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1.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221105998, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874956

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examines how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is affecting utilization of medical and behavioral health services through school based health centers (SBHC s). METHODS: We leveraged the electronic health records from one of the largest sponsors of SBHCs in the country, and tested differences in SBHC utilization with chi-square tests one year prior to the pandemic (pre-pandemic: March 2019-February 2020) compared to one year into the pandemic period (March 2020-February 2021). RESULTS: A significant difference in SBHC utilization was found between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods (P <.001). 63.5% of SBHC patients accessed medical services pre-pandemic compared to 51.2% during the pandemic. In contrast, 36.5% of SBHC patients accessed behavioral services pre-pandemic compared to 48.8% during the pandemic, representing a 12.3% increase in SBHC behavioral service utilization since the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: SBHCs may serve as an invaluable means of ensuring youth, particularly those from disadvantaged communities, have access to needed behavioral health services during the current public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , School Health Services , Adolescent , Connecticut/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans
3.
Child Abuse Negl ; 128: 105619, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of national emergency department (ED) data demonstrate a decrease in visits coded for physical abuse during the pandemic period. However, no study to date has examined the incidence of multiple child maltreatment types (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect), within a single state while considering state-specific closure policies. Furthermore, no similar study has utilized detailed chart review to identify cases, nor compared hospital data to Child Protective Services (CPS) reports. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of child maltreatment-related ED visits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, including characterizing the type of maltreatment, severity, and CPS reporting. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Children younger than 18 years old at two tertiary-care, academic children's hospitals in X state. METHODS: Maltreatment-related ED visits were identified by ICD-10-CM codes and keywords in chief concerns and provider notes. We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective review of ED visits and child abuse consultations during the pre-COVID (1/1/2019-3/15/2020) and COVID (3/16/2020-8/31/2020) periods, as well as state-level CPS reports for suspected maltreatment. RESULTS: Maltreatment-related ED visits decreased from 15.7/week in the matched pre-COVID period (n = 380 total) to 12.3/week (n = 296 total) in the COVID period (P < .01). However, ED visits (P < .05) and CPS reports (P < .001) for child neglect increased during this period. Provider notes identified 62.4% of child maltreatment ED visits, while ICD-10 codes identified only-CM captured 46.8%. CONCLUSION: ED visits for physical and sexual abuse declined, but neglect cases increased during the COVID-19 pandemic in X state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics
4.
J Healthc Manag ; 67(2): 75-88, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735684

ABSTRACT

GOAL: COVID-19 has imposed unique challenges for healthcare workers who have faced increased risk of exposure to the virus, heightened work demands, and disruptions in work-life balance. For some healthcare workers, these challenges may have contributed to increased stress, burnout, and psychosocial impairment, including symptoms of depression and anxiety. The current study addresses a knowledge gap of associations between pandemic-related experiences and psychosocial risk among medical and nonmedical pediatric healthcare staff. METHODS: A sample of 369 staff (90% female) employed at an acute care, freestanding pediatric hospital in Connecticut completed an online survey. The survey assessed specific pandemic-related experiences and perceived impact with the Epidemic-Pandemic Impacts Inventory, and depression and anxiety risk with the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression screen and 2-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder screen, respectively. Enrollment and survey completion occurred over a 6-week period during the pandemic (summer 2020). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High rates of adverse pandemic-related experiences included workplace experiences (e.g., inadequate support, interpersonal difficulties), home life (e.g., childcare difficulties, partner conflict), and experiences reflecting social isolation and quarantine, child and adult mental health difficulties, increased alcohol or substance use, and unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Medical relative to nonmedical staff reported significantly more adverse and fewer positive experiences, and a significantly higher perceived negative impact of workplace experiences. A positive screen for depression or anxiety was significantly predicted by cumulative adverse workplace experiences (OR = 1.15), changes in emotional/physical health (OR = 1.35), and perceived negative impact of workplace experiences (OR = 1.32). APPLICATIONS TO PRACTICE: The present study joins recent reports of increased adverse experiences and psychosocial outcomes among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings underscore the need for pediatric hospitals to innovate ways to reduce burden and connect staff to mental health services during similar public health crises. Such services might include (1) assisting healthcare staff to navigate disruptions in their home and social lives as a result of new challenges faced at work, (2) adapting the hospital environment and culture to mitigate stress experienced by staff because of these challenges, and (3) bolstering mental health screening and services to address exacerbated or emerging mental health symptoms, such as depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Personnel, Hospital , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Risk , Stress, Psychological/psychology
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713295

