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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648423

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to explore the impacts of COVID-19 and changes taking place among the Indonesian female sex worker (FSW) community during the COVID-19 pandemic and the predictors of these changes. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey and selected the participants using a purposive snowball sampling technique. Incentives were provided to participants in the form of a 5 USD e-wallet balance. Variables of interest included adaptation to online sex work, adherence to COVID-19 prevention measures during sex work, number of clients, income reduction, social support, condom access, and condom use frequency. Sociodemographic data and COVID-19 fear index values were also collected. Final analysis included 951 FSWs, of whom 36.4% of had adapted to online sex work and 48.6% had practiced COVID-19 prevention measures. Major reductions in client frequency and income were reported by 67.8% and 71.1% of respondents, respectively. However, only 36.3% of FSWs reported they had ever received any form of social support from any parties, public or private. Meanwhile, 16.7% encountered difficulties in accessing condoms and 12.5% reported less frequent condom use during the pandemic. Easy access to condoms was the main factor influencing the frequency of condom use. As expected, staying in employment protected FSWs from major income loss, while education and younger age predicted adaptive behavioral changes, such as taking up online sex work. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted access to socioeconomic support systems and HIV prevention services among FSWs and has further exposed them to the dual jeopardy of HIV and COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Condoms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Safe Sex
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604723

ABSTRACT

The COVID Pandemic may affect fertility behaviour and intentions in many ways. Restrictions on service provision reduce access to family planning services and increase fertility in the short term. By contrast, the economic uncertainty brought about by the pandemic and its impact on mental health and well-being may reduce fertility. These various pathways have been explored in the context of high income countries such as the United States and Western Europe, but little is known about middle income countries. In this paper we asses the impact of the COVID pandemic on fertility intentions and behaviour in the Republic of Moldova, a middle income country in Eastern Europe, using the Generations and Gender Survey. This survey was conducted partially before and partially after the onset of the pandemic in 2020, allowing for detailed comparisons of individual circumstances. The results indicate that the pandemic reduced the used of intrauterine devices, and increased the use of male condoms, but with no overall decrease in contraceptive use. Conversely individuals interviewed after the onset of the pandemic were 34.5% less likely to be trying to conceive, although medium term fertility intentions were unchanged. Indicators therefore suggest that in the medium term fertility intentions may not be affected by the pandemic but restricted access to contraception requiring medical consultation and a decrease in short-term fertility intentions could disrupt short term family planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fertility/physiology , Reproductive Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Condoms/trends , Contraception/trends , Contraception Behavior/trends , Family Characteristics , Family Planning Services/supply & distribution , Family Planning Services/trends , Female , Humans , Income , Intrauterine Devices/trends , Male , Moldova/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
AIDS ; 35(11): 1871-1872, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358525

