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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1134802, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239332

ABSTRACT

There has been progressive improvement in immunoinformatics approaches for epitope-based peptide design. Computational-based immune-informatics approaches were applied to identify the epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 to develop vaccines. The accessibility of the SARS-CoV-2 protein surface was analyzed, and hexa-peptide sequences (KTPKYK) were observed having a maximum score of 8.254, located between amino acids 97 and 102, whereas the FSVLAC at amino acids 112 to 117 showed the lowest score of 0.114. The surface flexibility of the target protein ranged from 0.864 to 1.099 having amino acid ranges of 159 to 165 and 118 to 124, respectively, harboring the FCYMHHM and YNGSPSG hepta-peptide sequences. The surface flexibility was predicted, and a 0.864 score was observed from amino acids 159 to 165 with the hepta-peptide (FCYMHHM) sequence. Moreover, the highest score of 1.099 was observed between amino acids 118 and 124 against YNGSPSG. B-cell epitopes and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were also identified against SARS-CoV-2. In molecular docking analyses, -0.54 to -26.21 kcal/mol global energy was observed against the selected CTL epitopes, exhibiting binding solid energies of -3.33 to -26.36 kcal/mol. Based on optimization, eight epitopes (SEDMLNPNY, GSVGFNIDY, LLEDEFTPF, DYDCVSFCY, GTDLEGNFY, QTFSVLACY, TVNVLAWLY, and TANPKTPKY) showed reliable findings. The study calculated the associated HLA alleles with MHC-I and MHC-II and found that MHC-I epitopes had higher population coverage (0.9019% and 0.5639%) than MHC-II epitopes, which ranged from 58.49% to 34.71% in Italy and China, respectively. The CTL epitopes were docked with antigenic sites and analyzed with MHC-I HLA protein. In addition, virtual screening was conducted using the ZINC database library, which contained 3,447 compounds. The 10 top-ranked scrutinized molecules (ZINC222731806, ZINC077293241, ZINC014880001, ZINC003830427, ZINC030731133, ZINC003932831, ZINC003816514, ZINC004245650, ZINC000057255, and ZINC011592639) exhibited the least binding energy (-8.8 to -7.5 kcal/mol). The molecular dynamics (MD) and immune simulation data suggest that these epitopes could be used to design an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the form of a peptide-based vaccine. Our identified CTL epitopes have the potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Molecular Docking Simulation , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Peptides , Vaccines, Subunit , Amino Acids , Endopeptidases , Computational Biology
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1152186, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238642

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) has led to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) worldwide. we have noted that many critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. The molecular mechanisms that underlie COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to analyze potential molecular mechanisms and identify potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis using bioinformatics and a systems biology approach. Methods Three RNA-seq datasets (GSE171110, GSE76293 and GSE137342) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were employed to detect mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the patients with the COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis for functional enrichment, pathway analysis, and candidate drugs analysis. Results We obtained 110 common DEGs among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. ARG1, FCGR1A, MPO, and TLR5 are the most influential hub genes. The infection and immune-related pathways and functions are the main pathways and molecular functions of these three diseases. FOXC1, YY1, GATA2, FOXL, STAT1 and STAT3 are important TFs for COVID-19. mir-335-5p, miR-335-5p and hsa-mir-26a-5p were associated with COVID-19. Finally, the hub genes retrieved from the DSigDB database indicate multiple drug molecules and drug-targets interaction. Conclusion We performed a functional analysis under ontology terms and pathway analysis and found some common associations among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. Transcription factors-genes interaction, protein-drug interactions, and DEGs-miRNAs coregulatory network with common DEGs were also identified on the datasets. We believe that the candidate drugs obtained in this study may contribute to the effective treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Humans , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/genetics
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238020

ABSTRACT

The analysis of molecular mechanisms of disease progression challenges the development of bioinformatics tools and omics data integration [...].


