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1.
J Travel Med ; 28(8)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189287

Subject(s)
Computer Security , Humans
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110222

ABSTRACT

Currently, cybersecurity plays an essential role in computing and information technology due to its direct effect on organizations' critical assets and information. Cybersecurity is applied using integrity, availability, and confidentiality to protect organizational assets and information from various malicious attacks and vulnerabilities. The COVID-19 pandemic has generated different cybersecurity issues and challenges for businesses as employees have become accustomed to working from home. Firms are speeding up their digital transformation, making cybersecurity the current main concern. For software and hardware systems protection, organizations tend to spend an excessive amount of money procuring intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, antispyware software, and encryption mechanisms. However, these solutions are not enough, and organizations continue to suffer security risks due to the escalating list of security vulnerabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a thriving need to provide a cybersecurity awareness and training framework for remote working employees. The main objective of this research is to propose a CAT framework for cybersecurity awareness and training that will help organizations to evaluate and measure their employees' capability in the cybersecurity domain. The proposed CAT framework will assist different organizations in effectively and efficiently managing security-related issues and challenges to protect their assets and critical information. The developed CAT framework consists of three key levels and twenty-five core practices. Case studies are conducted to evaluate the usefulness of the CAT framework in cybersecurity-based organizational settings in a real-world environment. The case studies' results showed that the proposed CAT framework can identify employees' capability levels and help train them to effectively overcome the cybersecurity issues and challenges faced by the organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Teleworking , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Computer Security , Confidentiality
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110218

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a deadly disease that affects the lungs and air supply of the human body. Coronavirus and its variants also affect the airways of the lungs. Asthma patients approach hospitals mostly in a critical condition and require emergency treatment, which creates a burden on health institutions during pandemics. The similar symptoms of asthma and coronavirus create confusion for health workers during patient handling and treatment of disease. The unavailability of patient history to physicians causes complications in proper diagnostics and treatments. Many asthma patient deaths have been reported especially during pandemics, which necessitates an efficient framework for asthma patients. In this article, we have proposed a blockchain consortium healthcare framework for asthma patients. The proposed framework helps in managing asthma healthcare units, coronavirus patient records and vaccination centers, insurance companies, and government agencies, which are connected through the secure blockchain network. The proposed framework increases data security and scalability as it stores encrypted patient data on the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) and keeps data hash values on the blockchain. The patient data are traceable and accessible to physicians and stakeholders, which helps in accurate diagnostics, timely treatment, and the management of patients. The smart contract ensures the execution of all business rules. The patient profile generation mechanism is also discussed. The experiment results revealed that the proposed framework has better transaction throughput, query delay, and security than existing solutions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Blockchain , Humans , Pandemics , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy
4.
Perspect Health Inf Manag ; 19(4): 1c, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102053

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in cybersecurity attacks on organizations operating in the healthcare industry. Health information professionals and health executives are unable to limit the impact of data breaches on records their organizations handle. While current research focuses on prevention strategies and the understanding of the causes of data breaches, it failed to address how to mitigate the impact of successful cybersecurity attacks. This quantitative research paper examined the effect the healthcare entity type has on the number of impacted individuals for healthcare data breaches that occurred during the pandemic. Health information professionals will be able to mitigate the number of breached records based on their organizational type. Some of this paper's findings include the call for implementation of organizational frameworks aimed to protect patient information, and the call for further research to understand how other factors might affect the impact of healthcare data breaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Security , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
Bioanalysis ; 14(14): 963-965, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090589
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 300: 190-202, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089735

ABSTRACT

Cyber security attacks evidence has shown that many sectors and industries are still at an insufficient level of readiness to counter these threats, including healthcare organizations and the entire healthcare industry. The COVID-19 pandemic has additionally launched the issue of cyber protection of healthcare systems and connected medical and other devices as well as modern IT components, which are often the entry point for attackers against healthcare organizations. With the aim of a systematic approach to cyber security in healthcare organizations, this article comprehensively presents cyber risks and possible consequences of attacks in the context of healthcare organization services, as well as identifies the five most important cyber security challenges and provides recommendations for establishing protection mechanisms in line with best practices.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , COVID-19 , Organizations , Pandemics
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7025485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029566

