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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
2.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3719-3722, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Case series indicating cerebrovascular disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been published. Comprehensive workups, including clinical characteristics, laboratory, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings, are needed to understand the mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated 32 consecutive critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at a tertiary care center from March 9 to April 3, 2020, for concomitant severe central nervous system involvement. Patients identified underwent computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and autopsy in case of death. RESULTS: Of 32 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 8 (25%) had severe central nervous system involvement. Two presented with lacunar ischemic stroke in the early phase and 6 with prolonged impaired consciousness after termination of analgosedation. In all but one with delayed wake-up, neuroimaging or autopsy showed multiple cerebral microbleeds, in 3 with additional subarachnoid hemorrhage and in 2 with additional small ischemic lesions. In 3 patients, intracranial vessel wall sequence magnetic resonance imaging was performed for the first time to our knowledge. All showed contrast enhancement of vessel walls in large cerebral arteries, suggesting vascular wall pathologies with an inflammatory component. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions for SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid were all negative. No intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG synthesis was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Different mechanisms of cerebrovascular disorders might be involved in COVID-19. Acute ischemic stroke might occur early. In a later phase, microinfarctions and vessel wall contrast enhancement occur, indicating small and large cerebral vessels involvement. Central nervous system disorders associated with COVID-19 may lead to long-term disabilities. Mechanisms should be urgently investigated to develop neuroprotective strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/immunology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Contrast Media , Critical Illness , Electroencephalography , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Switzerland , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13044-13048, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000849

ABSTRACT

As a severe and highly contagious infection, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affects all aspects of society and has become a global public health problem. Because of the complexity of the pathology of COVID-19, it is difficult to treat. An increasing number of reports have indicated that COVID-19 may have neurological complications, including stroke. The nervous system complications of COVID-19 have gradually attracted research attention. In this review, we summarize the latest findings related to COVID 19, elaborate on the possible mechanism of COVID 19 related onset of stroke, and summarize current treatment options because an improved understanding and appropriate treatments may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Stockings, Compression , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
5.
Rev Neurol ; 71(12): 431-437, 2020 12 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977846

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a collapse situation in many hospitals around the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the utility of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in the management of the neurological patient during the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Clinical Neurophysiology Department of the Hospital Central de la Defensa Gomez Ulla was dissolved due to the hospital collapse situation. Therefore, the EEG was performed exceptionally in those cases with the greatest probability of providing a benefit in its management. We describe seven patients (four in ICU and three hospitalized) diagnosed with COVID-19, who underwent through an EEG. RESULTS: The EEG showed abnormalities in all cases, including one case of brain death. The EEG resulted in a change in clinical management in four of the patients (57%) and helped the clinician provide information to the family. In the other three cases, a toxic-metabolic origin was suspected before the EEG was performed, so it did not imply a change in the clinical management already proposed, although it facilitated a prognostic orientation. Slow polymorphic waves were evident in five cases. Five patients were unresponsive. Currently, one patient remain hospitalized and four have died. CONCLUSIONS: The EEG was useful and facilitated decision making in COVID-19 patients in whom it was requested. It guided the diagnosis in cases where CT was non-contributory and led to a change in therapeutic management in most patients. The most frequent findings were signs of encephalopathy and epileptiform discharges.


TITLE: Utilidad y valor pronóstico del electroencefalograma en la COVID-19 y la encefalopatía: patrones electroencefalográficos en una serie de casos.Introducción. La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) causó el colapso de muchos hospitales. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la utilidad del electroencefalograma (EEG) en el tratamiento del paciente neurológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Pacientes y métodos. El Servicio de Neurofisiología Clínica del Hospital Central de la Defensa Gómez Ulla fue disuelto debido a la situación de saturación hospitalaria. En consecuencia, se realizó un EEG excepcionalmente a los pacientes a los que tenía mayor probabilidad de aportar un beneficio en su tratamiento. Se describen siete pacientes (cuatro en cuidados intensivos y tres hospitalizados) diagnosticados con COVID-19 a quienes se les realizó un EEG. Resultados. El EEG mostró anormalidades en todos los casos, incluyendo un caso de muerte cerebral. El EEG supuso un cambio en el tratamiento clínico en cuatro de los pacientes (57%) y ayudó al clínico a informar a la familia. En los otros tres casos, se sospechó un origen tóxico-metabólico previo al EEG, por lo que no implicó un cambio en el tratamiento ya propuesto, aunque facilitó una orientación pronóstica. Se evidenciaron ondas lentas polimorfas en cinco casos. Actualmente, un paciente permanece hospitalizado y cuatro han fallecido. Conclusiones. El EEG fue de utilidad y facilitó la toma de decisiones en los pacientes con COVID-19 en los que se solicitó. Orientó al diagnóstico en casos en los que la tomografía computarizada no contribuyó y supuso un cambio en el tratamiento terapéutico en la mayoría de los pacientes. Los hallazgos más frecuentes fueron signos de encefalopatía y descargas epileptiformes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Female , Heart Arrest , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Movement Disorders/etiology , Movement Disorders/physiopathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 39-42, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900593

