the kinin-kallikrein system that are currently approved for the treatment of hereditary angioedema, icatibant, and inhibitor of C1 esterase/kallikrein, in a group of 30 patients with severe COVID-19. Results: Neither icatibant nor inhibitor of C1 esterase/kallikrein resulted in changes in time to clinical improvement. However, both compounds were safe and promoted the significant improvement of lung computed tomography scores and increased blood eosinophils, which are indicators of disease recovery. Conclusions: In this small cohort, we found evidence for safety and a beneficial role of pharmacological inhibition of the kinin-kallikrein system in two markers that indicate improved disease recovery.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System/drug effects , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adult , Aged , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 71, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, enters the cells through a mechanism dependent on its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protein highly expressed in the lungs. The putative viral-induced inhibition of ACE2 could result in the defective degradation of bradykinin, a potent inflammatory substance. We hypothesize that increased bradykinin in the lungs is an important mechanism driving the development of pneumonia and respiratory failure in COVID-19. METHODS: This is a phase II, single-center, three-armed parallel-group, open-label, active control superiority randomized clinical trial. One hundred eighty eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either the inhibitor of C1e/kallikrein 20 U/kg intravenously on day 1 and day 4 plus standard care; or icatibant 30 mg subcutaneously, three doses/day for 4 days plus standard care; or standard care alone, as recommended in the clinical trials published to date, which includes supplemental oxygen, non-invasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, prophylactic antithrombotic therapy, vasopressor support, and renal replacement therapy. DISCUSSION: Accumulation of bradykinin in the lungs is a common side effect of ACE inhibitors leading to cough. In animal models, the inactivation of ACE2 leads to severe acute pneumonitis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the inhibition of bradykinin almost completely restores the lung structure. We believe that inhibition of bradykinin in severe COVID-19 patients could reduce the lung inflammatory response, impacting positively on the severity of disease and mortality rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1250-1843. Registered on May/5/2020.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bradykinin/administration & dosage , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Bradykinin/antagonists & inhibitors , Bradykinin/immunology , Bradykinin/metabolism , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Kallikreins/metabolism , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
Trials ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary disease. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is an investigator-initiated, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, parallel-group, controlled, multi-center, phase 2a clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is conducted in 3 hospitals in Switzerland, 1 hospital in Brazil and 1 hospital in Mexico (academic and non-academic). All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). Conestat alfa (8400 U followed by 4200 U every 8 hours) will be administered as a slow intravenous injection (5-10 minutes) over a 72-hour period (i.e. 9 administrations in total). The first conestat alfa treatment will be administered on the day of enrolment. The control group will receive SOC only. SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of this trial is disease severity on day 7 after enrolment assessed by an adapted WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (score 0 will be omitted and score 6 and 7 will be combined) from 1 (no limitation of activities) to 7 (death). Secondary outcomes include (i) the time to clinical improvement (time from randomization to an improvement of two points on the WHO ordinal scale or discharge from hospital) within 14 days after enrolment, (ii) the proportion of participants alive and not having required invasive or non-invasive ventilation at 14 days after enrolment and (iii) the proportion of subjects without an acute lung injury (defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment. Exploratory outcomes include virological clearance, C1 esterase inhibitor pharmacokinetics and changes in routine laboratory parameters and inflammatory proteins. RANDOMISATION: Subjects will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with conestat alfa in addition to SOC or SOC only. Randomization is performed via an interactive web response system (SecuTrial®). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial, participants, caregivers and outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We will randomise approximately 120 individuals (80 in the active treatment arm, 40 in the SOC group). Two interim analyses after 40 and 80 patients are planned according to the Pocock adjusted levels αp = 0.0221. The results of the interim analysis will allow adjustment of the sample size (Lehmacher, Wassmer, 1999). TRIAL STATUS: PROTECT-COVID-19 protocol version 3.0 (July 07 2020). Participant recruitment started on July 30 2020 in one center (Basel, Switzerland, first participant included on August 06 2020). In four of five study centers patients are actively recruited. Participation of the fifth study center (Mexico) is anticipated by mid December 2020. Completion of trial recruitment depends on the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT04414631 , registered on 4 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/pharmacokinetics , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous/methods , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
Trials ; 22(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 patients with pulmonary disease. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is an investigator-initiated, randomized (2:1 ratio), open-label, parallel-group, controlled, multi-center, phase 2a clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: This trial is conducted in 3 hospitals in Switzerland, 1 hospital in Brazil and 1 hospital in Mexico (academic and non-academic). All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization for at least 3 calendar days for severe COVID-19 will be screened for study eligibility. INCLUSION CRITERIA: - Signed informed consent - Age 18-85 years - Evidence of pulmonary involvement on CT scan or X-ray of the chest - Duration of symptoms associated with COVID-19 ≤ 10 days - At least one of the following risk factors for progression to mechanical ventilation on the day of enrolment: 1) Arterial hypertension 2) ≥ 50 years 3) Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 4) History of cardiovascular disease 5) Chronic pulmonary disease 6) Chronic renal disease 7) C-reactive protein > 35mg/L 8) Oxygen saturation at rest of ≤ 94% when breathing ambient air Exclusion criteria: - Incapacity or inability to provide informed consent - Contraindications to the class of drugs under investigation (C1 esterase inhibitor) - Treatment with tocilizumab or another IL-6R or IL-6 inhibitor before enrolment - History or suspicion of allergy to rabbits - Pregnancy or breast feeding - Active or anticipated treatment with any other complement inhibitor - Liver cirrhosis (any Child-Pugh score) - Admission to an ICU on the day or anticipated within the next 24 hours of enrolment - Invasive or non-invasive ventilation - Participation in another study with any investigational drug within the 30 days prior to enrolment - Enrolment of the study investigators, their family members, employees and other closely related or dependent persons INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomized to the experimental arm will receive conestat alfa in addition to standard of care (SOC). Conestat alfa (8400 U followed by 4200 U every 8 hours) will be administered as a slow intravenous injection (5-10 minutes) over a 72-hour period (i.e. 9 administrations in total). The first conestat alfa treatment will be administered on the day of enrolment. The control group will receive SOC only. SOC treatment will be administered according to local institutional guidelines, including supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint of this trial is disease severity on day 7 after enrolment assessed by an adapted WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (score 0 will be omitted and score 6 and 7 will be combined) from 1 (no limitation of activities) to 7 (death). Secondary outcomes include (i) the time to clinical improvement (time from randomization to an improvement of two points on the WHO ordinal scale or discharge from hospital) within 14 days after enrolment, (ii) the proportion of participants alive and not having required invasive or non-invasive ventilation at 14 days after enrolment and (iii) the proportion of subjects without an acute lung injury (defined by PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤300mmHg) within 14 days after enrolment. Exploratory outcomes include virological clearance, C1 esterase inhibitor pharmacokinetics and changes in routine laboratory parameters and inflammatory proteins. RANDOMISATION: Subjects will be randomised in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with conestat alfa in addition to SOC or SOC only. Randomization is performed via an interactive web response system (SecuTrial®). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial, participants, caregivers and outcome assessors are not blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We will randomise approximately 120 individuals (80 in the active treatment arm, 40 in the SOC group). Two interim analyses after 40 and 80 patients are planned according to the Pocock adjusted levels αp = 0.0221. The results of the interim analysis will allow adjustment of the sample size (Lehmacher, Wassmer, 1999). TRIAL STATUS: PROTECT-COVID-19 protocol version 3.0 (July 07 2020). Participant recruitment started on July 30 2020 in one center (Basel, Switzerland, first participant included on August 06 2020). In four of five study centers patients are actively recruited. Participation of the fifth study center (Mexico) is anticipated by mid December 2020. Completion of trial recruitment depends on the development of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, number: NCT04414631 , registered on 4 June 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/pharmacokinetics , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous/methods , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Orv Hetil ; 161(50): 2099-2103, 2020 12 13.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992775