ABSTRACT

An increased incidence of chilblains has been observed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and attributed to viral infection. Direct evidence of this relationship has been limited, however, as most cases do not have molecular evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection with PCR or antibodies. We enrolled a cohort of 23 patients who were diagnosed and managed as having SARS-CoV-2-associated skin eruptions (including 21 pandemic chilblains [PC]) during the first wave of the pandemic in Connecticut. Antibody responses were determined through endpoint titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum epitope repertoire analysis. T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 were assessed by T cell receptor sequencing and in vitro SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific peptide stimulation assays. Immunohistochemical and PCR studies of PC biopsies and tissue microarrays for evidence of SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Among patients diagnosed and managed as "covid toes" during the pandemic, we find a percentage of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (9.5%) that approximates background seroprevalence (8.5%) at the time. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 staining in PC biopsies may not be from SARS-CoV-2. Our results do not support SARS-CoV-2 as the causative agent of pandemic chilblains; however, our study does not exclude the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 seronegative abortive infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chilblains/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Chilblains/virology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
6.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(5): 958-963, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700630

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, numerous institutions published COVID-19 dashboards for reporting epidemiological statistics at the county, state, or national level. However, statistics for smaller cities were often not reported, requiring these areas to develop their own data processing pipelines. For under-resourced departments of health, the development of these pipelines was challenging, leading them to rely on nonspecific and often delayed infection statistics during the pandemic. To avoid this issue, the Stamford, Connecticut Department of Health (SDH) contracted with the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health to develop an online dashboard that displays real-time case, death, test, vaccination, hospitalization, and forecast data for their city, allowing SDH to monitor trends for specific demographic and geographic groups. Insights from the dashboard allowed SDH to initiate timely and targeted testing/vaccination campaigns. The dashboard is widely used and highlights the benefit of public-academic partnerships in public health, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 298-305, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lyme disease incidence is increasing, despite current prevention options. New Lyme disease vaccine candidates are in development, however, investigation of the acceptability of a Lyme disease vaccine among potential consumers is needed prior to any vaccine coming to market. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study to estimate willingness to receive a potential Lyme disease vaccine and factors associated with willingness. METHODS: The web-based survey was administered to a random sample of Connecticut, Maryland, Minnesota, and New York residents June-July 2018. Survey-weighted descriptive statistics were conducted to estimate the proportion willing to receive a potential Lyme disease vaccine. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were used to quantify the association of sociodemographic characteristics and Lyme disease vaccine attitudes with willingness to be vaccinated. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 3313 respondents (6% response rate). We estimated that 64% of residents were willing to receive a Lyme disease vaccine, while 30% were uncertain and 7% were unwilling. Compared to those who were willing, those who were uncertain were more likely to be parents, adults 45-65 years old, non-White, have less than a bachelor's degree, or have safety concerns about a potential Lyme disease vaccine. Those who were unwilling were also more likely to be non-White, have less than a bachelor's degree, or have safety concerns about a potential Lyme disease vaccine. In addition, the unwilling had low confidence in vaccines in general, had low perceived risk of contracting Lyme disease, and said they would not be influenced by a positive recommendation from a healthcare provider. DISCUSSION: Overall, willingness to receive a Lyme disease vaccine was high. Effective communication by clinicians regarding safety and other vaccine parameters to those groups who are uncertain will be critical for increasing vaccine uptake and reducing Lyme disease incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lyme Disease Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140602, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597867

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the 2020-2021 academic year, many institutions of higher education reopened to residential students while pursuing strategies to mitigate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on campus. Reopening guidance emphasized polymerase chain reaction or antigen testing for residential students and social distancing measures to reduce the frequency of close interpersonal contact, and Connecticut colleges and universities used a variety of approaches to reopen campuses to residential students. Objective: To characterize institutional reopening strategies and COVID-19 outcomes in 18 residential college and university campuses across Connecticut. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data on COVID-19 testing and cases and social contact from 18 college and university campuses in Connecticut that had residential students during the 2020-2021 academic year. Exposures: Tests for COVID-19 performed per week per residential student. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cases per week per residential student and mean (95% CI) social contact per week per residential student. Results: Between 235 and 4603 residential students attended the fall semester across each of 18 institutions of higher education in Connecticut, with fewer residential students at most institutions during the spring semester. In census block groups containing residence halls, the fall student move-in resulted in a 475% (95% CI, 373%-606%) increase in mean contact, and the spring move-in resulted in a 561% (95% CI, 441%-713%) increase in mean contact compared with the 7 weeks prior to move-in. The association between test frequency and case rate per residential student was complex; institutions that tested students infrequently detected few cases but failed to blunt transmission, whereas institutions that tested students more frequently detected more cases and prevented further spread. In fall 2020, each additional test per student per week was associated with a decrease of 0.0014 cases per student per week (95% CI, -0.0028 to -0.00001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that, in the era of available vaccinations and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, colleges and universities should continue to test residential students and use mitigation strategies to control on-campus COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Universities , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Interaction , Young Adult
9.
Am J Disaster Med ; 16(3): 195-202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572827

