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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 8925930, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723968

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a fatal disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that has caused around 5.3 Million deaths globally as of December 2021. The detection of this disease is a time taking process that have worsen the situation around the globe, and the disease has been identified as a world pandemic by the WHO. Deep learning-based approaches are being widely used to diagnose the COVID-19 cases, but the limitation of immensity in the publicly available dataset causes the problem of model over-fitting. Modern artificial intelligence-based techniques can be used to increase the dataset to avoid from the over-fitting problem. This research work presents the use of various deep learning models along with the state-of-the-art augmentation methods, namely, classical and generative adversarial network- (GAN-) based data augmentation. Furthermore, four existing deep convolutional networks, namely, DenseNet-121, InceptionV3, Xception, and ResNet101 have been used for the detection of the virus in X-ray images after training on augmented dataset. Additionally, we have also proposed a novel convolutional neural network (QuNet) to improve the COVID-19 detection. The comparative analysis of achieved results reflects that both QuNet and Xception achieved high accuracy with classical augmented dataset, whereas QuNet has also outperformed and delivered 90% detection accuracy with GAN-based augmented dataset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Computer Graphics , Databases, Factual , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Radiography
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25682, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the development of dashboards as dynamic, visual tools for communicating COVID-19 data has surged worldwide. Dashboards can inform decision-making and support behavior change. To do so, they must be actionable. The features that constitute an actionable dashboard in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic have not been rigorously assessed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of public web-based COVID-19 dashboards by assessing their purpose and users ("why"), content and data ("what"), and analyses and displays ("how" they communicate COVID-19 data), and ultimately to appraise the common features of highly actionable dashboards. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive assessment and scoring using nominal group technique with an international panel of experts (n=17) on a global sample of COVID-19 dashboards in July 2020. The sequence of steps included multimethod sampling of dashboards; development and piloting of an assessment tool; data extraction and an initial round of actionability scoring; a workshop based on a preliminary analysis of the results; and reconsideration of actionability scores followed by joint determination of common features of highly actionable dashboards. We used descriptive statistics and thematic analysis to explore the findings by research question. RESULTS: A total of 158 dashboards from 53 countries were assessed. Dashboards were predominately developed by government authorities (100/158, 63.0%) and were national (93/158, 58.9%) in scope. We found that only 20 of the 158 dashboards (12.7%) stated both their primary purpose and intended audience. Nearly all dashboards reported epidemiological indicators (155/158, 98.1%), followed by health system management indicators (85/158, 53.8%), whereas indicators on social and economic impact and behavioral insights were the least reported (7/158, 4.4% and 2/158, 1.3%, respectively). Approximately a quarter of the dashboards (39/158, 24.7%) did not report their data sources. The dashboards predominately reported time trends and disaggregated data by two geographic levels and by age and sex. The dashboards used an average of 2.2 types of displays (SD 0.86); these were mostly graphs and maps, followed by tables. To support data interpretation, color-coding was common (93/158, 89.4%), although only one-fifth of the dashboards (31/158, 19.6%) included text explaining the quality and meaning of the data. In total, 20/158 dashboards (12.7%) were appraised as highly actionable, and seven common features were identified between them. Actionable COVID-19 dashboards (1) know their audience and information needs; (2) manage the type, volume, and flow of displayed information; (3) report data sources and methods clearly; (4) link time trends to policy decisions; (5) provide data that are "close to home"; (6) break down the population into relevant subgroups; and (7) use storytelling and visual cues. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 dashboards are diverse in the why, what, and how by which they communicate insights on the pandemic and support data-driven decision-making. To leverage their full potential, dashboard developers should consider adopting the seven actionability features identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Display , Information Dissemination , Internet , Adult , Computer Graphics , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
OMICS ; 25(11): 681-692, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541502

