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1.
Int Heart J ; 64(3): 344-351, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235285

ABSTRACT

Although there is no sign of reinfection, individuals who have a history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience prolonged chest discomfort and shortness of breath on exertion. This study aimed to examine the relationship between atherosclerotic coronary plaque structure and COVID-19. This retrospective cohort comprised 1269 consecutive patients who had coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) between July 2020 and April 2021. The type of atherosclerotic plaque was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the severity of coronary stenosis as determined via the Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) classification and the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. To reveal the relationship between the history of COVID-19 and the extent and severity of CAD, propensity score analysis and further multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. The median age of the study population was 52 years, with 53.5% being male. COVID-19 was present in 337 individuals. The median duration from COVID-19 diagnosis to CCTA extraction was 245 days. The presence of atherosclerotic soft plaque (OR: 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-3.11, P = 0.001), mixed plaque (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.39-4.43, P = 0.001), and high-risk plaque (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.98-3.84, P < 0.001) was shown to be linked with the history of COVID-19 on the conditional multivariate regression analysis of the propensity-matched population. However, no statistically significant association was found between the history of COVID-19 and the severity of coronary stenosis based on CAD-RADS and CAC score. We found that the history of COVID-19 might be associated with coronary atherosclerosis assessed via CCTA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , COVID-19 Testing , Risk Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis/epidemiology , Coronary Stenosis/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography , Predictive Value of Tests
3.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 24(Suppl 1): e67-e76, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315036

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence that in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) under optimal medical therapy, a persisting dysregulation of the lipid and glucose metabolism, associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and inflammation, predicts a substantial residual risk of disease progression and cardiovascular events. Despite the inflammatory nature of ASCVD, circulating biomarkers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukins may lack specificity for vascular inflammation. As known, dysfunctional epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) produce pro-inflammatory mediators and promote cellular tissue infiltration triggering further pro-inflammatory mechanisms. The consequent tissue modifications determine the attenuation of PCAT as assessed and measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Recently, relevant studies have demonstrated a correlation between EAT and PCAT and obstructive coronary artery disease, inflammatory plaque status and coronary flow reserve (CFR). In parallel, CFR is well recognized as a marker of coronary vasomotor function that incorporates the haemodynamic effects of epicardial, diffuse and small-vessel disease on myocardial tissue perfusion. An inverse relationship between EAT volume and coronary vascular function and the association of PCAT attenuation and impaired CFR have already been reported. Moreover, many studies demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET is able to detect PCAT inflammation in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. Importantly, the perivascular FAI (fat attenuation index) showed incremental value for the prediction of adverse clinical events beyond traditional risk factors and CCTA indices by providing a quantitative measure of coronary inflammation. As an indicator of increased cardiac mortality, it could guide early targeted primary prevention in a wide spectrum of patients. In this review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the clinical applications and perspectives of EAT and PCAT assessment performed by CCTA and the prognostic information derived by nuclear medicine.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Nuclear Medicine , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Humans , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Adipose Tissue , Inflammation/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels
5.
Eur Radiol ; 33(7): 4700-4712, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency and pattern of pulmonary vascular abnormalities in the year following COVID-19. METHODS: The study population included 79 patients remaining symptomatic more than 6 months after hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who had been evaluated with dual-energy CT angiography. RESULTS: Morphologic images showed CT features of (a) acute (2/79; 2.5%) and focal chronic (4/79; 5%) PE; and (b) residual post COVID-19 lung infiltration (67/79; 85%). Lung perfusion was abnormal in 69 patients (87.4%). Perfusion abnormalities included (a) perfusion defects of 3 types: patchy defects (n = 60; 76%); areas of non-systematized hypoperfusion (n = 27; 34.2%); and/or PE-type defects (n = 14; 17.7%) seen with (2/14) and without (12/14) endoluminal filling defects; and (b) areas of increased perfusion in 59 patients (74.9%), superimposed on ground-glass opacities (58/59) and vascular tree-in-bud (5/59). PFTs were available in 10 patients with normal perfusion and in 55 patients with abnormal perfusion. The mean values of functional variables did not differ between the two subgroups with a trend toward lower DLCO in patients with abnormal perfusion (74.8 ± 16.7% vs 85.0 ± 8.1). CONCLUSION: Delayed follow-up showed CT features of acute and chronic PE but also two types of perfusion abnormalities suggestive of persistent hypercoagulability as well as unresolved/sequelae of microangiopathy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT: Despite dramatic resolution of lung abnormalities seen during the acute phase of the disease, acute pulmonary embolism and alterations at the level of lung microcirculation can be identified in patients remaining symptomatic in the year following COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • This study demonstrates newly developed proximal acute PE/thrombosis in the year following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. • Dual-energy CT lung perfusion identified perfusion defects and areas of increased iodine uptake abnormalities, suggestive of unresolved damage to lung microcirculation. • This study suggests a complementarity between HRCT and spectral imaging for proper understanding of post COVID-19 lung sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Computed Tomography Angiography , Pulmonary Circulation , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/blood supply , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging
6.
Emerg Radiol ; 30(2): 197-202, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269767