Subject(s)
Genetics, Medical , Genomics , Computational Biology
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(23): e33912, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234985

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a risk factor for severe COVID-19, but the mechanism remains unknown. This study used bioinformatics to help define the relationship between these diseases. The GSE147507 (COVID-19), GSE126848 (NAFLD), and GSE63067 (NAFLD-2) datasets were screened using the Gene Expression Omnibus. Common differentially expressed genes were then identified using a Venn diagram. Gene ontology analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment were performed on the differentially expressed genes. A protein-protein interaction network was also constructed using the STRING platform, and key genes were identified using the Cytoscape plugin. GES63067 was selected for validation of the results. Analysis of ferroptosis gene expression during the development of the 2 diseases and prediction of their upstream miRNAs and lncRNAs. In addition, transcription factors (TFs) and miRNAs related to key genes were identified. Effective drugs that act on target genes were found in the DSigDB. The GSE147507 and GSE126848 datasets were crossed to obtain 28 co-regulated genes, 22 gene ontology terms, 3 KEGG pathways, and 10 key genes. NAFLD may affect COVID-19 progression through immune function and inflammatory signaling pathways. CYBB was predicted to be a differential ferroptosis gene associated with 2 diseases, and the CYBB-hsa-miR-196a/b-5p-TUG1 regulatory axis was identified. TF-gene interactions and TF-miRNA coregulatory network were constructed successfully. A total of 10 drugs, (such as Eckol, sulfinpyrazone, and phenylbutazone) were considered as target drugs for Patients with COVID-19 and NAFLD. This study identified key gene and defined molecular mechanisms associated with the progression of COVID-19 and NAFLD. COVID-19 and NAFLD progression may regulate ferroptosis through the CYBB-hsa-miR-196a/b-5p-TUG1 axis. This study provides additional drug options for the treatment of COVID-19 combined with NAFLD disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/genetics , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Systems Biology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9330, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234094

ABSTRACT

A growing of evidence has showed that patients with osteoarthritis (OA) had a higher coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection rate and a poorer prognosis after infected it. Additionally, scientists have also discovered that COVID-19 infection might cause pathological changes in the musculoskeletal system. However, its mechanism is still not fully elucidated. This study aims to further explore the sharing pathogenesis of patients with both OA and COVID-19 infection and find candidate drugs. Gene expression profiles of OA (GSE51588) and COVID-19 (GSE147507) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for both OA and COVID-19 were identified and several hub genes were extracted from them. Then gene and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs were performed; protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, transcription factor (TF)-gene regulatory network, TF-miRNA regulatory network and gene-disease association network were constructed based on the DEGs and hub genes. Finally, we predicted several candidate molecular drugs related to hub genes using DSigDB database. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of hub genes in the diagnosis of both OA and COVID-19. In total, 83 overlapping DEGs were identified and selected for subsequent analyses. CXCR4, EGR2, ENO1, FASN, GATA6, HIST1H3H, HIST1H4H, HIST1H4I, HIST1H4K, MTHFD2, PDK1, TUBA4A, TUBB1 and TUBB3 were screened out as hub genes, and some showed preferable values as diagnostic markers for both OA and COVID-19. Several candidate molecular drugs, which are related to the hug genes, were identified. These sharing pathways and hub genes may provide new ideas for further mechanistic studies and guide more individual-based effective treatments for OA patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Computational Biology , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2673: 431-452, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233939

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of approaches have been adopted by the scientific communities for developing efficient vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2. Conventional approaches of developing a vaccine require a long time and a series of trials and errors which indeed limit the feasibility of such approaches for developing a dependable vaccine in an emergency situation like the COVID-19 pandemic. Hitherto, most of the available vaccines have been developed against a particular antigen of SARS-CoV, spike protein in most of the cases, and intriguingly, these vaccines are not effective against all the pathogenic coronaviruses. In this context, immunoinformatics-based reverse vaccinology approaches enable a robust design of efficacious peptide-based vaccines against all the infectious strains of coronaviruses within a short frame of time. In this chapter, we enumerate the methodological trajectory of developing a universal anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, namely, "AbhiSCoVac," through advanced computational biology-based immunoinformatics approach and its in-silico validation using molecular dynamics simulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Molecular Docking Simulation , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Vaccines, Subunit , Computational Biology
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1135859, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232788