ABSTRACT

Multiomics study designs have significantly increased understanding of complex biological systems. The multiomics literature is rapidly expanding and so is their heterogeneity. However, the intricacy and fragmentation of omics data are impeding further research. To examine current trends in multiomics field, we reviewed 52 articles from PubMed and Web of Science, which used an integrated omics approach, published between March 2006 and January 2021. From studies, data regarding investigated loci, species, omics type, and phenotype were extracted, curated, and streamlined according to standardized terminology, and summarized in a previously developed graphical summary. Evaluated studies included 21 omics types or applications of omics technology such as genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, epigenomics, environmental omics, and pharmacogenomics, species of various phyla including human, mouse, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and various phenotypes, including cancer and COVID-19. In the analyzed studies, diverse methods, protocols, results, and terminology were used and accordingly, assessment of the studies was challenging. Adoption of standardized multiomics data presentation in the future will further buttress standardization of terminology and reporting of results in systems science. This shall catalyze, we suggest, innovation in both science communication and laboratory medicine by making available scientific knowledge that is easier to grasp, share, and harness toward medical breakthroughs.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/trends , Genomics/trends , Metabolomics/trends , Proteomics/trends , Animals , COVID-19 , Computer Graphics , Epigenomics/trends , Gene Expression Profiling/trends , Humans , Pharmacogenetics/trends , Publications , SARS-CoV-2 , Terminology as Topic
4.
Mol Syst Biol ; 17(10): e10387, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478718

ABSTRACT

We need to effectively combine the knowledge from surging literature with complex datasets to propose mechanistic models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, improving data interpretation and predicting key targets of intervention. Here, we describe a large-scale community effort to build an open access, interoperable and computable repository of COVID-19 molecular mechanisms. The COVID-19 Disease Map (C19DMap) is a graphical, interactive representation of disease-relevant molecular mechanisms linking many knowledge sources. Notably, it is a computational resource for graph-based analyses and disease modelling. To this end, we established a framework of tools, platforms and guidelines necessary for a multifaceted community of biocurators, domain experts, bioinformaticians and computational biologists. The diagrams of the C19DMap, curated from the literature, are integrated with relevant interaction and text mining databases. We demonstrate the application of network analysis and modelling approaches by concrete examples to highlight new testable hypotheses. This framework helps to find signatures of SARS-CoV-2 predisposition, treatment response or prioritisation of drug candidates. Such an approach may help deal with new waves of COVID-19 or similar pandemics in the long-term perspective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Factual , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Software , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Computer Graphics , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Data Mining/statistics & numerical data , Gene Expression Regulation , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/virology , Protein Interaction Mapping , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/immunology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
5.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 227-237, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443207

ABSTRACT

Significant work has been done towards deep learning (DL) models for automatic lung and lesion segmentation and classification of COVID-19 on chest CT data. However, comprehensive visualization systems focused on supporting the dual visual+DL diagnosis of COVID-19 are non-existent. We present COVID-view, a visualization application specially tailored for radiologists to diagnose COVID-19 from chest CT data. The system incorporates a complete pipeline of automatic lungs segmentation, localization/isolation of lung abnormalities, followed by visualization, visual and DL analysis, and measurement/quantification tools. Our system combines the traditional 2D workflow of radiologists with newer 2D and 3D visualization techniques with DL support for a more comprehensive diagnosis. COVID-view incorporates a novel DL model for classifying the patients into positive/negative COVID-19 cases, which acts as a reading aid for the radiologist using COVID-view and provides the attention heatmap as an explainable DL for the model output. We designed and evaluated COVID-view through suggestions, close feedback and conducting case studies of real-world patient data by expert radiologists who have substantial experience diagnosing chest CT scans for COVID-19, pulmonary embolism, and other forms of lung infections. We present requirements and task analysis for the diagnosis of COVID-19 that motivate our design choices and results in a practical system which is capable of handling real-world patient cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Graphics , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(10): 5293-5303, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413344