ABSTRACT

Connecticut was impacted severely and early on by the COVID-19 pandemic due to the state's proximity to New York City. Hartford Healthcare (HHC), one of the largest healthcare systems in New England, became integral in the state's response with a robust emergency management system already in place. In this manuscript, we review HHC's prepandemic emergency operations as well as the response of the system-wide Office of Emergency Management to the initial news of the virus and throughout the evolving pandemic. Additionally, we discuss the unique acquisition of vital critical care resources and personal protective equipment, as well as the hospital personnel distribution in response to the shifting demands of the virus. The public testing and vaccination efforts, with early consideration for at risk populations, are described as well as ethical considerations of scarce resources. To date, the vaccination effort resulted in over 70 percent of the adult population being vaccinated and with 10 percent of the population having been infected, herd immunity is eminent. Finally, the preparation for reestablishing elective procedures while experiencing a second wave of the pandemic is discussed. These descriptions may be useful for other healthcare systems in both preparation and response for future catastrophic emergencies of all types.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Connecticut/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(3): 532-541, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 hospitalizations of non-institutionalized persons during the first COVID-19 wave in Connecticut disproportionately affected the elderly, communities of color, and individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES). Whether the magnitude of these disparities changed after the initial lockdown and before vaccine rollout is not well documented. METHODS: All first-time hospitalizations with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during July to December 2020, including patients' geocoded residential addresses, were obtained from the Connecticut Department of Public Health. Those living in congregate settings, including nursing homes, were excluded. Community-dwelling patients were assigned census tract-level poverty and crowding measures from the 2014-2018 American Community Survey by linking their geocoded addresses to census tracts. Age-adjusted incidence and relative rates were calculated across demographic and SES measures and compared with those from a similar analysis of hospitalized cases during the initial wave. RESULTS: During July to December 2020, there were 5652 COVID-19 hospitalizations in community residents in Connecticut. Incidence was highest among those >85 years, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinx compared with non-Hispanic Whites {relative rate (RR) 3.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-3.32) and 5.9 (95% CI 5.58-6.28)}, and persons living in high poverty and high crowding census tracts. Although racial/ethnic and SES disparities during the study period were substantial, they were significantly decreased compared with the first wave of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of persistent, if reduced, large racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations 2-7 months after the initial lockdown was relaxed and before vaccination was widely available is of concern. These disparities cause a challenge to achieving health equity and are relevant for future pandemic planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Connecticut/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization , Humans , Social Class
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2669-2672, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486740

ABSTRACT

In fall 2020, a coronavirus disease cluster comprising 16 cases occurred in Connecticut, USA. Epidemiologic and genomic evidence supported transmission among persons at a school and fitness center but not a workplace. The multiple transmission chains identified within this cluster highlight the necessity of a combined investigatory approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fitness Centers , Connecticut/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481023

ABSTRACT

We report the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a 3-month-old dog in Connecticut that died suddenly and was submitted to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory for postmortem examination. Viral RNA was detected in multiple organs of the dog by reverse transcription real time-PCR (RT-qPCR). Negative and positive sense strands of viral RNA were visualized by in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the hCoV-19/USA/CT-CVMDL-Dog-1/2021 (CT_Dog/2021) virus were conducted to identify the origin and lineage of the virus. The CT_Dog/2021 virus belonged to the GH/B1.2. genetic lineage and was genetically similar to SARS-CoV-2 identified in humans in the U.S. during the winter of 2020-2021. However, it was not related to other SARS-CoV-2 variants identified from companion animals in the U.S. It contained both the D614G in spike and P323L in nsp12 substitutions, which have become the dominant mutations in the United States. The continued sporadic detections of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals warrant public health concerns about the zoonotic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and enhance our collective understanding of the epidemiology of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Animals , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Connecticut/epidemiology , Dogs , Female , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1509, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Light at night (LAN) as a circadian disruption factor may affect the human immune system and consequently increase an individual's susceptibility to the severity of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. COVID-19 infections spread differently in each state in the United States (US). The current analysis aimed to test whether there is an association between LAN and COVID-19 cases in 4 selected US states: Connecticut, New York, California, and Texas. METHODS: We analyzed clustering patterns of COVID-19 cases in ArcMap and performed a multiple linear regression model using data of LAN and COVID-19 incidence with adjustment for confounding variables including population density, percent below poverty, and racial factors. RESULTS: Hotspots of LAN and COVID-19 cases are located in large cities or metro-centers for all 4 states. LAN intensity is associated with cases/1 k for overall and lockdown durations in New York and Connecticut (P < 0.001), but not in Texas and California. The overall case rates are significantly associated with LAN in New York (P < 0.001) and Connecticut (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant positive correlation between LAN intensity and COVID-19 cases-rate/1 k, suggesting that circadian disruption of ambient light may increase the COVID-19 infection rate possibly by affecting an individual's immune functions. Furthermore, differences in the demographic structure and lockdown policies in different states play an important role in COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Circadian Rhythm , Communicable Disease Control , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20271, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467133