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Egy új, számítógép által segített betegminta-asszociációs analízis eredménye szerint a COVID-19 tüneteinek kialakításában kiemelt tényezoként jelenik meg a bradikinin. Eszerint a bradikinin lebontása lelassul az angiotenzinkonvertáló enzim aktivitásának csökkenése miatt, ami jelentosen megemelkedo bradikininszinthez vezet a tüdoben. Nem merült fel azonban a véralvadási faktorok lehetséges szerepe a "bradikininviharban", annak ellenére, hogy az idosebb cardiovascularis betegekben aktiválódó XII-es faktor és a C1-észteráz-inhibitor (C1INH) alacsony szintje nagy mennyiségu bradikinin képzodéséhez vezethet. Módszer: Átfogó irodalmi áttekintés. Eredmények: 1) A vírus által fertozött, sérült endotheliumsejtek felülete az a hely, amellyel érintkezve elindulhat a XII-es véralvadási faktor aktivációja - ez serkenti a prekallikrein/kallikrein/kinin rendszert, és bradikininképzodést okoz. Ez a folyamat megtörténik a súlyos vese- és tüdokárosodást okozó hantavírus-fertozésekben. 2) Idos betegekben az atherosclerosis miatt többszörösen sérült, merev, "stiff" erek endotheliumfelszínein jóval magasabb lehet a XII-es faktor kontakt úton történo aktivációja, mint a fiatal egyének ereiben. Ez a tény egyik oka lehet az idos, cardiovascularis betegek körében tapasztalt magasabb halálozásnak. Következtetés: Az aktivált XII-es véralvadási faktor célzott gátlása újabb gyógyítási lehetoség lehet a SARS-CoV-2-fertozött idos betegekben. Jelenleg már hatásosnak bizonyult a bradikininképzést gátló C1INH-nak, továbbá a bradikininreceptor-gátlóknak az adása is. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(50): 2099-2103. INTRODUCTION: Bradykinin was implicated in a new complex model of pathomechanism leading to the symptoms of COVID-19 created by a computer-assisted association analysis. According to this model, the decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme expression leads to impaired bradykinin elimination and subsequent enrichment in the lungs. However, there is no mentioning of the importance of blood coagulation factor XII in increased bradykinin production, in spite of its age-dependent activation and the lower level of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1INH). Activated factor XII may be an important contributor to the "bradykinin storm" in elder cardiovascular patients. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: 1) Activation of the coagulation factor XII on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 infected endothelial cells may trigger the prekallikrein/kallikrein/kinin system producing bradykinin. Such process is taking place in hantavirus infections causing severe lung and kidney damages. 2) The endothelial system is dysregulated in elderly patients, resulting in potentially higher factor XII activities on the surface of damaged endothelial cells in the stiffened arteries. This can contribute to the higher mortality rates in the elderly. CONCLUSION: The targeted inhibition of activated blood coagulation factor XII may represent a new therapeutic target for COVID-19, especially for elder patients. Recently, beneficial results have already been observed by the clinical applications of recombinant C1INH and bradykinin receptor antagonists. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(50): 2099-2103.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bradykinin , Factor XIIa , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein , Endothelial Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2072, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760863