ABSTRACT

Female sex workers' livelihoods in Zimbabwe have been severely impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic due to closure of entertainment venues. Competition over fewer clients has reduced ability to negotiate condom use. At the same time as partner numbers have decreased, frequency of reported condomless sex has not increased, suggesting potential reduction in overall HIV and sexually transmitted infection risk and an opportunity for programmes to reach sex workers with holistic social and economic support and prevention services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Condoms , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(5): 1111-1118, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed how the Dutch restrictions imposed on March 15, 2020, affected sexual behavior, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and condom use among PrEP users in Amsterdam. METHODS: We used data on (1) PrEP use, (2) anal sex acts, and (3) condom use, per partner type [steady partners (SPs), known casual partners (KCPs), and unknown casual partners (UCPs)], collected daily through a mobile application used between December 1, 2019, and June 30, 2020. We compared the period before versus after March 15, 2020, regarding average proportion of days per week at which each end point was reported and average proportion of anal sex acts covered by PrEP and/or condoms. RESULTS: We included data from 136 men who have sex with men. After March 15, 2020, the proportion of days with anal sex increased with SPs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.44) and decreased with KCPs (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.82) and UCPs (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.48 to 0.61). Shifts in partner types were most profound immediately after March 15, 2020, whereas returning to prerestriction levels mid-May 2020. The proportion of days with PrEP use decreased from 74% before to 58% after March 15, 2020 (P < 0.001). After March 15, 2020, PrEP use during sex decreased with UCPs (ß = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.72 to 0.00) but not with SPs and KCPs. Condom use during sex decreased with KCPs (ß = -0.36; 95% CI = -0.67 to 0.04) and UCPs (ß = -0.24; 95% CI = -0.46 to 0.03) but not with SPs. CONCLUSIONS: MSM decreased sex with casual partners and increased sex with SP, but changes were transient. Decreases in sex acts with casual partners paralleled decreases in PrEP use. However, condom use during sex with casual partners decreased, indicating the importance of continued sexual health services, including sexually transmitted infections screening and PrEP care, during COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual Behavior , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Adult , Condoms , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Safe Sex , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/drug therapy
5.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(8): 589-594, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 stay-at-home orders enacted in New Orleans, LA on March 16, 2020, may have caused changes in the way young men interacted with sex partners. METHODS: An online substudy was conducted (May 21, 2020 to June 9, 2020) among Black men who have sex with women, 18 years and older, and who had previously enrolled in the parent study Check It (May 17, 2017 to March 6, 2020) to assess changes in sexual behavior during the stay-at-home orders. RESULTS: Among 111 participants, from enrollment in Check It to during stay-at-home orders, recent vaginal sex declined from 96.4% to 47.8% (P < 0.0001), reports of multiple female sex partners declined from 45.0% to 14.4% (P < 0.0001), and sexual abstinence increased from 3.6% to 38.7% (P < 0.0001). Among those who did have vaginal sex, condomless sex rates did not change between enrollment in Check It and the substudy (64.5% vs 67.9%, P = 0.68). During stay-at-home orders oral sex, virtual sex, and pornography viewing were 40.5%, 42.3%, and 76.6%, respectively. Some (17.1%) acquired a new sex partner during stay-at-home orders, and 44.1% left their home to meet a partner for sex. Only 27.9% had seen information about safe sex during the pandemic. Income was diminished for 62.2% and 23.4% moved away from New Orleans when stay-at-home orders were enacted. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was an overall reduction in physical sex, half of participants reported physical sex, with many leaving their home to have sex during stay-at-home orders and many not using condoms. Others adopted sexual abstinence, increased virtual sex, and/or pornography viewing, which may have protected them from both sexually transmitted infections and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , African Americans , Condoms , Female , Humans , Male , New Orleans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
6.
AIDS ; 35(11): 1871-1872, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223414