ABSTRACT

Background: Sepsis is a dysfunctional host response to infection. The syndrome leads to millions of deaths annually (19.7% of all deaths in 2017) and is the cause of most deaths from severe Covid infections. High throughput sequencing or 'omics' experiments in molecular and clinical sepsis research have been widely utilized to identify new diagnostics and therapies. Transcriptomics, quantifying gene expression, has dominated these studies, due to the efficiency of measuring gene expression in tissues and the technical accuracy of technologies like RNA-Seq. Objective: Most of these studies seek to uncover novel mechanistic insights into sepsis pathogenesis and diagnostic gene signatures by identifying genes differentially expressed between two or more relevant conditions. However, little effort has been made, to date, to aggregate this knowledge from such studies. In this study we sought to build a compendium of previously described gene sets that combines knowledge gained from sepsis-associated studies. This would enable the identification of genes most associated with sepsis pathogenesis, and the description of the molecular pathways commonly associated with sepsis. Methods: PubMed was searched for studies using transcriptomics to characterize acute infection/sepsis and severe sepsis (i.e., sepsis combined with organ failure). Several studies were identified that used transcriptomics to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes, predictive/prognostic signatures, and underlying molecular responses and pathways. The molecules included in each gene set were collected, in addition to the relevant study metadata (e.g., patient groups used for comparison, sample collection time point, tissue type, etc.). Results: After performing extensive literature curation of 74 sepsis-related publications involving transcriptomics, 103 unique gene sets (comprising 20,899 unique genes) from thousands of patients were collated together with associated metadata. Frequently described genes included in gene sets as well as the molecular mechanisms they were involved in were identified. These mechanisms included neutrophil degranulation, generation of second messenger molecules, IL-4 and -13 signaling, and IL-10 signaling among many others. The database, which we named SeptiSearch, is made available in a web application created using the Shiny framework in R, (available at https://septisearch.ca). Conclusions: SeptiSearch provides members of the sepsis community the bioinformatic tools needed to leverage and explore the gene sets contained in the database. This will allow the gene sets to be further scrutinized and analyzed for their enrichment in user-submitted gene expression data and used for validation of in-house gene sets/signatures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Computational Biology , Databases, Factual , Gene Expression Profiling
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(20): e33821, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245357

ABSTRACT

To investigate the potential role of COVID-19 in relation to Behcet's disease (BD) and to search for relevant biomarkers. We used a bioinformatics approach to download transcriptomic data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of COVID-19 patients and PBMCs of BD patients, screened the common differential genes between COVID-19 and BD, performed gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis, and constructed the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, screened the hub genes and performed co-expression analysis. In addition, we constructed the genes-transcription factors (TFs)-miRNAs network, the genes-diseases network and the genes-drugs network to gain insight into the interactions between the 2 diseases. We used the RNA-seq dataset from the GEO database (GSE152418, GSE198533). We used cross-analysis to obtain 461 up-regulated common differential genes and 509 down-regulated common differential genes, mapped the PPI network, and used Cytohubba to identify the 15 most strongly associated genes as hub genes (ACTB, BRCA1, RHOA, CCNB1, ASPM, CCNA2, TOP2A, PCNA, AURKA, KIF20A, MAD2L1, MCM4, BUB1, RFC4, and CENPE). We screened for statistically significant hub genes and found that ACTB was in low expression of both BD and COVID-19, and ASPM, CCNA2, CCNB1, and CENPE were in low expression of BD and high expression of COVID-19. GO analysis and pathway analysis was then performed to obtain common pathways and biological response processes, which suggested a common association between BD and COVID-19. The genes-TFs-miRNAs network, genes-diseases network and genes-drugs network also play important roles in the interaction between the 2 diseases. Interaction between COVID-19 and BD exists. ACTB, ASPM, CCNA2, CCNB1, and CENPE as potential biomarkers for 2 diseases.