ABSTRACT

Patients older than 65 years hospitalized with COVID-19 have higher rates of intensive care unit admission and death when compared with younger patients. Cardiovascular conditions associated with COVID-19 include myocardial injury, acute myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, cardiogenic shock, thromboembolic disease, and cardiac arrest. Few studies have described the clinical course of those at the upper extreme of age. We characterize the clinical course and outcomes of 73 patients with 80 years of age or older hospitalized at an academic center between March 15 and May 13, 2020. These patients had multiple comorbidities and often presented with atypical clinical findings such as altered sensorium, generalized weakness and falls. Cardiovascular manifestations observed at the time of presentation included new arrhythmia in 7/73 (10%), stroke/intracranial hemorrhage in 5/73 (7%), and elevated troponin in 27/58 (47%). During hospitalization, 38% of all patients required intensive care, 13% developed a need for renal replacement therapy, and 32% required vasopressor support. All-cause mortality was 47% and was highest in patients who were ever in intensive care (71%), required mechanical ventilation (83%), or vasopressors (91%), or developed a need for renal replacement therapy (100%). Patients older than 80 years old with COVID-19 have multiple unique risk factors which can be associated with increased cardiovascular involvement and death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Academic Medical Centers , Accidental Falls , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cause of Death , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fever/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Independent Living , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Nursing Homes , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Troponin I/metabolism
8.
Neurology ; 95(13): e1868-e1882, 2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653268

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe neuroimaging findings and to report the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with neurologic manifestations. METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study (11 hospitals), we included 64 patients with confirmed COVID-19 with neurologic manifestations who underwent a brain MRI. RESULTS: The cohort included 43 men (67%) and 21 women (33%); their median age was 66 (range 20-92) years. Thirty-six (56%) brain MRIs were considered abnormal, possibly related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Ischemic strokes (27%), leptomeningeal enhancement (17%), and encephalitis (13%) were the most frequent neuroimaging findings. Confusion (53%) was the most common neurologic manifestation, followed by impaired consciousness (39%), presence of clinical signs of corticospinal tract involvement (31%), agitation (31%), and headache (16%). The profile of patients experiencing ischemic stroke was different from that of other patients with abnormal brain imaging: the former less frequently had acute respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.006) and more frequently had corticospinal tract signs (p = 0.02). Patients with encephalitis were younger (p = 0.007), whereas agitation was more frequent for patients with leptomeningeal enhancement (p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 may develop a wide range of neurologic symptoms, which can be associated with severe and fatal complications such as ischemic stroke or encephalitis. In terms of meningoencephalitis involvement, even if a direct effect of the virus cannot be excluded, the pathophysiology seems to involve an immune or inflammatory process given the presence of signs of inflammation in both CSF and neuroimaging but the lack of virus in CSF. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT04368390.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Meningoencephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Female , France , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningitis/diagnostic imaging , Meningitis/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Psychomotor Agitation/physiopathology , Pyramidal Tracts/diagnostic imaging , Pyramidal Tracts/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/physiopathology , Young Adult
9.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 43: 102216, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-419863

ABSTRACT

The new severe acute respiratory syndrome- coronavirus 2 is reported to affect the nervous system. Among the reports of the various neurological manifestations, there are a few documented specific processes to explain the neurological signs. We report a para-infectious encephalitis patient with clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings during evolution and convalescence phase of coronavirus infection. This comprehensive overview can illuminate the natural history of similar cases. As the two previously reported cases of encephalitis associated with this virus were not widely discussed regarding the treatment, we share our successful approach and add some recommendations about this new and scarce entity.


Subject(s)
Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Disease Progression , Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/therapy , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pons/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/drug therapy , Seizures/etiology , Temporal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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