ABSTRACT

To support public health policymakers in Connecticut, we developed a flexible county-structured compartmental SEIR-type model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and COVID-19 disease progression. Our goals were to provide projections of infections, hospitalizations, and deaths, and estimates of important features of disease transmission and clinical progression. In this paper, we outline the model design, implementation and calibration, and describe how projections and estimates were used to meet the changing requirements of policymakers and officials in Connecticut from March 2020 to February 2021. The approach takes advantage of our unique access to Connecticut public health surveillance and hospital data and our direct connection to state officials and policymakers. We calibrated this model to data on deaths and hospitalizations and developed a novel measure of close interpersonal contact frequency to capture changes in transmission risk over time and used multiple local data sources to infer dynamics of time-varying model inputs. Estimated epidemiologic features of the COVID-19 epidemic in Connecticut include the effective reproduction number, cumulative incidence of infection, infection hospitalization and fatality ratios, and the case detection ratio. We conclude with a discussion of the limitations inherent in predicting uncertain epidemic trajectories and lessons learned from one year of providing COVID-19 projections in Connecticut.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Connecticut/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 162: 106399, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent research suggests that COVID-19 associated stay-at-home orders, or shelter-in-place orders, have impacted intra-and-interstate travel as well as motor vehicle crashes (crashes). We sought to further this research and to understand the impact of the stay-at-home order on crashes in the post order period in Connecticut. METHODS: We used a multiple-comparison group, interrupted time-series analysis design to compare crashes per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT) per week in 2020 to the average of 2017-2019 from January 1-August 31. We stratified crash rate by severity and the number of vehicles involved. We modeled two interruption points reflecting the weeks Connecticut implemented (March 23rd, week 12) and rescinded (May 20th, week 20) its stay-at-home order. RESULTS: During the initial week of the stay-at-home order in Connecticut, there was an additional 28 single vehicle crashes compared to previous years (95% confidence interval (CI): [15.8, 36.8]). However, the increase at the order onset was not seen throughout the duration. Rescinding the stay-at-home order by and large did not result in an immediate increase in crash rates. Crash rates steadily returned to previous year averages during the post-stay-at-home period. Fatal crash rates were unaffected by the stay-at-home order and remained similar to previous year rates throughout the study duration. DISCUSSION: The initial onset of the stay-at-home order in Connecticut was associated with a sharp increase in the single vehicle crash rate but that increase was not sustained for the remainder of the stay-at-home order. Likely changes in driver characteristics during and after the order kept fatal crash rates similar to previous years.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Motor Vehicles , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257608, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416907

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score predicts probability of in-hospital mortality. Many crisis standards of care suggest the use of SOFA scores to allocate medical resources during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are SOFA scores elevated among Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic patients hospitalized with COVID-19, compared to Non-Hispanic White patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted in Yale New Haven Health System, including 5 hospitals with total of 2681 beds. Study population drawn from consecutive patients aged ≥18 admitted with COVID-19 from March 29th to August 1st, 2020. Patients excluded from the analysis if not their first admission with COVID-19, if they did not have SOFA score recorded within 24 hours of admission, if race and ethnicity data were not Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, or Hispanic, or if they had other missing data. The primary outcome was SOFA score, with peak score within 24 hours of admission dichotomized as <6 or ≥6. RESULTS: Of 2982 patients admitted with COVID-19, 2320 met inclusion criteria and were analyzed, of whom 1058 (45.6%) were Non-Hispanic White, 645 (27.8%) were Hispanic, and 617 (26.6%) were Non-Hispanic Black. Median age was 65.0 and 1226 (52.8%) were female. In univariate logistic screen and in full multivariate model, Non-Hispanic Black patients but not Hispanic patients had greater odds of an elevated SOFA score ≥6 when compared to Non-Hispanic White patients (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.11-1.99). INTERPRETATION: Given current unequal patterns in social determinants of health, US crisis standards of care utilizing the SOFA score to allocate medical resources would be more likely to deny these resources to Non-Hispanic Black patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257423, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406754