Subject(s)
Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , Transcriptome , Behcet Syndrome/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
9.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 23(3): 199, 2023 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243808

ABSTRACT

Silicosis is an occupational lung disease that is common worldwide. In recent years, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has provided daunting challenges to public healthcare systems globally. Although multiple studies have shown a close link between COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases, the inter-relational mechanisms between COVID-19 and silicosis remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the shared molecular mechanisms and drug targets of COVID-19 and silicosis. Gene expression profiling identified four modules that were most closely associated with both diseases. Furthermore, we performed functional analysis and constructed a protein-protein interaction network. Seven hub genes (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 [BUB1], protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 [PRC1], kinesin family member C1 [KIFC1], ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 [RRM2], cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 [CDKN3], Cyclin B2 [CCNB2], and minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 [MCM6]) were involved in the interaction between COVID-19 and silicosis. We investigated how diverse microRNAs and transcription factors regulate these seven genes. Subsequently, the correlation between the hub genes and infiltrating immune cells was explored. Further in-depth analyses were performed based on single-cell transcriptomic data from COVID-19, and the expression of hub-shared genes was characterized and located in multiple cell clusters. Finally, molecular docking results reveal small molecular compounds that may improve COVID-19 and silicosis. The current study reveals the common pathogenesis of COVID-19 and silicosis, which may provide a novel reference for further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Silicosis , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Silicosis/genetics
10.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 23(2): 175, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324466

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has speedily increased mortality globally. Although they are risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), less is known about the common molecular mechanisms behind COVID-19, influenza virus A (IAV), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This research used bioinformatics and systems biology to find possible medications for treating COVID-19, IAV, and COPD via identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from gene expression datasets (GSE171110, GSE76925, GSE106986, and GSE185576). A total of 78 DEGs were subjected to functional enrichment, pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construct, hub gene extraction, and other potentially relevant disorders. Then, DEGs were discovered in networks including transcription factor (TF)-gene connections, protein-drug interactions, and DEG-microRNA (miRNA) coregulatory networks by using NetworkAnalyst. The top 12 hub genes were MPO, MMP9, CD8A, HP, ELANE, CD5, CR2, PLA2G7, PIK3R1, SLAMF1, PEX3, and TNFRSF17. We found that 44 TFs-genes, as well as 118 miRNAs, are directly linked to hub genes. Additionally, we searched the Drug Signatures Database (DSigDB) and identified 10 drugs that could potentially treat COVID-19, IAV, and COPD. Therefore, we evaluated the top 12 hub genes that could be promising DEGs for targeted therapy for SARS-CoV-2 and identified several prospective medications that may benefit COPD patients with COVID-19 and IAV co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , MicroRNAs , Orthomyxoviridae , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Computational Biology
11.
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(6): 10659-10674, 2023 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324457

ABSTRACT

To comprehend the etiology and pathogenesis of many illnesses, it is essential to identify disease-associated microRNAs (miRNAs). However, there are a number of challenges with current computational approaches, such as the lack of "negative samples", that is, confirmed irrelevant miRNA-disease pairs, and the poor performance in terms of predicting miRNAs related with "isolated diseases", i.e. illnesses with no known associated miRNAs, which presents the need for novel computational methods. In this study, for the purpose of predicting the connection between disease and miRNA, an inductive matrix completion model was designed, referred to as IMC-MDA. In the model of IMC-MDA, for each miRNA-disease pair, the predicted marks are calculated by combining the known miRNA-disease connection with the integrated disease similarities and miRNA similarities. Based on LOOCV, IMC-MDA had an AUC of 0.8034, which shows better performance than previous methods. Furthermore, experiments have validated the prediction of disease-related miRNAs for three major human diseases: colon cancer, kidney cancer, and lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , MicroRNAs , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Algorithms , Computational Biology/methods , Colonic Neoplasms/genetics
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 45(7): 779-797, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to be a fatal disease of the year 2020, due to which thousands of people globally have lost their lives, and still, the infection cases are at a high rate. Experimental studies suggested that SARS-CoV-2 interacts with various microorganisms, and this coinfection is accountable for the augmentation of infection severity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we have designed a multi-pathogen vaccine by involving the immunogenic proteins from S. pneumonia, H. influenza, and M. tuberculosis, as they are dominantly associated with SARS-CoV-2. A total of 8 antigenic protein sequences were selected to predict B-cell, HTL, and CTL epitopes restricted to the most prevalent HLA alleles. The selected epitopes were antigenic, non-allergenic, and non-toxic and were linked with adjuvant and linkers to make the vaccine protein more immunogenic, stable, and flexible. The tertiary structure, Ramachandran plot, and discontinuous B-cell epitopes were predicted. Docking and MD simulation study has shown efficient binding of the chimeric vaccine with the TLR4 receptor. CONCLUSION: The in silico immune simulation analysis has shown a high level of cytokines and IgG after a three-dose injection. Hence, this strategy could be a better way to decrease the disease's severity and could be used as a weapon to prevent this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Vaccines, Subunit , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Computational Biology/methods
13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D27-D38, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312875

