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2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021645

ABSTRACT

Fishery management relies on forecasts of fish abundance over time and space, on scales of months and kilometres. While much research has focussed on the drivers of fish populations, there has been less investigation of the decisions made day-to-day by fishers and their subsequent impact on fishing pressure. Studies that focus on the fisher decisions of smaller vessels may be particularly important due to the prevalence of smaller vessels in many fisheries and their potential vulnerability to bad weather and economic change. Here we outline a methodology with which to identify the factors affecting fisher decisions and success as well as quantifying their effects. We analyse first the decision of when to leave port, and then the success of the fishing trip. Fisher behaviour is here analysed in terms of the decisions taken by fishers in response to bio-physical and socio-economic changes and to illustrate our method, we describe its application to the under 10-meter fleet targeting sea bass in the UK. We document the effects of wave height and show with increasing wave height fewer vessels left port to go fishing. The decision to leave port was only substantially affected by time of high tide at one of the four ports investigated. We measured the success of fishing trips by the landings of sea bass (kg) per metre of vessel length. Fishing success was lower when wave height was greater and when fish price had increased relative to the previous trip. Fuel price was unimportant, but a large proportion of the variation in success was explained by variation between individual vessels, presumably due to variation in skipper ability or technical restrictions due to vessel characteristics. The results are discussed in the context of management of sea bass and other small-scale inshore fisheries.


Subject(s)
Bass , Fisheries , Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12709, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960500

ABSTRACT

The Arabsphere struggles with highly complicated water challenges due to climate change, desertification, coronavirus pandemic, and Russo-Ukrainian War. This paper explores how to build a robust water vision to pave the road to achieving sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the Arabsphere. A sustainable water future (SWF) necessitates an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research strategy. 'Horizon scanning' process (HSP) is one of the promising foresight methodologies. A generic process for "Horizon scanning" has been developed to cope with water crises and challenges. "DEEPEST" holistic framework has been designed to suit both the "Futurology" science and water, environment, and engineering disciplines. "DEEPEST" characterizes Demographics, Ecological, Environmental, Political, Economic, Social, and Technological features. The macro-future factors (MFF) applied in the foresight process (FP) have been presented. The results showed that Water conservation (WC), Circular Water (CW), and Emerging Water Technologies (EWTs) were the main outcomes of the 'Horizon scanning' process (HSP). The paper concluded that the preparing for a sustainable water future (SWF) must be right now and the opportunities range from the deepest water drop to the highest water drop on Earth. The essence of the conclusion is hydrosphere sustainability, particularly in Arabsphere, should be given extreme concentration, effort, and support.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Conservation of Water Resources , Climate Change , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Sustainable Development , Water
5.
Zoo Biol ; 41(5): 439-447, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858945

ABSTRACT

Emerging conservation psychology literature shows that there is a strong link between positive attachment to a workplace and the performance of pro-environmental behaviors by employees at work. The present study explores the validity of a pilot survey based in previous literature that explores these constructs to determine whether a relationship between the two exists among zoo and aquarium professionals. The survey was distributed to employees of the Wildlife Conservation Society's city zoos-Prospect Park, Central Park, and Queens Zoos-during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Two of the survey scales used had a high internal consistency and data from these responses informed this case study to show that there is a weak, positive correlation between workplace attachment (WPA) and self-reported frequency of performance of pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) among the respondents. Isolating the responses by department revealed that staff working in Operations departments (1) exhibit lower frequencies of PEB than those in Education and Animal departments and (2) have a very strong, positive correlation between WPA and PEB. The results suggest that zoo and aquarium employees who are positively attached to their workplace are more likely to perform PEBs, especially those working in Operations departments. These findings help support that workplace practices seeking to increase WPA could increase the performance of PEBs at work by all employees.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conservation of Natural Resources , Animals , Animals, Zoo , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Workplace
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736925