ABSTRACT

A dysregulated immune response with hyperinflammation is observed in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and potential benefits of human recombinant C1 esterase inhibitor (conestat alfa), a complement, contact activation and kallikrein-kinin system regulator, in severe COVID-19. Patients with evidence of progressive disease after 24 h including an oxygen saturation <93% at rest in ambient air were included at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland in April 2020. Conestat alfa was administered by intravenous injections of 8400 IU followed by 3 additional doses of 4200 IU in 12-h intervals. Five patients (age range, 53-85 years; one woman) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (11-39% lung involvement on computed tomography scan of the chest) were treated a median of 1 day (range 1-7 days) after admission. Treatment was well-tolerated. Immediate defervescence occurred, and inflammatory markers and oxygen supplementation decreased or stabilized in 4 patients (e.g., median C-reactive protein 203 (range 31-235) mg/L before vs. 32 (12-72) mg/L on day 5). Only one patient required mechanical ventilation. All patients recovered. C1INH concentrations were elevated before conestat alfa treatment. Levels of complement activation products declined after treatment. Viral loads in nasopharyngeal swabs declined in 4 patients. In this uncontrolled case series, targeting multiple inflammatory cascades by conestat alfa was safe and associated with clinical improvements in the majority of severe COVID-19 patients. Controlled clinical trials are needed to assess its safety and efficacy in preventing disease progression.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/therapeutic use , Complement C1/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Kallikrein-Kinin System/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/analysis , Factor XIa/antagonists & inhibitors , Female , Humans , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732898

ABSTRACT

To date the pathophysiology of COVID-19 remains unclear: this represents a factor determining the current lack of effective treatments. In this paper, we hypothesized a complex host response to SARS-CoV-2, with the Contact System (CS) playing a pivotal role in innate immune response. CS is linked with different proteolytic defense systems operating in human vasculature: the Kallikrein-Kinin (KKS), the Coagulation/Fibrinolysis and the Renin-Angiotensin (RAS) Systems. We investigated the role of the mediators involved. CS consists of Factor XII (FXII) and plasma prekallikrein (complexed to high-molecular-weight kininogen-HK). Autoactivation of FXII by contact with SARS-CoV-2 could lead to activation of intrinsic coagulation, with fibrin formation (microthrombosis), and fibrinolysis, resulting in increased D-dimer levels. Activation of kallikrein by activated FXII leads to production of bradykinin (BK) from HK. BK binds to B2-receptors, mediating vascular permeability, vasodilation and edema. B1-receptors, binding the metabolite [des-Arg9]-BK (DABK), are up-regulated during infections and mediate lung inflammatory responses. BK could play a relevant role in COVID-19 as already described for other viral models. Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme (ACE) 2 displays lung protective effects: it inactivates DABK and converts Angiotensin II (Ang II) into Angiotensin-(1-7) and Angiotensin I into Angiotensin-(1-9). SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2 for cell entry, downregulating it: an impaired DABK inactivation could lead to an enhanced activity of B1-receptors, and the accumulation of Ang II, through a negative feedback loop, may result in decreased ACE activity, with consequent increase of BK. Therapies targeting the CS, the KKS and action of BK could be effective for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fibrinolysis/immunology , Kallikrein-Kinin System/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Bradykinin/metabolism , COVID-19 , Capillary Permeability , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Factor XIIa/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma Kallikrein/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prekallikrein/metabolism , Receptor, Bradykinin B1/metabolism , Receptor, Bradykinin B2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation
17.
Br J Haematol ; 190(4): 520-524, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707353

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with severe systemic consequences, including vasculitis, a hyperinflammatory state and hypercoagulation. The mechanisms leading to these life-threatening abnormalities are multifactorial. Based on the analysis of publicly available interactomes, we propose that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection directly causes a deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor, a pathogen-specific mechanism that may help explain significant systemic abnormalities in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Humans
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