ABSTRACT

Health Care Leaders (HCLs) faced unprecedented challenges during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Leaders played an important role in shaping the experiences of Health Care Workers (HCWs) during this time. However, research is needed on how HCWs experienced and characterized HCLs' response and support. The aim of our study was to examine HCWs' experiences with leadership and to identify aspects of HCLs' response that were effective in supporting HCWs in their roles during the early phases of the pandemic. This was a qualitative study based on open-ended semi-structured interviews conducted (June 1- July 18, 2020) with frontline HCWs during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Connecticut, USA. Participants (N = 45) included physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists and patient care assistants who worked in inpatient and outpatient settings in various specialties, roles and 3 health systems across Connecticut, USA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were offered a $25 gift card as an incentive for participation. We used inductive techniques derived from grounded theory to develop themes. We identified 6 main themes related to leadership response and support of HCWs during the pandemic namely: 1) Effective communication and transparency; 2) Prioritizing their health and safety; 3) Employee scheduling considerations: autonomy, assignment support and respite; 4) Appreciation- financial and nonfinancial; 5) Showing up and listening and 6) Stepping up with resources. Our findings can inform leadership responses to future pandemics and other unanticipated crises leading to strengthening of the health care system as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Leadership , Pandemics , Communication , Connecticut/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Humans
19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited therapeutic options exist for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is a potential therapeutic, but there is limited data for patients with moderate-to-severe disease. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are outcomes associated with administration of CCP in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 infection? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a propensity score-matched analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. The primary endpoints were in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints were number of days alive and ventilator-free at 30 days; length of hospital stay; and change in WHO scores from CCP administration (or index date) to discharge. Of 151 patients who received CCP, 132 had complete follow-up data. Patients were transfused after a median of 6 hospital days; thus, we investigated the effect of convalescent plasma before and after this timepoint with 77 early (within 6 days) and 55 late (after 6 days) recipients. Among 3,217 inpatients who did not receive CCP, 2,551 were available for matching. RESULTS: Early CCP recipients, of whom 31 (40%) were on mechanical ventilation, had lower 14-day (15% vs 23%) and 30-day (38% vs 49%) mortality compared to a matched unexposed cohort, with nearly 50% lower likelihood of in-hospital mortality (HR 0.52, [95% CI 0.28-0.96]; P = 0.036). Early plasma recipients had more days alive and ventilator-free at 30 days (+3.3 days, [95% CI 0.2 to 6.3 days]; P = 0.04) and improved WHO scores at 7 days (-0.8, [95% CI: -1.2 to -0.4]; P = 0.0003) and hospital discharge (-0.9, [95% CI: -1.5 to -0.3]; P = 0.004) compared to the matched unexposed cohort. No clinical differences were observed in late plasma recipients. INTERPRETATION: Early administration of CCP improves outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, while improvement was not observed with late CCP administration. The importance of timing of administration should be addressed in specifically designed trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Inpatients , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
20.
JSLS ; 25(2)2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Operating-room procedures canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic depleted hospital revenue and potentially worsened patient outcomes through disease progression. Despite safeguards to resume elective procedures, patients remain apprehensive of contracting COVID-19 during hospitalization and recovery. We investigated symptomatic COVID-19 infection in patients undergoing operating-room procedures during the spring 2020 outbreak in Fairfield County, CT, a heavily affected New York Metropolitan area. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 419 operating-room patients in Danbury and Norwalk Hospitals between 3/16/20 and 5/19/20. COVID-19 infection was assessed through test results or documented well-being within 2 weeks postdischarge. Variables studied were procedure classification, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Postprocedural COVID-19 infection was analyzed using binomial tests comparing rates to state-mandated infection data. RESULTS: Six patients developed COVID-19 after 212 urgent-elective and 207 emergent procedures. Overall postprocedural infection risk was equivalent to community infection risk (P > .05). No infections occurred in 1-2 day stays or urgent-elective procedures with discharge home (both P < .05). Discharges home reduced the risk to one-sixth of community spread (P = .03). Risk of infection doubled in hospitalizations > 5 days (P = .05) and quadrupled in discharges to extended care facilities (P = .01). DISCUSSION: Operating-room procedures did not increase the risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection during an outbreak. Urgent-elective and emergent procedures during further outbreaks appear safe when anticipating short stays with discharges home. When anticipating prolonged hospitalization or discharges to facilities, appropriate delay of urgent-elective procedures may minimize risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/transmission , Connecticut/epidemiology , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Operating Rooms , Postoperative Complications/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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