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1.
R I Med J (2013) ; 105(5): 41-45, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863925

ABSTRACT

The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a known complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the pediatric population. Recent studies have demonstrated high efficacy of a two-dose vaccine series in preventing MIS-C among adolescents. To date, such studies have only included children exposed to SARS-CoV-2 prior to the emergence of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529). We report a case of an adolescent who received three doses of a vaccine yet developed MIS-C following known exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Given the uncertainty in whether current vaccines offer as much protection against MIS-C due to the Omicron variant or any potential new variants as they have for older variants, pediatric providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for MIS-C regardless of vaccination status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
3.
CMAJ ; 194(14): E513-E523, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We sought to investigate risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and explored changes in disease severity over time. METHODS: We obtained data from chart reviews of children younger than 18 years with confirmed or probable MIS-C who were admitted to 15 hospitals in Canada, Iran and Costa Rica between Mar. 1, 2020, and Mar. 7, 2021. Using multivariable analyses, we evaluated whether admission date and other characteristics were associated with ICU admission or cardiac involvement. RESULTS: Of 232 children with MIS-C (median age 5.8 yr), 130 (56.0%) were male and 50 (21.6%) had comorbidities. Seventy-three (31.5%) patients were admitted to the ICU but none died. We observed an increased risk of ICU admission among children aged 13-17 years (adjusted risk difference 27.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.3% to 47.2%), those aged 6-12 years (adjusted risk difference 25.2%, 95% CI 13.6% to 36.9%) or those with initial ferritin levels greater than 500 µg/L (adjusted risk difference 18.4%, 95% CI 5.6% to 31.3%). Children admitted to hospital after Oct. 31, 2020, had numerically higher rates of ICU admission (adjusted risk difference 12.3%, 95% CI -0.3% to 25.0%) and significantly higher rates of cardiac involvement (adjusted risk difference 30.9%, 95% CI 17.3% to 44.4%). At Canadian sites, the risk of ICU admission was significantly higher for children admitted to hospital between December 2020 and March 2021 than those admitted between March and May 2020 (adjusted risk difference 25.3%, 95% CI 6.5% to 44.0%). INTERPRETATION: We observed that age and higher ferritin levels were associated with more severe MIS-C. We observed greater severity of MIS-C later in the study period. Whether emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants pose different risks of severe MIS-C needs to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Ferritins , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(2): 83-91, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662152

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a syndrome of abnormal immune response after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection that can result in organ dysfunction including severe cardiovascular compromise in children. Increased evidence supports a clinical and laboratory profile in MIS-C distinct from Kawasaki disease, with MIS-C typically occurring in older children and with more prominent gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms, as well as increased inflammation, lymphopenia, and cardiac injury on laboratory testing. However, high-level evidence regarding best practices for treatment and long-term outcomes in MIS-C is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(6): 814-818, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649662

ABSTRACT

Patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can develop clinical features resembling Kawasaki disease (KD). A full picture of MIS-C in East Asia which has higher incidence of KD than other regions remains unclear. We report on a 15-year-old Japanese boy with refractory MIS-C who was successfully treated with infliximab. A Japanese boy who was diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) before a month developed MIS-C with fulfilling six principal symptoms of KD. Laboratory data showed extreme hyperferritinemia (11,404 ng/mL), besides lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. The patient was refractory to initial therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG; 2 g/kg), aspirin, and prednisolone. He was therefore administered a second IVIG (2 g/kg) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) on days 7 and 8 from the onset of fever, respectively, which resulted in an improvement of clinical symptoms. Only four Japanese cases with MIS-C were reported and all of them were responsive to IVIG. The hyperferritinemia in this case was distinctive from previously reported MIS-C cases in Japan and other cohorts and may be associated with refractoriness to IVIG therapy. Marked elevation of circulating ferritin levels is known to be induced by tumor necrosis factor-α, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both KD and MIS-C. Thus, for MIS-C patients with hyperferritinemia, early intervention with adjunctive infliximab may induce a more rapid resolution of inflammation and improve outcome. Because MIS-C may be heterogeneous with respect to immunopathology, genetic background, clinical phenotypes and response to therapies, optimized treatment strategies according to immunopathogenesis are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Hyperferritinemia , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Japan , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
11.
Science ; 374(6569): eabj1541, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526448