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ordering trends for computed tomographic pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) studies by local emergency departments were assessed, along with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on these ordering trends and CTPA positivity rates. METHODS: A retrospective quantitative analysis was performed on all CTPA studies ordered between February 2018 - January 2022 by three local tertiary care emergency rooms to investigate for pulmonary embolism. Data collected from the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic was compared to the two years prior to the pandemic to assess for significant changes in ordering trends and positivity rates. RESULTS: The overall number of CTPA studies ordered increased from 534 studies in 2018-2019 to 657 in 2021-2022 and the rate of positive diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism varied between 15.8% to 19.5% over the four years studied. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of CTPA studies ordered when comparing the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic to the two years immediately prior; however, the positivity rate was significantly higher during the first two years of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Over the studied period from 2018-2022, the overall number of CTPA studies ordered by local emergency departments has increased, in line with literature reports from other locations. There was also a correlation between the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and CTPA positivity rates, possibly secondary to the prothrombotic nature of this infection or the increase in sedentary lifestyles during lockdown periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital
7.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281955, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chest CT has been proposed as a screening test to rule out SARS-CoV-2 lung infection in acute stroke. Our objectives are to analyze the predictive value of neck CT angiography (CTA) source images compared with conventional chest CT, the interobserver concordance and the reliability of the diagnosis using a mobile app. METHODS: A retrospective observational study that included acute stroke patients admitted to a stroke center. Two raters blinded to the clinical data evaluated and classified the pulmonary findings in chest CT and neck CTA source images according to the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS). CTA findings were evaluated using a conventional workstation and the JOIN mobile app. Scores of 3-5 were grouped as appearing typical or indeterminate for COVID-19 lung involvement and 0-2 as appearing atypical or negative for pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: A total of 242 patients were included (42 with PCR-confirmed COVID-19). In the cohort of 43 patients with both neck CTA and chest CT, the predictive value for COVID-19 was equivalent (sensitivity, 53.8%; specificity, 92.9%). The interobserver agreement in the classification into CO-RADS 3-5 or 1-2 in CTA was good (K = 0.694; standard error, 0.107). In the cohort of 242 patients with neck CTA, the intraobserver agreement between the workstation and the JOIN app was perfect (K = 1.000; standard error 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Neck CTA enables the accurate identification of COVID-19-associated lung abnormalities in acute stroke. CO-RADS evaluations through mobile applications have a predictive value similar to the usual platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Telemedicine , Humans , Computed Tomography Angiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Reproducibility of Results , Lung , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Retrospective Studies
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 154-163, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To detect the risk factors for pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Studies were searched for in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Two authors independently screened articles and extracted data. The data were pooled by meta-analysis and three subgroup analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 2210 articles identified, 27 studies were included. Pooled analysis suggested that males (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.75, P = 0.000), obesity (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.82, P = 0.033), mechanical ventilation (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.90-5.86, P = 0.000), severe parenchymal abnormalities (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.43-2.58, P = 0.000), ICU admission (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.48-4.03, P = 0.000), and elevated D-dimer and white blood cell values (at two time points: hospital admission or closest to computed tomography pulmonary angiography) (P = 0.000) correlated with a risk for PE occurrence in COVID-19 patients. However, age and common comorbidities had no association with PE occurrence. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography, unclear-ratio/low-ratio, and hospitalization subgroups had consistent risk factors with all studies; however, other subgroups had fewer risk factors for PE. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for PE in COVID-19 were different from the classic risk factors for PE and are likely to differ in diverse study populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Cardiol ; 184: 154-156, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048867