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused global epidemic infections, which is one of the most severe infections in human medical history. In the absence of proper medications and vaccines, handling the pandemic has been challenging for governments and major health facilities. Additionally, tracing COVID-19 cases and handling data generated from the pandemic are also extremely challenging. Data privacy access and collection are also a challenge when handling COVID-19 data. Blockchain technology provides various features such as decentralization, anonymity, cryptographic security, smart contracts, and a distributed framework that allows users and entities to handle COVID-19 data better. Since the outbreak has made the moral crisis in the clinical and administrative centers worse than any other that has resulted in the decline in the supply of the exact information, however, it is vital to provide fast and accurate insight into the situation. As a result of all these concerns, this study emphasizes the need for COVID-19 data processing to acquire aspects such as data security, data integrity, real-time data handling, and data management to provide patients with all benefits from which they had been denied owing to misinformation. Hence, the management of COVID-19 data through the use of the blockchain framework is crucial. Therefore, this paper illustrates how blockchain technology can be implemented in the COVID-19 data handling process. The paper also proposes a framework with three main layers: data collection layer; data access and privacy layer; and data storage layer.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Security , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(16)2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024042

ABSTRACT

As smart devices and mobile positioning technologies improve, location-based services (LBS) have grown in popularity. The LBS environment provides considerable convenience to users, but it also poses a significant threat to their privacy. A large number of research works have emerged to protect users' privacy. Dummy-based location privacy protection solutions have been widely adopted for their simplicity and enhanced privacy protection results, but there are few reviews on dummy-based location privacy protection. Or, for existing works, some focus on aspects of cryptography, anonymity, or other comprehensive reviews that do not provide enough reviews on dummy-based privacy protection. In this paper, the authors provide a review of dummy-based location privacy protection techniques for location-based services. More specifically, the connection between the level of privacy protection, the quality of service, and the system overhead is summarized. The difference and connection between various location privacy protection techniques are also described. The dummy-based attack models are presented. Then, the algorithms for dummy location selection are analyzed and evaluated. Finally, we thoroughly evaluate different dummy location selection methods and arrive at a highly useful evaluation result. This result is valuable both to users and researchers who are studying this field.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Privacy , Algorithms
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9631, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927094

ABSTRACT

This article uses Deep Learning technologies to safeguard DNA sequencing against Bio-Cyber attacks. We consider a hybrid attack scenario where the payload is encoded into a DNA sequence to activate a Trojan malware implanted in a software tool used in the sequencing pipeline in order to allow the perpetrators to gain control over the resources used in that pipeline during sequence analysis. The scenario considered in the paper is based on perpetrators submitting synthetically engineered DNA samples that contain digitally encoded IP address and port number of the perpetrator's machine in the DNA. Genetic analysis of the sample's DNA will decode the address that is used by the software Trojan malware to activate and trigger a remote connection. This approach can open up to multiple perpetrators to create connections to hijack the DNA sequencing pipeline. As a way of hiding the data, the perpetrators can avoid detection by encoding the address to maximise similarity with genuine DNAs, which we showed previously. However, in this paper we show how Deep Learning can be used to successfully detect and identify the trigger encoded data, in order to protect a DNA sequencing pipeline from Trojan attacks. The result shows nearly up to 100% accuracy in detection in such a novel Trojan attack scenario even after applying fragmentation encryption and steganography on the encoded trigger data. In addition, feasibility of designing and synthesizing encoded DNA for such Trojan payloads is validated by a wet lab experiment.


Subject(s)
Computer Security , Deep Learning , DNA/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Software
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 312-315, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924035

ABSTRACT

Advances in computer communication technology have enabled the rapid growth of e-health services for delivering healthcare, such as facilitating online consent and data sharing between patients and health professionals. Developing a patient-centric healthcare system is challenging because by necessity, it should be secure, reliable, and resilient to cyber threats, whilst remaining user-friendly. Key to any development aiming for a refined proof-of-concept (PoC) system is the pursuit of comprehensive public system testing and evaluation. This paper focuses on the methodology and results obtained from the participatory approach adopted by the EU H2020 project Serums to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of a smart healthcare system based on emergent technologies like blockchain, data lake, and multi-factor authentication. We discuss the challenges faced by remote PoC system evaluations with end-users as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 2623656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891946