ABSTRACT

The National Genomics Data Center (NGDC), part of the China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB), provides a family of database resources to support global research in both academia and industry. With the explosively accumulated multi-omics data at ever-faster rates, CNCB-NGDC is constantly scaling up and updating its core database resources through big data archive, curation, integration and analysis. In the past year, efforts have been made to synthesize the growing data and knowledge, particularly in single-cell omics and precision medicine research, and a series of resources have been newly developed, updated and enhanced. Moreover, CNCB-NGDC has continued to daily update SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, variants, haplotypes and literature. Particularly, OpenLB, an open library of bioscience, has been established by providing easy and open access to a substantial number of abstract texts from PubMed, bioRxiv and medRxiv. In addition, Database Commons is significantly updated by cataloguing a full list of global databases, and BLAST tools are newly deployed to provide online sequence search services. All these resources along with their services are publicly accessible at https://ngdc.cncb.ac.cn.


Subject(s)
Databases, Factual , Animals , China , Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Dogs , Epigenome , Genome, Human , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Methylation , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/pathology , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis , Software , Synthetic Biology
14.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 238: 107584, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) than healthy population, but there is still no therapeutic strategy available for RA patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Guizhi-Shaoyao-Zhimu decoction (GSZD), Chinese ancient experience decoction, has a significant effect on the treatment of Rheumatism and gout. To prevent RA patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 from developing into severe COVID-19, this study explored the potential possibility and mechanism of GSZD in the treatment of this population. METHODS: In this study, we used bioinformatic approaches to explore common pharmacological targets and signaling pathways between RA and mild-to-moderate COVID-19, and to assess the potential mechanisms of in the treatment of patients with both diseases. Beside, molecular docking was used to explore the molecular interactions between GSZD and SARS-CoV-2 related proteins. RESULTS: Results showed that 1183 common targets were found in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and RA, of which TNF was the most critical target. The crosstalk signaling pathways of the two diseases focused on innate immunity and T cells pathways. In addition, GSZD intervened in RA and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 mainly by regulating inflammation-related signaling pathways and oxidative stress. Twenty hub compounds in GSZD exhibited good binding potential to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, 3C-like protease (3CLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), papain-like protease (PLpro) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), thereby intervening in viral infection, replication and transcription. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides a therapeutic option for RA patients against mild-to-moderate COVID-19, but further clinical validation is still needed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Computational Biology
15.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 17: 17539447231168471, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is the most common cardiovascular diseases and the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases related deaths. Increasing molecular targets have been discovered for HF prognosis and therapy. However, there is still an urgent need to identify novel biomarkers. Therefore, we evaluated biomarkers that might aid the diagnosis and treatment of HF. METHODS: We searched next-generation sequencing (NGS) dataset (GSE161472) and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing 47 HF samples and 37 normal control samples using limma in R package. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs were performed using the g: Profiler database. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was plotted with Human Integrated Protein-Protein Interaction rEference (HiPPIE) and visualized using Cytoscape. Module analysis of the PPI network was done using PEWCC1. Then, miRNA-hub gene regulatory network and TF-hub gene regulatory network were constructed by Cytoscape software. Finally, we performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict the diagnostic effectiveness of the hub genes. RESULTS: A total of 930 DEGs, 464 upregulated genes and 466 downregulated genes, were identified in HF. GO and REACTOME pathway enrichment results showed that DEGs mainly enriched in localization, small molecule metabolic process, SARS-CoV infections, and the citric acid tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport. After combining the results of the PPI network miRNA-hub gene regulatory network and TF-hub gene regulatory network, 10 hub genes were selected, including heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1 (HSP90AA1), arrestin beta 2 (ARRB2), myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), heat shock protein 90 alpha family class B member 1 (HSP90AB1), filamin A (FLNA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1), cullin 4A (CUL4A), YEATS domain containing 4 (YEATS4), and lysine acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B). CONCLUSIONS: This discovery-driven study might be useful to provide a novel insight into the diagnosis and treatment of HF. However, more experiments are needed in the future to investigate the functional roles of these genes in HF.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , MicroRNAs , Humans , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Biomarkers , MicroRNAs/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Cullin Proteins/genetics
16.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0285212, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294898