ABSTRACT

Building and displaying all-atom models of biomolecular structures with millions or billions of atoms, like virus particles or cells, remain a challenge due to the sheer size of the data, the required levels of automated building, and the visualization limits of today's graphics hardware. Based on concepts introduced with the CellPack program, we report new algorithms to create such large-scale models using an intermediate coarse-grained "pet representation" of biomolecules with 1/10th the normal size. Pet atoms are placed such that they optimally trace the surface of the original molecule with just ∼1/50th the original atom number and are joined with covalent bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations of pet molecules allow for efficient packing optimization, as well as the generation of realistic DNA/RNA conformations. This pet world can be expanded back to the all-atom representation to be explored and visualized with full details. Essential for the efficient interactive visualization of gigastructures is the use of multiple levels of detail (LODs), where distant molecules are drawn with a heavily reduced polygon count. We present a grid-based algorithm to create such LODs for all common molecular graphics styles (including ball-and-sticks, ribbons, and cartoons) that do not require monochrome molecules to hide LOD transitions. As a practical application, we built all-atom models of SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and an entire presynaptic bouton with 1 µm diameter and 3.6 billion atoms, using modular building blocks to significantly reduce GPU memory requirements through instancing. We employ the Vulkan graphics API to maximize performance on consumer grade hardware and describe how to use the mmCIF format to efficiently store such giant models. An implementation is available as part of the YASARA molecular modeling and simulation program from www.YASARA.org. The free YASARA View program can be used to explore the presented models, which can be downloaded from www.YASARA.org/petworld, a Creative Commons platform for sharing giant biomolecular structures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Graphics , Algorithms , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323260

ABSTRACT

Molecular docking is widely used in computed drug discovery and biological target identification, but getting fast results can be tedious and often requires supercomputing solutions. AMIDE stands for AutoMated Inverse Docking Engine. It was initially developed in 2014 to perform inverse docking on High Performance Computing. AMIDE version 2 brings substantial speed-up improvement by using AutoDock-GPU and by pulling a total revision of programming workflow, leading to better performances, easier use, bug corrections, parallelization improvements and PC/HPC compatibility. In addition to inverse docking, AMIDE is now an optimized tool capable of high throughput inverse screening. For instance, AMIDE version 2 allows acceleration of the docking up to 12.4 times for 100 runs of AutoDock compared to version 1, without significant changes in docking poses. The reverse docking of a ligand on 87 proteins takes only 23 min on 1 GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), while version 1 required 300 cores to reach the same execution time. Moreover, we have shown an exponential acceleration of the computation time as a function of the number of GPUs used, allowing a significant reduction of the duration of the inverse docking process on large datasets.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Proteins/chemistry , Software , Computer Graphics , Humans , Ligands , Reproducibility of Results , Workflow
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(W1): W46-W51, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319189

ABSTRACT

With Aviator, we present a web service and repository that facilitates surveillance of online tools. Aviator consists of a user-friendly website and two modules, a literature-mining based general and a manually curated module. The general module currently checks 9417 websites twice a day with respect to their availability and stores many features (frontend and backend response time, required RAM and size of the web page, security certificates, analytic tools and trackers embedded in the webpage and others) in a data warehouse. Aviator is also equipped with an analysis functionality, for example authors can check and evaluate the availability of their own tools or those of their peers. Likewise, users can check the availability of a certain tool they intend to use in research or teaching to avoid including unstable tools. The curated section of Aviator offers additional services. We provide API snippets for common programming languages (Perl, PHP, Python, JavaScript) as well as an OpenAPI documentation for embedding in the backend of own web services for an automatic test of their function. We query the respective APIs twice a day and send automated notifications in case of an unexpected result. Naturally, the same analysis functionality as for the literature-based module is available for the curated section. Aviator can freely be used at https://www.ccb.uni-saarland.de/aviator.