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the public administration and resource allocation based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy, this paper takes the public affairs in the prevention and control of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic as an example to conduct research. On the basis of summarizing and analyzing the previous published literatures, this study expounded the research status and significance of public administration and resource allocations; elaborated the development background, current status and future challenges of blockchain, and structured occupational therapy; introduced the methods and principles of data quality collaboration model and multiparty collaboration standard management; analyzed the case background of public administration and resource allocation in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic; discussed the public administration mechanism based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy; established a resource allocation method based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy; fathomed the role of the distributed ledger established by blockchain to increase the information symmetry of public administration activities; proposed a blockchain-established special machine trust for resource allocation; and finally, anatomized the data security sharing and access control mechanism based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy. The research results show that the public administration and resource allocation in this paper can effectively realize the data integration of the whole process and all departments and show the whole data and realize the traceability of the whole process. The blockchain revolutionizes the hierarchical leadership method of traditional resource allocation, shortens the distance between superiors and subordinates, makes information dissemination more fluent, and handles things more efficiently, making resource allocation ultimately form a flatter organization structure. In the original trust system of resource allocation, the blockchain and structured occupational therapy realizes the reconstruction of the trust system by preventing information tampering, using information encryption technology, and using information traceability technology. The results of this paper provide a reference for further research on the public administration and resource allocation based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Occupational Therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Security , Humans , Resource Allocation
12.
J Dent ; 122: 104112, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878250

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aims to review explore, assess, and map the literature to inform clinical practice regarding communication between clinicians. Specific Apps/channels used were identified and assessed with a focus on data security with key concepts and knowledge gaps identified. DATA: The Joanna Briggs Institute framework is followed, with search results reported as per the PRISMA ScR for scoping reviews guidelines. SOURCES: A systematic search strategy encompassing EBSCO and OneSearch databases was conducted - two identical searches, (June and October 2020) limited to English language articles published 2016-2020. A narrative synthesis was used to integrate and report the findings. STUDY SELECTION: Sixty-six publications were selected. Twelve from EBSCO, thirty-five from OneSearch, nineteen were hand searched. Sixteen of the publications were research studies, nine were literature reviews, twenty-six were editorial, one was a newspaper article and fourteen were grey literature. Instant Messaging (40%, n = 23), image sharing (41%, n = 24), and video conferencing (19%, n = 11) were functions most popular with clinicians. WhatsApp, generic instant messaging, Facebook messenger, ZOOM, and Skype are evidenced as channels for communication between clinicians within the EU. A sizeable proportion of the publications (38%; n = 25) failed to identify or adequately address technical security concerns and requirements around privacy and data protection. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians use smartphones /Apps to communicate clinical information with each other. The security and privacy issues arising from their communication of sensitive data is absent or only superficially acknowledged within the literature. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinician's need clearer guidance on the use of smartphone technology for clinical communications.


Subject(s)
Communication , Smartphone , Computer Security , Humans , Privacy , Technology
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869750

ABSTRACT

Electronic Health Records (EHR) are the healthcare sector's core digital strategy meant to improve the quality of care provided to patients. Despite the benefits afforded by this digital transformation initiative, adoption among healthcare organizations has been slower than desired. The sheer volume and sensitive nature of patient records compel these organizations to exercise a healthy amount of caution in implementing EHR. Cyberattacks have also increased the risks associated with non-optimal EHR implementations. An influx of high-profile data breaches has plagued the sector during the COVID-19 pandemic, which put the spotlight on EHR cybersecurity. One objective of this research project is to aid the acceleration of EHR adoption. Another objective is to ensure the robustness of the system to resist malicious attacks. For the former, a systematic review was used to unearth all the possible causes why the adoption of EHR has been anemic. In this paper, sixty-five existing proposed EHR solutions were analyzed and it was found that there are fourteen major challenges that need to be addressed to reduce friction and risk for health organizations. These were privacy, security, confidentiality, interoperability, access control, scalability, authentication, accessibility, availability, data storage, data ownership, data validity, data integrity, and ease of use. We propose EHRChain, a new framework that tackles all the listed challenges simultaneously to address the first objective while also being designed to achieve the second objective. It is enabled by dual-blockchains based on Hyperledger Sawtooth to allow patient data decentralization via a consortium blockchain and IPFS for distributed data storage.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Security , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(4): e32411, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. As of June 2021, 5 emergency vaccines were available for COVID-19 prevention, and with the improvement of vaccination rates and the resumption of activities in each country, verification of vaccination has become an important issue. Currently, in most areas, vaccination and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results are certified and validated on paper. This leads to the problem of counterfeit documents. Therefore, a global vaccination record is needed. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to design a vaccine passport (VP) validation system based on a general blockchain architecture for international use in a simulated environment. With decentralized characteristics, the system is expected to have the advantages of low cost, high interoperability, effectiveness, security, and verifiability through blockchain architecture. METHODS: The blockchain decentralized mechanism was used to build an open and anticounterfeiting information platform for VPs. The contents of a vaccination card are recorded according to international Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resource (FHIR) standards, and blockchain smart contracts (SCs) are used for authorization and authentication to achieve hierarchical management of various international hospitals and people receiving injections. The blockchain stores an encrypted vaccination path managed by the user who manages the private key. The blockchain uses the proof-of-authority (PoA) public chain and can access all information through the specified chain. This will achieve the goal of keeping development costs low and streamlining vaccine transit management so that countries in different economies can use them. RESULTS: The openness of the blockchain helps to create transparency and data accuracy. This blockchain architecture contains a total of 3 entities. All approvals are published on Open Ledger. Smart certificates enable authorization and authentication, and encryption and decryption mechanisms guarantee data protection. This proof of concept demonstrates the design of blockchain architecture, which can achieve accurate global VP verification at an affordable price. In this study, an actual VP case was established and demonstrated. An open blockchain, an individually approved certification mechanism, and an international standard vaccination record were introduced. CONCLUSIONS: Blockchain architecture can be used to build a viable international VP authentication process with the advantages of low cost, high interoperability, effectiveness, security, and verifiability.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Security , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4788031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799194