ABSTRACT

Recently big data and its applications had sharp growth in various fields such as IoT, bioinformatics, eCommerce, and social media. The huge volume of data incurred enormous challenges to the architecture, infrastructure, and computing capacity of IT systems. Therefore, the compelling need of the scientific and industrial community is large-scale and robust computing systems. Since one of the characteristics of big data is value, data should be published for analysts to extract useful patterns from them. However, data publishing may lead to the disclosure of individuals' private information. Among the modern parallel computing platforms, Apache Spark is a fast and in-memory computing framework for large-scale data processing that provides high scalability by introducing the resilient distributed dataset (RDDs). In terms of performance, Due to in-memory computations, it is 100 times faster than Hadoop. Therefore, Apache Spark is one of the essential frameworks to implement distributed methods for privacy-preserving in big data publishing (PPBDP). This paper uses the RDD programming of Apache Spark to propose an efficient parallel implementation of a new computing model for big data anonymization. This computing model has three-phase of in-memory computations to address the runtime, scalability, and performance of large-scale data anonymization. The model supports partition-based data clustering algorithms to preserve the λ-diversity privacy model by using transformation and actions on RDDs. Therefore, the authors have investigated Spark-based implementation for preserving the λ-diversity privacy model by two designed City block and Pearson distance functions. The results of the paper provide a comprehensive guideline allowing the researchers to apply Apache Spark in their own researches.


Subject(s)
Big Data , Software , Humans , Data Anonymization , Algorithms , Computational Biology
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2023: 3728131, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294565

ABSTRACT

Purpose: As a scientific field, bioinformatics has drawn remarkable attention from various fields, such as information technology, mathematics, and modern biological sciences, in recent years. The topic models originating from the field of natural language processing have become the focus of attention with the rapid accumulation of biological datasets. Thus, this research is aimed at modeling the topic content of the bioinformatics literature presented by Iranian researchers in the Scopus Citation Database. Methodology. This research was a descriptive-exploratory study, and the studied population included 3899 papers indexed in the Scopus database, which had been indexed in this database until March 9, 2022. The topic modeling was then performed on the abstracts and titles of the papers. A combination of LDA and TF-IDF was utilized for topic modeling. Findings. The data analysis with topic modeling resulted in identifying seven main topics "Molecular Modeling," "Gene Expression," "Biomarker," "Coronavirus," "Immunoinformatics," "Cancer Bioinformatics," and "Systems Biology." Moreover, "Systems Biology" and "Coronavirus" had the largest and smallest clusters, respectively. Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrated an acceptable performance for the LDA algorithm in classifying the topics included in this field. The extracted topic clusters indicated excellent consistency and topic connection with each other.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Computational Biology , Iran , Computational Biology/methods , Natural Language Processing , Algorithms
18.
OMICS ; 27(5): 205-214, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293901

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive knowledge on systems biology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is crucial for differential diagnosis of COVID-19. Interestingly, the radiological and pathological features of COVID-19 mimic that of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), another pulmonary fibrotic phenotype. This motivated us to explore the overlapping pathophysiology of COVID-19 and HP, if any, and using a systems biology approach. Two datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE147507 and GSE150910) and common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for both diseases identified. Fourteen common DEGs, significantly altered in both diseases, were found to be implicated in complement activation and growth factor activity. A total of five microRNAs (hsa-miR-1-3p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-107, hsa-miR-16-5p, and hsa-miR-34b-5p) and five transcription factors (KLF6, ZBTB7A, ELF1, NFIL3, and ZBT33) exhibited highest interaction with these common genes. Next, C3, CFB, MMP-9, and IL1A were identified as common hub genes for both COVID-19 and HP. Finally, these top-ranked genes (hub genes) were evaluated using random forest classifier to discriminate between the disease and control group (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] vs. controls, and HP vs. controls). This supervised machine learning approach demonstrated 100% and 87.6% accuracy in differentiating COVID-19 from controls, and HP from controls, respectively. These findings provide new molecular leads that inform COVID-19 and HP diagnostics and therapeutics research and innovation.