ABSTRACT

After recovering from severe COVID-19 infection, 2 women presented with chest pain. Computed tomographic angiography suggested acute ascending aortic dissection. At operation in both patients, the ascending aorta was encased in dense fibrous tissue, within which were focal collections of mononuclear cells, including many plasma cells. There was no entry tear or dissection. Such findings we have not encountered previously, and PubMed search of "periaortic fibrosis and COVID-19" yielded no similar cases or possible relation.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic , Aortic Dissection , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , Aortic Dissection/complications , Aortic Dissection/diagnosis , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Aorta/surgery , Computed Tomography Angiography , Fibrosis , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery
11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 54(4): 587-592, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a significant increase has been observed in patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE) in our clinic. In addition to COVID-19-related PE, the increase in the number of patients with unprovoked or idiopathic PE was also noteworthy. Although it is not surprising that PE due to immobilization was observed in elderly patients and patients with comorbidities at risk for PE during the pandemic, it is important to investigate the increase in the number of unprovoked PE. Thus, we aimed to show that a previous COVID-19 infection may be a risk factor in these patients by examining the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-causing coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in patients diagnosed with unprovoked PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants of the study consisted of 45 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with PE in our clinic, had no risk factors for PE, were considered unprovoked (idiopathic) PE, and had no history of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were measured in the serum samples of the patients for detecting immunity as a result of encountering COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients diagnosed with PE, 24 (53.3%) patients were diagnosed with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA), and 21 (46.7%) patients were diagnosed with perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (Q-SPECT/CT). Immunity acquired after encountering COVID-19 was checked with the NCP kit, which revealed positive results in 9 (20%) patients. CONCLUSION: It should be kept in mind that some of the patients diagnosed with idiopathic PE during the pandemic may have embolism due to asymptomatic COVID-19. In addition, it is now known that COVID-19 also creates a tendency toward thrombosis in asymptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
12.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 114, 2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is known as an important imaging indicator for cardiovascular risk stratification. The present study aimed to determine whether the EAT volume (EV) and mean EAT attenuation (mEA) measured by non-contrast routine chest CT (RCCT) could be more consistent with those measured by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by adjusting the threshold of fatty attenuation. METHODS: In total, 83 subjects who simultaneously underwent CCTA and RCCT were enrolled. EV and mEA were quantified by CCTA using a threshold of (N30) (- 190 HU, - 30 HU) as a reference and measured by RCCT using thresholds of N30, N40 (- 190 HU, - 40 HU), and N45 (- 190 HU, - 45 HU). The correlation and agreement of EAT metrics between the two imaging modalities and differences between patients with coronary plaques (plaque ( +)) and without plaques (plaque ( -)) were analyzed. RESULTS: EV obtained from RCCT showed very strong correlation with the reference (r = 0.974, 0.976, 0.972 (N30, N40, N45), P < 0.001), whereas mEA showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.516, 0.500, 0.477 (N30, N40, N45), P < 0.001). Threshold adjustment was able to reduce the bias of EV, while increase the bias of mEA. Data obtained by CCTA and RCCT both demonstrated a significantly larger EV in the plaque ( +) group than in the plaque ( -) group (P < 0.05). A significant difference in mEA was shown only by RCCT using a threshold of N30 (plaque ( +) vs ( -): - 80.0 ± 4.4 HU vs - 78.0 ± 4.0 HU, P = 0.030). The mEA measured on RCCT using threshold of N40 and N45 showed no significant statistical difference between the two groups (P = 0.092 and 0.075), which was consistent with the result obtained on CCTA (P = 0.204). CONCLUSION: Applying more negative threshold, the consistency of EV measurements between the two techniques improves and a consistent result can be obtained when comparing EF measurements between groups, although the bias of mEA increases. Threshold adjustment is necessary when measuring EF with non-contrast RCCT.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
13.
J Thorac Imaging ; 37(4): 225-230, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine if computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) ordering increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic in an emergency department (ED) setting; if positive findings for pulmonary embolism (PE) increased to the same degree; and whether COVID-positive patients have a higher incidence of PE than COVID-negative patients at ED presentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of CTPA performed in our ED between June and December in 2019 and 2020. We collected data on patient demographics, symptoms, COVID-19 status, lab and imaging results, and risk factors for PE. We used a Wilcoxon rank sum to analyze quantitative variables and χ2 or Fisher test for categorical variables. We used logistic regression to identify predictive factors for PE. RESULTS: CTPA ordering increased from 432 studies in 2019 to 699 in 2020 (+61.8%, P<0.0001), but detection rates for PE remained stable (11.3% vs. 10.2%, P=0.61). In 2020, 10 of 91 COVID-positive patients undergoing CTPA had positive studies. On regression analysis, COVID-19 was not a significant predictor of PE at ED presentation (odds ratio 1.029, 95% confidence interval: 0.959-1.103). COVID-positive patients were more likely to have nondiagnostic imaging (7.7% vs. 2.5% [COVID-negative] and 0.8% [not tested], P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: While CTPA ordering increased significantly during the pandemic, our positivity rate remained stable, suggesting that this increase was appropriate. COVID-positive patients who underwent CTPA in the ED did not have a higher incidence of PE than other patients. Clinicians should use clinical judgment to weigh the likelihood of PE against the risk of nondiagnostic results when determining whether to expose COVID-positive patients to high-dose radiation and contrast with CTPA on initial presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Angiography/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