Subject(s)
Computer Graphics , Software , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Internet , Melanoma/metabolism , Receptors, Odorant/metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288843

ABSTRACT

This study builds a coronavirus knowledge graph (KG) by merging two information sources. The first source is Analytical Graph (AG), which integrates more than 20 different public datasets related to drug discovery. The second source is CORD-19, a collection of published scientific articles related to COVID-19. We combined both chemo genomic entities in AG with entities extracted from CORD-19 to expand knowledge in the COVID-19 domain. Before populating KG with those entities, we perform entity disambiguation on CORD-19 collections using Wikidata. Our newly built KG contains at least 21,700 genes, 2500 diseases, 94,000 phenotypes, and other biological entities (e.g., compound, species, and cell lines). We define 27 relationship types and use them to label each edge in our KG. This research presents two cases to evaluate the KG's usability: analyzing a subgraph (ego-centered network) from the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and revealing paths between biological entities (hydroxychloroquine and IL-6 receptor; chloroquine and STAT1). The ego-centered network captured information related to COVID-19. We also found significant COVID-19-related information in top-ranked paths with a depth of three based on our path evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Knowledge Bases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Computer Graphics , Databases, Factual , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , PubMed , Receptors, Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , STAT1 Transcription Factor
10.
J Nurs Scholarsh ; 53(3): 323-332, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241014

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To provide a summary of research on ontology development in the Centre of eIntegrated Care at Dublin City University, Ireland. DESIGN: Design science methods using Open Innovation 2.0. METHODS: This was a co-participatory study focusing on adoption of health informatics standards and translation of nursing knowledge to advance nursing theory through a nursing knowledge graph (NKG). In this article we outline groundwork research conducted through a focused analysis to advance structural interoperability and to inform integrated care in Ireland. We provide illustrated details on a simple example of initial research available through open access. FINDINGS: For this phase of development, the initial completed research is presented and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude by promoting the use of knowledge graphs for visualization of diverse knowledge translation, which can be used as a primer to gain valuable insights into nursing interventions to inform big data science in the future. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In line with stated global policy, the uptake and use of health informatics standards in design science within the profession of nursing is a priority. Nursing leaders should initially focus on health informatics standards relating to structural interoperability to inform development of NKGs. This will provide a robust foundation to gain valuable insights into articulating the nursing contribution in relation to the design of digital health and progress the nursing contribution to targeted data sources for the advancement of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Three.


Subject(s)
Big Data , Computer Graphics , Knowledge , Nursing Informatics , Humans , Nursing Theory
11.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 28(9): 1964-1969, 2021 08 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199492

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials are an essential part of the effort to find safe and effective prevention and treatment for COVID-19. Given the rapid growth of COVID-19 clinical trials, there is an urgent need for a better clinical trial information retrieval tool that supports searching by specifying criteria, including both eligibility criteria and structured trial information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We built a linked graph for registered COVID-19 clinical trials: the COVID-19 Trial Graph, to facilitate retrieval of clinical trials. Natural language processing tools were leveraged to extract and normalize the clinical trial information from both their eligibility criteria free texts and structured information from ClinicalTrials.gov. We linked the extracted data using the COVID-19 Trial Graph and imported it to a graph database, which supports both querying and visualization. We evaluated trial graph using case queries and graph embedding. RESULTS: The graph currently (as of October 5, 2020) contains 3392 registered COVID-19 clinical trials, with 17 480 nodes and 65 236 relationships. Manual evaluation of case queries found high precision and recall scores on retrieving relevant clinical trials searching from both eligibility criteria and trial-structured information. We observed clustering in clinical trials via graph embedding, which also showed superiority over the baseline (0.870 vs 0.820) in evaluating whether a trial can complete its recruitment successfully. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 Trial Graph is a novel representation of clinical trials that allows diverse search queries and provides a graph-based visualization of COVID-19 clinical trials. High-dimensional vectors mapped by graph embedding for clinical trials would be potentially beneficial for many downstream applications, such as trial end recruitment status prediction and trial similarity comparison. Our methodology also is generalizable to other clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Computer Graphics , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Factual , Humans , Natural Language Processing , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 16(9): 1057-1069, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177228