Subject(s)
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic , COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Systems Biology , Cell Line, Tumor , Computational Biology , Transcription Factors , DNA-Binding Proteins , MicroRNAs/genetics , Machine Learning
19.
Comput Biol Med ; 159: 106885, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290994

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has been emerged as pandemic infectious disease. The recent epidemiological data suggest that the smokers are more vulnerable to infection with COVID-19; however, the influence of smoking (SMK) on the COVID-19 infected patients and the mortality is not known yet. In this study, we aimed to discern the influence of SMK on COVID-19 infected patients utilizing the transcriptomics data of COVID-19 infected lung epithelial cells and transcriptomics data smoking matched with controls from lung epithelial cells. The bioinformatics based analysis revealed the molecular insights into the level of transcriptional changes and pathways which are important to identify the impact of smoking on COVID-19 infection and prevalence. We compared differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between COVID-19 and SMK and 59 DEGs were identified as consistently dysregulated at transcriptomics levels. The correlation network analyses were constructed for these common genes using WGCNA R package to see the relationship among these genes. Integration of DEGs with network analysis (protein-protein interaction) showed the presence of 9 hub proteins as key so called "candidate hub proteins" overlapped between COVID-19 patients and SMK. The Gene Ontology and pathways analysis demonstrated the enrichment of inflammatory pathway such as IL-17 signaling pathway, Interleukin-6 signaling, TNF signaling pathway and MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling pathways that might be the therapeutic targets in COVID-19 for smoking persons. The identified genes, pathways, hubs genes, and their regulators might be considered for establishment of key genes and drug targets for SMK and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung , Epithelial Cells , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/genetics , Computational Biology
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1139998, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301324

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading astonishingly and caused catastrophic losses worldwide. The high mortality of severe COVID-19 patients is an serious problem that needs to be solved urgently. However, the biomarkers and fundamental pathological mechanisms of severe COVID-19 are poorly understood. The aims of this study was to explore key genes related to inflammasome in severe COVID-19 and their potential molecular mechanisms using random forest and artificial neural network modeling. Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in severe COVID-19 were screened from GSE151764 and GSE183533 via comprehensive transcriptome Meta-analysis. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and functional analyses were conducted to identify molecular mechanisms related to DEGs or DEGs associated with inflammasome (IADEGs), respectively. Five the most important IADEGs in severe COVID-19 were explored using random forest. Then, we put these five IADEGs into an artificial neural network to construct a novel diagnostic model for severe COVID-19 and verified its diagnostic efficacy in GSE205099. Results: Using combining P value < 0.05, we obtained 192 DEGs, 40 of which are IADEGs. The GO enrichment analysis results indicated that 192 DEGs were mainly involved in T cell activation, MHC protein complex and immune receptor activity. The KEGG enrichment analysis results indicated that 192 GEGs were mainly involved in Th17 cell differentiation, IL-17 signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway. In addition, the top GO terms of 40 IADEGs were involved in T cell activation, immune response-activating signal transduction, external side of plasma membrane and phosphatase binding. The KEGG enrichment analysis results indicated that IADEGs were mainly involved in FoxO signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor, JAK-STAT signaling pathway and Apoptosis. Then, five important IADEGs (AXL, MKI67, CDKN3, BCL2 and PTGS2) for severe COVID-19 were screened by random forest analysis. By building an artificial neural network model, we found that the AUC values of 5 important IADEGs were 0.972 and 0.844 in the train group (GSE151764 and GSE183533) and test group (GSE205099), respectively. Conclusion: The five genes related to inflammasome, including AXL, MKI67, CDKN3, BCL2 and PTGS2, are important for severe COVID-19 patients, and these molecules are related to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, AXL, MKI67, CDKN3, BCL2 and PTGS2 as a marker combination could be used as potential markers to identify severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammasomes , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Random Forest , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Computational Biology/methods , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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