ABSTRACT

The recent advent of cloud computing provides a flexible way to effectively share data among multiple users. Cloud computing and cryptographic primitives are changing the way of healthcare unprecedentedly by providing real-time data sharing cost-effectively. Sharing various data items from different users to multiple sets of legitimate subscribers in the cloud environment is a challenging issue. The online electronic healthcare system requires multiple data items to be shared by different users for various purposes. In the present scenario, COVID-19 data is sensitive and must be encrypted to ensure data privacy. Secure sharing of such information is crucial. The standard broadcast encryption system is inefficient for this purpose. Multichannel broadcast encryption is a mechanism that enables secure sharing of different messages to different set of users efficiently. We propose an efficient and secure data sharing method with shorter ciphertext in public key setting using asymmetric (Type-III) pairings. The Type-III setting is the most efficient form among all pairing types regarding operations required and security. The semantic security of this method is proven under decisional BDHE complexity assumption without random oracle model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer Security , Cloud Computing , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Information Dissemination
16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6112815, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794365

ABSTRACT

Due to the high amount of electronic health records, hospitals have prioritized data protection. Because it uses parallel computing and is distributed, the security of the cloud cannot be guaranteed. Because of the large number of e-health records, hospitals have made data security a major concern. The cloud's security cannot be guaranteed because it uses parallel processing and is distributed. The blockchain (BC) has been deployed in the cloud to preserve and secure medical data because it is particularly prone to security breaches and attacks such as forgery, manipulation, and privacy leaks. An overview of blockchain (BC) technology in cloud storage to improve healthcare system security can be obtained by reading this paper. First, we will look at the benefits and drawbacks of using a basic cloud storage system. After that, a brief overview of blockchain cloud storage technology will be offered. Many researches have focused on using blockchain technology in healthcare systems as a possible solution to the security concerns in healthcare, resulting in tighter and more advanced security requirements being provided. This survey could lead to a blockchain-based solution for the protection of cloud-outsourced healthcare data. Evaluation and comparison of the simulation tests of the offered blockchain technology-focused studies can demonstrate integrity verification with cloud storage and medical data, data interchange with reduced computational complexity, security, and privacy protection. Because of blockchain and IT, business warfare has emerged, and governments in the Middle East have embraced it. Thus, this research focused on the qualities that influence customers' interest in and approval of blockchain technology in cloud storage for healthcare system security and the aspects that increase people's knowledge of blockchain. One way to better understand how people feel about learning how to use blockchain technology in healthcare is through the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). A snowball sampling method was used to select respondents in an online poll to gather data about blockchain technology in Middle Eastern poor countries. A total of 443 randomly selected responses were tested using SPSS. Blockchain adoption has been shown to be influenced by anticipation, effort expectancy, social influence (SI), facilitation factors, personal innovativeness (PInn), and a perception of security risk (PSR). Blockchain adoption and acceptance were found to be influenced by anticipation, effort expectancy, social influence (SI), facilitating conditions, personal innovativeness (PInn), and perceived security risk (PSR) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as providing an overview of current trends in the field and issues pertaining to significance and compatibility.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Adult , Blockchain/standards , Blockchain/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cloud Computing/standards , Cloud Computing/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Computer Security/standards , Computer Security/statistics & numerical data , Computer Simulation , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/standards , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266916, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793498