14.
Postgrad Med J ; 99(1172): 570-575, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various complications have been reported in patients with COVID-19 including pneumomediastinum. METHODS: The primary objective of the study was to determine the incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 positive patients who underwent CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The secondary objectives were to analyse if the incidence of pneumomediastinum changed between March and May 2020 (peak of the first wave in the UK) and January 2021 (peak of the second wave in the UK) and to determine the mortality rate in patients with pneumomediastinum. We undertook an observational, retrospective, single-centre, cohort study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Northwick Park Hospital. RESULTS: 74 patients in the first wave and 220 patients in the second wave met the study criteria. Two patients during the first wave and eleven patients during the second wave developed pneumomediastinum. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of pneumomediastinum changed from 2.7% during the first wave to 5% during the second wave and this change was not statistically significant (p value 0.4057). The difference in mortality rates of patients with pneumomediastinum in both waves of COVID-19 (69.23%) versus patients without pneumomediastinum in both waves of COVID-19 (25.62%) was statistically significant (p value 0.0005). Many patients with pneumomediastinum were ventilated, which could be a confounding factor. When controlling for ventilation, there was no statistically significant difference in the mortality rates of ventilated patients with pneumomediastinum (81.81%) versus ventilated patients without pneumomediastinum (59.30%) (p value 0.14).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography
15.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 23(4): 233-243, 2022 Apr.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a frequent and prognostically relevant complication of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis, according to the PRISMA guidelines to determine the in-hospital incidence of acute PE, based on Italian studies published on this issue. We searched PubMed and Scopus to locate all articles published between February 2020 to October 15, 2021, reporting the incidence of acute PE in Italian COVID-19 patients. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE was calculated using a random-effect model and presented with relative 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We analysed data from 3287 Italian COVID-19 patients (mean age 65.7 years) included in 20 studies. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE was 20% (95% CI 13.4-28.7%; I2 = 95.1%); the incidence was lower among patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) (32.3%; 95% CI 20.2-44.0%; I2 = 77.2%) compared to those admitted in general wards (47.6%; 95% CI 18.7-78.2%; I2 = 94.4%). Meta-regression showed a significant direct correlation of acute PE incidence using age, male gender and previous coronary artery disease as moderating variables. Conversely, an inverse correlation was observed in relation to the use of anticoagulation at therapeutic dose. Prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation was administered in 80.2% of patients (95% CI 72.5-86.2%; I2 = 91.0%); the former regimen was more frequently used compared to the latter (63.5% vs 14.3%; p<0.001). Computed tomography angiography (CTPA) was used only in 10.7% of infected patients across 7 studies. CONCLUSIONS: One in five COVID-19 patients experienced acute PE as complication of the infection during hospitalization. The in-hospital incidence of acute PE was lower in ICU compared to general wards. CTPA was scantly used. Early prophylactic anticoagulation was associated with a lower incidence of acute PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology
16.
Clin Imaging ; 85: 10-13, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with pulmonary embolism (PE) in adults. However, the rate of PE in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 evaluated by CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: Determine PE rate in pediatric patients with acute COVID-19 and compare to adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of CTPA studies, performed between March 2020 and January 2021 on pediatric patients with acute COVID-19, but not MIS-C, was performed. CTPAs performed on an adult cohort of acute COVID-19 patients during April 2020 were reviewed for comparison. Pediatric and chest radiologists independently reviewed CTPAs of pediatric and adult patients, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 355 acute COVID-19 pediatric patients treated during the study period, 14 (16.6 ± 4.8y, median-18.5y, 64% female) underwent CTPA. Of the 1868 acute COVID-19 adults treated during two weeks in April 2020, 50 (57.2 ± 17.0y, median-57.0y, 42% female) underwent CTPA. The PE rate was 14% in the pediatric group (2 patients) and 18% in the adult group (9 patients) (p = 1.0). Both pediatric patients with PE were obese, over 18y, and had asthma, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. No child<18y with acute COVID-19 had PE. In the adult cohort, higher alanine-aminotransferase and D-dimer levels were associated with PE (p = 0.04 and p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite similar PE rates in pediatric and adult patients, PE occurred in acute COVID-19 pediatric patients who were >18y, obese, and had at least 1 comorbidity. Children <18y with COVID-19 did not have PE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Adult , Angiography , COVID-19/complications , Child , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(3): 865-868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662745