ABSTRACT

Characterization of the genetic regulation of proteins is essential for understanding disease etiology and developing therapies. We identified 10,674 genetic associations for 3892 plasma proteins to create a cis-anchored gene-protein-disease map of 1859 connections that highlights strong cross-disease biological convergence. This proteo-genomic map provides a framework to connect etiologically related diseases, to provide biological context for new or emerging disorders, and to integrate different biological domains to establish mechanisms for known gene-disease links. Our results identify proteo-genomic connections within and between diseases and establish the value of cis-protein variants for annotation of likely causal disease genes at loci identified in genome-wide association studies, thereby addressing a major barrier to experimental validation and clinical translation of genetic discoveries.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/genetics , Disease/genetics , Genome, Human , Genomics , Proteins/genetics , Proteome , Aging , Alternative Splicing , Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Connective Tissue Diseases/genetics , Disease/etiology , Drug Development , Female , Gallstones/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Internet , Male , Phenotype , Proteins/metabolism , Quantitative Trait Loci , Sex Characteristics
12.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(6): 1795-1805, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505910

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine has attracted attention in the treatment of COVID-19. Many conflicting findings have been reported regarding the efficacy and safety of this drug, which has been used safely in the rheumatological diseases for years. However, these studies lacked measurement methods that allow accurate assessment of hydroxychloroquine and its metabolite levels. The aim of this study was to measure hydroxychloroquine and its metabolite levels in whole blood samples of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and scleroderma (Scl) by a robust, simple and accurate validated tandem mass spectrometric method, and to investigate the relationship between these levels with drug-related adverse effects and disease activity scores. The validated LC-MS/MS method was applied to measure blood hydroxychloroquine and its metabolite levels of patients with RA, SLE, SS, Scl. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were measured with Beckman-Coulter AU 5800 and Beckman Coulter LH 780 analyzers, respectively. QTc intervals were calculated with Bazett's formula, and the patients were followed up by clinicians in terms of clinical findings and adverse effects. Hydroxychloroquine levels of patients were similar to previous studies. There was a negative correlation between disease activity scores and hydroxychloroquine levels, while the highest correlation was between QTc interval, creatinine and GFR levels with desethylchloroquine. Bidetylchloroquine had the highest correlation with RBC count and liver function tests. Our findings showed that hydroxychloroquine and its metabolite levels were associated with disease activity scores, renal, hepatic function, QTc prolongation, and hematological parameters.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/blood , COVID-19/complications , Connective Tissue Diseases/complications , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Adult , Aged , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Creatinine/blood , Electrocardiography , Erythrocyte Count , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Liver Function Tests , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Young Adult
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5417, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410404

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations, including autoimmune features and autoantibody production. Here we develop three protein arrays to measure IgG autoantibodies associated with connective tissue diseases, anti-cytokine antibodies, and anti-viral antibody responses in serum from 147 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Autoantibodies are identified in approximately 50% of patients but in less than 15% of healthy controls. When present, autoantibodies largely target autoantigens associated with rare disorders such as myositis, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes. A subset of autoantibodies targeting traditional autoantigens or cytokines develop de novo following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autoantibodies track with longitudinal development of IgG antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and a subset of non-structural proteins, but not proteins from influenza, seasonal coronaviruses or other pathogenic viruses. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 causes development of new-onset IgG autoantibodies in a significant proportion of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and are positively correlated with immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens/immunology , Connective Tissue Diseases/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/immunology
15.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(6): 514-521, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to analyze the link between autoimmune diseases and environmental factors, in particular severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) as it shares numerous features with the interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases positive for rare autoantibodies directed at highly specific autoantigens (i.e., MDA5 and RIG1) among the intracellular sensors of SARS-CoV-2 in the innate response against viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: As shown in recent publications and in our original data, specific autoantibodies may be functionally relevant to COVID-19 infection. We evaluated sera from 35 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to identify antinuclear antibodies and autoantibodies directed against specific antigenic targets, and we identified anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 20/35 of patients with COVID-19 (57%), in patients with need for supplemental oxygen (90% vs. 20% in ANA-negative cases; P < 0.0001). In 7/35 COVID-19 sera, we detected anti-MJ/NXP2 (n = 3), anti-RIG1 (n = 2), anti-Scl-70/TOPO1 (n = 1), and anti-MDA5 (n = 1), overall associated with a significantly worse pulmonary involvement at lung computerized tomography scans. Eleven (31%) patients were positive for antibodies against the E2/E3 subunits of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. SUMMARY: Viral infections such as COVID-19 are associated with ANA and autoantibodies directed toward antiviral signaling antigens in particular in patients with worse pulmonary involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Dermatomyositis , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Autoantibodies , Dermatomyositis/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Med (N Y) ; 2(9): 993-995, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401703