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge graphs have proven to be promising systems of information storage and retrieval. Due to the recent explosion of heterogeneous multimodal data sources generated in the biomedical domain, and an industry shift toward a systems biology approach, knowledge graphs have emerged as attractive methods of data storage and hypothesis generation. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the author summarizes the applications of knowledge graphs in drug discovery. They evaluate their utility; differentiating between academic exercises in graph theory, and useful tools to derive novel insights, highlighting target identification and drug repurposing as two areas showing particular promise. They provide a case study on COVID-19, summarizing the research that used knowledge graphs to identify repurposable drug candidates. They describe the dangers of degree and literature bias, and discuss mitigation strategies. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst knowledge graphs and graph-based machine learning have certainly shown promise, they remain relatively immature technologies. Many popular link prediction algorithms fail to address strong biases in biomedical data, and only highlight biological associations, failing to model causal relationships in complex dynamic biological systems. These problems need to be addressed before knowledge graphs reach their true potential in drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Computer Graphics , Drug Discovery/methods , Machine Learning , Algorithms , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Systems Biology/methods
13.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 21, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the widespread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the world, it is important to understand the spatiotemporal development of the pandemic. In this study, we aimed to visualize time-associated alterations of COVID-19 in the context of continents and countries. METHODS: Using COVID-19 case and death data from February to December 2020 offered by Johns Hopkins University, we generated time-associated balloon charts with multiple epidemiological indicators including crude case fatality rate (CFR), morbidity, mortality and the total number of cases, to compare the progression of the pandemic within a specific period across regions and countries, integrating seven related dimensions together. The area chart is used to supplement the display of the balloon chart in daily new COVID-19 case changes in UN geographic regions over time. Javascript and Vega-Lite were chosen for programming and mapping COVID-19 data in browsers for visualization. RESULTS: From February 1st to December 20th 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic spread across UN subregions in the chronological order. It was first reported in East Asia, and then became noticeable in Europe (South, West and North), North America, East Europe and West Asia, Central and South America, Southern Africa, Caribbean, South Asia, North Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania, causing several waves of epidemics in different regions. Since October, the balloons of Europe, North America and West Asia have been rising rapidly, reaching a dramatically high morbidity level ranging from 200 to 500/10 000 by December, suggesting an emerging winter wave of COVID-19 which was much bigger than the previous ones. By late December 2020, some European and American countries displayed a leading mortality as high as or over 100/100 000, represented by Belgium, Czechia, Spain, France, Italy, UK, Hungary, Bulgaria, Peru, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico. The mortality of Iran was the highest in Asia (over 60/100 000), and that of South Africa topped in Africa (40/100 000). In the last 15 days, the CFRs of most countries were at low levels of less than 5%, while Mexico had exceptional high CFR close to 10%. CONCLUSIONS: We creatively used visualization integrating 7-dimensional epidemiologic and spatiotemporal indicators to assess the progression of COVID-19 pandemic in terms of transmissibility and severity. Such methodology allows public health workers and policy makers to understand the epidemics comparatively and flexibly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Computer Graphics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246663, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067428