ABSTRACT

The lack of data outsourcing in healthcare management systems slows down the intercommunication and information sharing between different entities. A standard solution is outsourcing the electronic health record (EHR) to a cloud service provider (CSP). The outsourcing of the EHR should be performed securely without compromising the CSP functionalities. Searchable encryption would be a viable approach to ensure the confidentiality of the data without compromising searchability and accessibility. However, most existing searchable encryption solutions use centralised architecture. These systems have trust issues as not all the CSPs are fully trusted or honest. To address these problems, we explore blockchain technology with smart contract applications to construct a decentralised system with auditable yet immutable data storage and access. First, we propose a blockchain-based searchable encryption scheme for EHR storage and updates in a decentralised fashion. The proposed scheme supports confidentiality of the outsourced EHR, keyword search functionalities, verifiability of the user and the server, storage immutability, and dynamic updates of EHRs. Next, we implement a prototype using JavaScript and Solidity on the Ethereum platform to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed solution. Finally, we compare the performance and security of the proposed scheme against existing solutions. The result indicates that the proposed scheme is practical while providing the desired security features and functional requirements.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Cloud Computing , Computer Security , Confidentiality , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 814163, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776011

ABSTRACT

Privacy protection for health data is more than simply stripping datasets of specific identifiers. Privacy protection increasingly means the application of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), also known as privacy engineering. Demands for the application of PETs are not yet met with ease of use or even understanding. This paper provides a scope of the current peer-reviewed evidence regarding the practical use or adoption of various PETs for managing health data privacy. We describe the state of knowledge of PETS for the use and exchange of health data specifically and build a practical perspective on the steps needed to improve the standardization of the application of PETs for diverse uses of health data.


Subject(s)
Confidentiality , Privacy , Computer Security , Humans
19.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 215: 106595, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19, a serious infectious disease outbreak started in the end of 2019, has caused a strong impact on the overall medical system, which reflects the gap in the volume and capacity of medical services and highlights the importance of clinical data ex-change and application. The most important concerns of medical records in the medical field include data privacy, data correctness, and data security. By realizing these three goals, medical records can be made available to different hospital information systems to achieve the most complete medical care services. The privacy and protection of health data require detailed specification and usage requirements, which is particularly important for cross-agency data exchange. METHODS: This research is composed of three main modules. "Combined Encryption and Decryption Architecture", which includes the hybrid double encryption mechanism of AES and RSA, and encrypts medical records to produce "Secured Encrypted Medical Record". "Decentralize EMR Repository", which includes data decryption and an exchange mechanism. After a data transmission is completed, the content verification and data decryption process will be launched to confirm the correctness of the data and obtain the data. A blockchain architecture is used to store the hash value of the encrypted EMR, and completes the correctness verification of the EMR after transmission through the hash value. RESULTS: The results of this study provide an efficient triple encryption mechanism for electronic medical records. SEMRES ensures the correctness of data through the non-repudiation feature of a blockchain open ledger, and complete integrated information security protection and data verification architecture, in order that medical data can be exchanged, verified, and applied in different locations. After the patient receives medical services, the medical record is re-encrypted and verified and stored in the patient's medical record. The blockchain architecture is used to ensure the verification of non-repudiation of medical service, and finally to complete the payment for medical services. CONCLUSIONS: The main aim of this study was to complete a security architecture for medical data, and develop a triple encryption authentication architecture to help data owners easily and securely share personal medical records with medical service personnel.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Health Records, Personal , Computer Security , Electronic Health Records , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265695, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753203

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the current study, the views of Jordanian regarding sharing medical reports for research purposes were investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, motivators and barriers regarding sharing of medical records were examined. METHODS: This observational survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire during the COVID-19 pandemic (second half of 2020). The questionnaire link was disseminated through two social media platforms (WhatsApp and Facebook), targeting Jordanian adults (age >18 years). RESULTS: In this study, 1,194 participants agreed to complete the study survey. Results showed that 58.3% of them (n = 696) reported to be willing to share their medical data. while 17.6% of the participants (n = 210) showed hesitancy to share their medical information. The most important motivators as perceived by the study participants were helping other patients who have similar health conditions (n = 995, 83.3%). Moreover, fearing from stigma (n = 753, 63.1%), and the lack of confidence in data security and privacy (n = 728, 61.0%) were among the main barriers preventing participants from sharing their information. Finally, results showed that participants with higher educational level (bachelor or higher) (OR = 0.299, P<0.001), or those living in center of Jordan (OR = 0.270, P<0.001) showed a lower tendency to share their medical data. While participants those who have shared data before showed a higher tendency to share their medical data (OR = 2.524, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, many of the participants had a positive attitude towards sharing biomedical data for scientific research during the COVID-19 pandemic, many had doubts in the control over their data. Thus, policymakers and data users should address the concerns and values of patients and understand their preferences in favor of an ethically scrupulous use of data in research.


Subject(s)
Arabs/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Privacy/psychology , Adult , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/psychology , Computer Security , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Social Stigma , Young Adult
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