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe, life-threatening, post-COVID-19 hyperinflammatory illness that is not yet fully understood. In this issue of Med, de Cevins et al. used a multi-parametric approach to define COVID-19-related disease, specifically identifying a molecular signature of the most severe form of COVID-19-related illness: MIS-C with myocarditis.1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Dendritic Cells , Humans , Monocytes , Myocarditis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
18.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 5536360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 213 CTD-ILD patients and 97 CTD patients without ILD from February 2017 to February 2020. Hospital and office records were used as data sources. CTD-ILD patients were followed up. RESULTS: Patients with CTD-ILD had significantly higher RDW than those with CTD without ILD (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of RDW for discriminating CTD-ILD from CTD without ILD was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.57-0.70, p < 0.001). The cutoff value of RDW for discriminating CTD-ILD from CTD without ILD was 13.95% with their corresponding specificity (55.9%) and sensitivity (70.1%). Correlation analyses showed that the increased RDW was significantly correlated with decreased DLCO%predicted (r = -0.211, p = 0.002). Cox multiple regression analysis indicated that RDW (HR = 1.495, p < 0.001) was an independent factor in the survival of CTD-ILD. The best cutoff value of RDW to predict the survival of patients with CTD-ILD was 14.05% (AUC = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.84, p < 0.001). The log-rank test showed a significant difference in survival between the two groups (RDW > 14.05% and RDW < 14.05%). CONCLUSION: RDW was higher in CTD-ILD patients and had a negative correlation with DLCO%predicted. RDW may be an important serum biomarker for severity and prognosis of patients with CTD-ILD.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Connective Tissue Diseases/complications , Erythrocyte Indices , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/blood , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
19.
Br J Haematol ; 196(2): 351-355, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373796

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created many challenges in the management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The recommendation for avoidance of steroids by WHO led to the off-licence use, supported by NHS England, of thrombopoietin mimetics (TPO-RA) for newly diagnosed or relapsed ITP. This is a real-world prospective study which investigated the treatment patterns and outcomes in this setting. Twenty-four hospitals across the UK submitted 343 cases. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of ITP treatment, but TPO-RAs were more effective. Incidental COVID-19 infection was identified in a significant number of patients (9·5%), while 14 cases were thought to be secondary to COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Connective Tissue Diseases/complications , Contraindications, Drug , Disease Management , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hospitals, District/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Off-Label Use , Platelet Transfusion , Prospective Studies , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombopoietin/agonists , Tranexamic Acid/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
RMD Open ; 7(2)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Non-pharmacological interventions support patients with connective tissue diseases to better cope with and self-manage their diseases. This study aimed to map existing evidence on non-pharmacological interventions in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and mixed connective tissue diseases regarding content, feasibility and potential suitability in an e-health setting. METHODS: A literature search was performed in eight different databases in July 2020. The intervention's content was extracted using the 'Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide'. A Sankey diagram and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and illustrate the relationships between the interventions. RESULTS: Of 8198 identified records, 119 papers were eligible. One hundred and four of them (87.4%) were conducted between 2000 and 2020, mainly in the USA (SLE n=24 (21.2%), SSc n=16 (14.2%)), Brazil (SLE n=8 (7.1%), SSc n=5 (4.4%)) and Italy (SLE n=0 (0%), SSc n=12 (10.6%)). Fifty-two studies (SLE n=24 (21.2%), SSc n=28 (24.8%)) used multicomponent interventions. The single interventions were physical exercises (SLE n=16 (14.2%), SSc n=17 (15.0%)), coaching/counselling (SLE n=11 (18.0%), SSc n=0 (0%)) and education (SLE n=2 (1.8%), SSc n=3 (2.7%)). Primary outcomes focused on physical function (SLE n=1 (0.9%), SSc n=15 (13.3%)), mouth opening in SSc (n=4 (5.9%)) and physical capacity (SLE n=2 (1.8%), SSc n=1 (0.9%)). No interventions for mixed connective tissue disease were found. CONCLUSION: There was a great variety in the intervention's content due to differences in body structure, activity limitations and participation restrictions in SLE and SSc. These results highlight the need for personalised, multicomponent, non-pharmacological interventions, which could be delivered as e-health interventions.


Subject(s)
Connective Tissue Diseases , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Scleroderma, Systemic , Telemedicine , Connective Tissue Diseases/therapy , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/therapy , Scleroderma, Systemic/therapy
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