ABSTRACT

Female sex workers' livelihoods in Zimbabwe have been severely impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic due to closure of entertainment venues. Competition over fewer clients has reduced ability to negotiate condom use. At the same time as partner numbers have decreased, frequency of reported condomless sex has not increased, suggesting potential reduction in overall HIV and sexually transmitted infection risk and an opportunity for programmes to reach sex workers with holistic social and economic support and prevention services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Condoms , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(3): 899-911, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic indirectly impacts HIV epidemiology in Central/West Africa. We estimated the potential impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV prevention/treatment services and sexual partnerships on HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths among key populations including female sex workers (FSW), their clients, men who have sex with men, and overall. SETTING: Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Cotonou (Benin). METHODS: We used mathematical models of HIV calibrated to city population-specific and risk population-specific demographic/behavioral/epidemic data. We estimated the relative change in 1-year HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths for various disruption scenarios of HIV prevention/treatment services and decreased casual/commercial partnerships, compared with a scenario without COVID-19. RESULTS: A 50% reduction in condom use in all partnerships over 6 months would increase 1-year HIV incidence by 39%, 42%, 31%, and 23% among men who have sex with men, FSW, clients, and overall in Yaoundé, respectively, and 69%, 49%, and 23% among FSW, clients, and overall, respectively, in Cotonou. Combining a 6-month interruption of ART initiation and 50% reduction in HIV prevention/treatment use would increase HIV incidence by 50% and HIV-related deaths by 20%. This increase in HIV infections would be halved by a simultaneous 50% reduction in casual and commercial partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in condom use after COVID-19 would increase infections among key populations disproportionately, particularly FSW in Cotonou, who need uninterrupted condom provision. Disruptions in HIV prevention/treatment services have the biggest impacts on HIV infections and deaths overall, only partially mitigated by equal reductions in casual/commercial sexual partnerships. Maintaining ART provision must be prioritized to minimize short-term excess HIV-related deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Condoms , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Biological , Risk Factors , Safe Sex , Sex Workers , Urban Population
8.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 47(4): 269-276, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial response to COVID-19 in the UK involved a rapid contraction of face-to-face sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and widespread use of remote workarounds. This study sought to illuminate young people's experiences of accessing and using condoms and contraception in the early months of the pandemic. METHODS: We analysed data, including open-text responses, from an online survey conducted in June-July 2020 with a convenience sample of 2005 16-24-year-olds living in Scotland. RESULTS: Among those who used condoms and contraception, one quarter reported that COVID-19 mitigation measures had made a difference to their access or use. Open-text responses revealed a landscape of disrupted prevention, including changes to sexual risk-taking and preventive practices, unwanted contraceptive pathways, unmet need for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, and switches from freely provided to commercially sold condoms and contraception. Pandemic-related barriers to accessing free condoms and contraception included: (1) uncertainty about the legitimacy of accessing SRH care and self-censorship of need; (2) confusion about differences between SRH care and advice received from healthcare professionals during the pandemic compared with routine practice; and (3) exacerbation of existing access barriers, alongside reduced social support and resources to navigate SRH care. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging barriers to STI and pregnancy prevention within the context of COVID-19 have the potential to undermine positive SRH practices, and widen inequalities, among young people. As SRH services are restored amid evolving pandemic restrictions, messaging to support navigation of condom and contraception services should be co-created with young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Condoms , Adolescent , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Lancet HIV ; 8(4): e206-e215, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA have reported similar or fewer sexual partners and reduced HIV testing and care access compared with before the pandemic. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use has also declined. We aimed to quantify the potential effect of COVID-19 on HIV incidence and HIV-related mortality among US MSM. METHODS: We used a calibrated, deterministic, compartmental HIV transmission model for MSM in Baltimore (MD, USA) and available data on COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV services to predict effects of reductions in sexual partners (0%, 25%, 50%), condom use (5%), HIV testing (20%), viral suppression (10%), PrEP initiations (72%), PrEP adherence (9%), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiations (50%). In our main analysis, we modelled disruptions due to COVID-19 starting Jan 1, 2020, and lasting 6 months. We estimated the median change in cumulative new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths among MSM over 1 and 5 years, compared with a base case scenario without COVID-19-related disruptions. FINDINGS: A 25% reduction in sexual partners for 6 months among MSM in Baltimore, without HIV service changes, could reduce new HIV infections by median 12·2% (95% credible interval 11·7 to 12·8) over 1 year and median 3·0% (2·6 to 3·4) over 5 years. In the absence of changes in sexual behaviour, the 6-month estimated reductions in condom use, HIV testing, viral suppression, PrEP initiations, PrEP adherence, and ART initiations combined are predicted to increase new HIV infections by median 10·5% (5·8 to 16·5) over 1 year, and by median 3·5% (2·1 to 5·4) over 5 years. Disruptions to ART initiations and viral suppression are estimated to substantially increase HIV-related deaths (ART initiations by median 1·7% [0·8 to 3·2], viral suppression by median 9·5% [5·2 to 15·9]) over 1 year, with smaller proportional increases over 5 years. The other individual disruptions (to HIV testing, PrEP and condom use, PrEP initiation, and partner numbers) were estimated to have little effect on HIV-related deaths (<1% change over 1 or 5 years). A 25% reduction in sexual partnerships is estimated to offset the effect of the combined service disruptions on new HIV infections (change over 1 year: median -3·9% [-7·4 to 1·0]; over 5 years: median 0·0% [-0·9 to 1·4]), but not on HIV deaths (change over 1 year: 11·0% [6·2 to 17·7]; over 5 years: 2·6% [1·5 to 4·3]). INTERPRETATION: Maintaining access to ART and adherence support is of the utmost importance to maintain viral suppression and minimise excess HIV-related mortality due to COVID-19 restrictions in the USA, even if disruptions to services are accompanied by reductions in sexual partnerships. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Baltimore/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prognosis , Risk-Taking , Sexual Partners , Survival Analysis
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(2): 85-87, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792131

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the early impact of COVID-19 and associated control measures on the sexual behaviour of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users in Wales. METHODS: Data were obtained from an ecological momentary assessment study of PrEP use and sexual behaviour. Participants were individuals accessing PrEP through the National Health Service (NHS) sexual health clinics across four health boards in Wales. Weekly data documenting condomless sex in the preceding week were analysed between 03/02/2020 and 10/05/2020. The introduction of social distancing measures and changes to sexual health clinics in Wales occurred on the week starting 16/03/2020. Two-level logistic regression models were fitted to condomless sex (yes/no) over time, included an indicator for the week starting 16/03/2020, and were extended to explore differential associations by relationship status and sexual health clinic. RESULTS: Data were available from 56 participants and included 697 person-weeks (89% of the maximum number that could have been obtained). On average, 42% of participants reported condomless sex in the period prior to the introduction of social distancing measures and 20% reported condomless sex after (OR=0.16, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.37, p<0.001). There was some evidence to suggest that this association was moderated by relationship status (OR for single participants=0.09, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.23; OR for not single participants=0.46, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.25). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of social distancing measures and changes to PrEP services across Wales was associated with a marked reduction in reported instances of condomless sexual intercourse among respondents, with a larger reduction in those who were single compared with those who were not. The long-term impact of COVID-19 and associated control measures on this population's physical and mental health and well-being requires close examination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Unsafe Sex/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Wales
12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(1): 40-48, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739667