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic stimulated the interest of scientists, decision makers and the general public in short-term mortality fluctuations caused by epidemics and other natural or man-made disasters. To address this interest and provide a basis for further research, in May 2020, the Short-term Mortality Fluctuations data series was launched as a new section of the Human Mortality Database. At present, this unique data resource provides weekly mortality death counts and rates by age and sex for 38 countries and regions. The main objective of this paper is to detail the web-based application for visualizing and analyzing the excess mortality based on the Short-term Mortality Fluctuation data series. The application yields a visual representation of the database that enhances the understanding of the underlying data. Besides, it enables the users to explore data on weekly mortality and excess mortality across years and countries. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, to describe a visualization tool that aims to facilitate research on short-term mortality fluctuations. Second, to provide a comprehensive open-source software solution for demographic data to encourage data holders to promote their datasets in a visual framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Computer Graphics , Software , Algorithms , Databases, Factual , Humans , Internet , Mortality , Time Factors
15.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(12): 1913-1920, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: India reported its first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case in the state of Kerala and an outbreak initiated subsequently. The Department of Health Services, Government of Kerala, initially released daily updates through daily textual bulletins for public awareness to control the spread of the disease. However, these unstructured data limit upstream applications, such as visualization, and analysis, thus demanding refinement to generate open and reusable datasets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through a citizen science initiative, we leveraged publicly available and crowd-verified data on COVID-19 outbreak in Kerala from the government bulletins and media outlets to generate reusable datasets. This was further visualized as a dashboard through a front-end Web application and a JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) repository, which serves as an application programming interface for the front end. RESULTS: From the sourced data, we provided real-time analysis, and daily updates of COVID-19 cases in Kerala, through a user-friendly bilingual dashboard (https://covid19kerala.info/) for nonspecialists. To ensure longevity and reusability, the dataset was deposited in an open-access public repository for future analysis. Finally, we provide outbreak trends and demographic characteristics of the individuals affected with COVID-19 in Kerala during the first 138 days of the outbreak. DISCUSSION: We anticipate that our dataset can form the basis for future studies, supplemented with clinical and epidemiological data from the individuals affected with COVID-19 in Kerala. CONCLUSIONS: We reported a citizen science initiative on the COVID-19 outbreak in Kerala to collect and deposit data in a structured format, which was utilized for visualizing the outbreak trend and describing demographic characteristics of affected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Citizen Science , Computer Graphics , Datasets as Topic , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , User-Computer Interface , Young Adult
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(5): e41, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059965

ABSTRACT

Infographics are pictorial representations of information intended to disseminate information quickly and clearly. Their use has increased in the past decade due to wider and easy access to technology. Infographics are being increasingly used for public advisories, disseminating protocols for healthcare professionals, and post-publication promotion of research. Due to their potential to rapidly reach a vast audience, these have gained larger importance during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Two key aspects determine the quality of infographics, content and visual appeal. In this brief, the authors attempt to delineate the key aspects of designing an infographic, and the freeware that they may have at their disposal for creating informative, appealing, and useful infographics.


Subject(s)
Audiovisual Aids/trends , Biomedical Research/methods , Health Communication , Information Dissemination/methods , Social Media , COVID-19 , Computer Graphics , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(1): e26836, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic is still spreading globally. Contact tracing is a vital strategy in epidemic emergency management; however, traditional contact tracing faces many limitations in practice. The application of digital technology provides an opportunity for local governments to trace the contacts of individuals with COVID-19 more comprehensively, efficiently, and precisely. OBJECTIVE: Our research aimed to provide new solutions to overcome the limitations of traditional contact tracing by introducing the organizational process, technical process, and main achievements of digital contact tracing in Hainan Province. METHODS: A graph database algorithm, which can efficiently process complex relational networks, was applied in Hainan Province; this algorithm relies on a governmental big data platform to analyze multisource COVID-19 epidemic data and build networks of relationships among high-risk infected individuals, the general population, vehicles, and public places to identify and trace contacts. We summarized the organizational and technical process of digital contact tracing in Hainan Province based on interviews and data analyses. RESULTS: An integrated emergency management command system and a multi-agency coordination mechanism were formed during the emergency management of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hainan Province. The collection, storage, analysis, and application of multisource epidemic data were realized based on the government's big data platform using a centralized model. The graph database algorithm is compatible with this platform and can analyze multisource and heterogeneous big data related to the epidemic. These practices were used to quickly and accurately identify and trace 10,871 contacts among hundreds of thousands of epidemic data records; 378 closest contacts and a number of public places with high risk of infection were identified. A confirmed patient was found after quarantine measures were implemented by all contacts. CONCLUSIONS: During the emergency management of the COVID-19 epidemic, Hainan Province used a graph database algorithm to trace contacts in a centralized model, which can identify infected individuals and high-risk public places more quickly and accurately. This practice can provide support to government agencies to implement precise, agile, and evidence-based emergency management measures and improve the responsiveness of the public health emergency response system. Strengthening data security, improving tracing accuracy, enabling intelligent data collection, and improving data-sharing mechanisms and technologies are directions for optimizing digital contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Digital Technology , Epidemics/prevention & control , Algorithms , Big Data , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Computer Graphics , Data Visualization , Databases, Factual , Humans
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008444, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040035