ABSTRACT

After its discovery in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now become a pandemic in a short period. The kidney involvement is frequently reported, especially in critically ill hospitalized patients. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for this damage range from direct invasion, cytokine storm, and hemodynamic derangements. Although COVID-19 has been described to have association with hypercoagulable state and thromboembolic events in major blood vessels, renal infarction due to COVID-19 infection is a rare occurrence. We here report a rare case of renal infarction due to COVID-19 infection. This patient initially presented with COVID pneumonia with acute kidney injury. Later on during evaluation of his gastrointestinal complaints, he was detected to have renal infarction by computed tomography angiography.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Infarction/etiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Emerg Radiol ; 29(2): 263-279, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640888

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our review is to discuss the role of CT angiography (CTA) in evaluating a variety of vascular complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a worldwide health threat. While COVID-19 pneumonia is the most common and well-recognized presentation of COVID-19, severely ill hospitalized patients often present with extrapulmonary systemic findings. Vascular complications occur not only due to known viral-induced vasculopathy, coagulopathy, and related "cytokine storm," but also due to anticoagulation medication used during hospitalization. There is a paucity of articles describing extrapulmonary vascular findings, especially in critically ill COVID-19 patients. In our article, we discuss commonly encountered vascular imaging findings in the body (chest, abdomen, and pelvis) and extremities, the importance of early radiological detection, and the role of CTA in the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computed Tomography Angiography , Critical Illness , Extremities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Radiol ; 77(2): 148-155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611681

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine if there is a difference in radiological, biochemical, or clinical severity between patients infected with Alpha-variant SARS-CoV-2 compared with those infected with pre-existing strains, and to determine if the computed tomography (CT) severity score (CTSS) for COVID-19 pneumonitis correlates with clinical severity and can prognosticate outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blinded CTSS scoring was applied to 137 hospital patients who had undergone both CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 within 14 days of CTPA between 1/12/20-5/1/21. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a difference in imaging severity on CTPA, viral load, clinical parameters of severity, or outcomes between Alpha and preceding variants. CTSS on CTPA strongly correlates with clinical and biochemical severity at the time of CTPA, and with patient outcomes. Classifying CTSS into a binary value of "high" and "low", with a cut-off score of 14, patients with a high score have a significantly increased risk of deterioration, as defined by subsequent admission to critical care or death (multivariate hazard ratio [HR] 2.76, p<0.001), and hospital length of stay (17.4 versus 7.9 days, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of a difference in radiological severity of Alpha variant infection compared with pre-existing strains. High CTSS applied to CTPA is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 severity and poorer clinical outcomes and may be of use particularly in settings where CT is not performed for diagnosis of COVID-19 but rather is used following clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Whole Genome Sequencing , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , United Kingdom , Viral Load
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