ABSTRACT

This paper presents data from a recent cross-sectional survey of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in the US, to understand changes in sexual behavior and access to HIV prevention options (i.e. condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)) during the COVID-19 lockdown period. The Love and Sex in the Time of COVID-19 survey was conducted online from April to May, 2020. GBMSM were recruited through advertisements featured on social networking platforms, recruiting a sample size of 518 GBMSM. Analysis considers changes three in self-reported measures of sexual behavior: number of sex partners, number of anal sex partners and number of anal sex partners not protected by pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) or condoms. Approximately two-thirds of the sample reported that they believed it was possible to contract COVID-19 through sex, with anal sex reported as the least risky sex act. Men did not generally feel it was important to reduce their number of sex partners during COVID-19, but reported a moderate willingness to have sex during COVID-19. For the period between February and April-May 20,202, participants reported a mean increase of 2.3 sex partners during COVID-19, a mean increase of 2.1 anal sex partners (range - 40 to 70), but a very small increase in the number of unprotected anal sex partners. Increases in sexual behavior during COVID-19 were associated with increases in substance use during the same period. High levels of sexual activity continue to be reported during the COVID-19 lockdown period and these high levels of sexual activity are often paralleled by increases in substance use and binge drinking. There is a clear need to continue to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care services during COVID-19, and telehealth and other eHealth platforms provide a safe, flexible mechanism for providing services.


Subject(s)
Bisexuality/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual Partners , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Unsafe Sex/psychology , Unsafe Sex/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
13.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e629-e640, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could lead to disruptions to provision of HIV services for people living with HIV and those at risk of acquiring HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, where UNAIDS estimated that more than two-thirds of the approximately 38 million people living with HIV resided in 2018. We aimed to predict the potential effects of such disruptions on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used five well described models of HIV epidemics (Goals, Optima HIV, HIV Synthesis, an Imperial College London model, and Epidemiological MODeling software [EMOD]) to estimate the effect of various potential disruptions to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa lasting 6 months over 1 year from April 1, 2020. We considered scenarios in which disruptions affected 20%, 50%, and 100% of the population. FINDINGS: A 6-month interruption of supply of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs across 50% of the population of people living with HIV who are on treatment would be expected to lead to a 1·63 times (median across models; range 1·39-1·87) increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period compared with no disruption. In sub-Saharan Africa, this increase amounts to a median excess of HIV deaths, across all model estimates, of 296 000 (range 229 023-420 000) if such a high level of disruption occurred. Interruption of ART would increase mother-to-child transmission of HIV by approximately 1·6 times. Although an interruption in the supply of ART drugs would have the largest impact of any potential disruptions, effects of poorer clinical care due to overstretched health facilities, interruptions of supply of other drugs such as co-trimoxazole, and suspension of HIV testing would all have a substantial effect on population-level mortality (up to a 1·06 times increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period due to disruptions affecting 50% of the population compared with no disruption). Interruption to condom supplies and peer education would make populations more susceptible to increases in HIV incidence, although physical distancing measures could lead to reductions in risky sexual behaviour (up to 1·19 times increase in new HIV infections over a 1-year period if 50% of people are affected). INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary priority for governments, donors, suppliers, and communities should focus on maintaining uninterrupted supply of ART drugs for people with HIV to avoid additional HIV-related deaths. The provision of other HIV prevention measures is also important to prevent any increase in HIV incidence. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19 , Condoms/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Global Health/trends , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/growth & development , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Survival Analysis
14.
AIDS Behav ; 24(7): 2024-2032, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-141720

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is reinforcing health inequities among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted a rapid online survey (April 2 to April 13, 2020) of COVID-19 related impacts on the sexual health of 1051 US MSM. Many participants had adverse impacts to general wellbeing, social interactions, money, food, drug use and alcohol consumption. Half had fewer sex partners and most had no change in condom access or use. Some reported challenges in accessing HIV testing, prevention and treatment services. Compared to older MSM, those 15-24 years were more likely to report economic and service impacts. While additional studies of COVID-19 epidemiology among MSM are needed, there is already evidence of emerging interruptions to HIV-related services. Scalable remote solutions such as telehealth and mailed testing and prevention supplies may be urgently needed to avert increased HIV incidence among MSM during the COVID-19 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
Condoms/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sexual Partners , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
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