ABSTRACT

We provide a stand-alone software, the BioAFMviewer, which transforms biomolecular structures into the graphical representation corresponding to the outcome of atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. The AFM graphics is obtained by performing simulated scanning over the molecular structure encoded in the corresponding PDB file. A versatile molecular viewer integrates the visualization of PDB structures and control over their orientation, while synchronized simulated scanning with variable spatial resolution and tip-shape geometry produces the corresponding AFM graphics. We demonstrate the applicability of the BioAFMviewer by comparing simulated AFM graphics to high-speed AFM observations of proteins. The software can furthermore process molecular movies of conformational motions, e.g. those obtained from servers which model functional transitions within a protein, and produce the corresponding simulated AFM movie. The BioAFMviewer software provides the platform to employ the plethora of structural and dynamical data of proteins in order to help in the interpretation of biomolecular AFM experiments.


Subject(s)
Microscopy, Atomic Force/statistics & numerical data , Software , Computational Biology , Computer Graphics , Computer Simulation , Microscopy, Video/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Dynamics Simulation/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Structure , Motion Pictures , Nanotechnology , Protein Conformation , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/ultrastructure , User-Computer Interface
20.
Trials ; 21(1): 1028, 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide valuable information and inform the development of harm profiles of new treatments. Harms are typically assessed through the collection of adverse events (AEs). Despite AEs being routine outcomes collected in trials, analysis and reporting of AEs in journal articles are continually shown to be suboptimal. One key challenge is the large volume of AEs, which can make evaluation and communication problematic. Prominent practice is to report frequency tables of AEs by arm. Visual displays offer an effective solution to assess and communicate complex information; however, they are rarely used and there is a lack of practical guidance on what and how to visually display complex AE data. METHODS: In this article, we demonstrate the use of two plots identified to be beneficial for wide use in RCTs, since both can display multiple AEs and are suitable to display point estimates for binary, count, or time-to-event AE data: the volcano and dot plots. We compare and contrast the use of data visualisations against traditional frequency table reporting, using published AE information in two placebo-controlled trials, of remdesivir for COVID-19 and GDNF for Parkinson disease. We introduce statistical programmes for implementation in Stata. RESULTS/CASE STUDY: Visualisations of AEs in the COVID-19 trial communicated a risk profile for remdesivir which differed from the main message in the published authors' conclusion. In the Parkinson's disease trial of GDNF, the visualisation provided immediate communication of harm signals, which had otherwise been contained within lengthy descriptive text and tables. Asymmetry in the volcano plot helped flag extreme events that were less obvious from review of the frequency table and dot plot. The dot plot allowed a more comprehensive representation by means of a more detailed summary. CONCLUSIONS: Visualisations can better support investigators to assimilate large volumes of data and enable improved informal between-arm comparisons compared to tables. We endorse increased uptake for use in trial publications. Care in construction of visual displays needs to be taken as there can be potential to overemphasise treatment effects in some circumstances.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Data Display , Data Visualization , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Research Design/standards , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Alanine/adverse effects , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Computer Graphics , Data Accuracy , Data Analysis , Drug Monitoring/methods , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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