ABSTRACT

The Calluna vulgaris L. that dominated coastal heathlands of Western Europe were for millennia managed by regular burning cycles for improved grazing. Most places in Norway this practice has, however, been neglected over the last 5-7 decades, resulting in accumulation of above ground biomass including degenerated Calluna and successional fire-prone species, e.g., native juniper (Juniperus communis) and exotic blacklisted Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Today, in dry periods, the heathland represents a fire threat to the increasing number of homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), as exemplified by the June 2021 Sotra Island WUI fire. The fire burned 700 ha of encroached heathlands, destroyed three buildings, and threatened settlements. In the present study, the Sotra fire was investigated to understand the fire development and analyse possible risk reducing measures. Photographic material obtained during the fire, weather conditions prior to and during the fire, involved fire fuel, fire spread mechanisms, firefighting response, and possible consequences under slightly changed circumstances were analysed. Compared to previous fires in coastal Norway, the Sotra fire represents a step change in fire development including, e.g., pyrocumulus-like clouds, fire whirls, and fire spread 270 m across a fjord. Preventive measures based on the local context are analysed, including engaging voluntary communities to remove fire-prone fuel, e.g., juniper and Sitka, to create defensible space. Moreover, strategic fire breaks in the terrain, e.g., well-managed heathland strengthening existing fuel breaks, e.g., lakes, cultivated fields, naked rock, and roads, are recommended. Mechanical cutting is suggested as a short-term measure while fenceless grazing may represent a long-term solution to prevent regrowth. During a period of record high energy prices, this may provide free of charge firewood and make way for future local food production, in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, while reducing the fire risk.


Subject(s)
Fires , Juniperus , Wildfires , Biomass , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods
7.
Zoo Biol ; 41(3): 234-243, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588863

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted virtually all aspects of a global society. By using a transdisciplinary team and methodology, our study highlights the importance of utilizing a One Health approach to address global health and conservation challenges in tandem. We examined how conservation conducted by an accredited zoological institution was altered by the pandemic. In July 2020, we surveyed a select subset of Saint Louis Zoo employees to understand how these staff members perceived their conservation work to be affected during this time. Additionally, in November and December 2020, seven survey respondents were interviewed virtually for qualitative data. Our hypothesis was that lack of funding, reduced ability to travel, and shifting priorities among conservation professionals, as well as their respective institutions, would be significant barriers to conservation efforts. Our survey results revealed that the top three perceived challenges to conservation projects at the Saint Louis Zoo due to the COVID-19 pandemic were lack of funding (83.9%), reductions in Zoo visitors (56.3%), and inability/lack of ability to access field sites and laboratories (55.2%). Respondents also indicated that the top three most important Zoo conservation activities before the COVID-19 pandemic were (1) local/national/global wildlife management and recovery programs, (tie 2) caring for animals in the Zoo's collection, and (tie 2) genetic breeding programs. At least half of respondents indicated that the pandemic had significantly or slightly decreased the ability of staff to perform all three activities. Results supported our hypothesis that reduced funding, limited travel, and shifting priorities were challenges to zoological conservation at this institution. Although travel restrictions will likely persist, continual funding will be critical for maintaining conservation. Our results also indicate that reductions in Zoo visitors were another perceived barrier to conservation and that staff needed to find novel ways to connect with the public. Results from this study may help zoos and aquariums better understand the unique pandemic-associated challenges that threaten conservation at their institutions and may be helpful in designing programs and projects in a post-pandemic world.


Subject(s)
Animals, Zoo , COVID-19 , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Pandemics
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22427, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521769

ABSTRACT

The United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are heterogeneous and interdependent, comprising 169 targets and 231 indicators of sustainable development in such diverse areas as health, the environment, and human rights. Existing efforts to map relationships among SDGs are either theoretical investigations of sustainability concepts, or empirical analyses of development indicators and policy simulations. We present an alternative approach, which describes and quantifies the complex network of SDG interdependencies by applying computational methods to policy and scientific documents. Methods of Natural Language Processing are used to measure overlaps in international policy discourse around SDGs, as represented by the corpus of all existing UN progress reports about each goal (N = 85 reports). We then examine if SDG interdependencies emerging from UN discourse are reflected in patterns of integration and collaboration in SDG-related science, by analyzing data on all scientific articles addressing relevant SDGs in the past two decades (N = 779,901 articles). Results identify a strong discursive divide between environmental goals and all other SDGs, and unexpected interdependencies between SDGs in different areas. While UN discourse partially aligns with integration patterns in SDG-related science, important differences are also observed between priorities emerging in UN and global scientific discourse. We discuss implications and insights for scientific research and policy on sustainable development after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Natural Language Processing , Sustainable Development/trends , COVID-19 , Global Health , Goals , Human Rights , Humans , Public Policy/economics , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Sustainable Development/economics , United Nations
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6492, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514412

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused unprecedented cancellations of fisheries and ecosystem-assessment surveys, resulting in a recession of observations needed for management and conservation globally. This unavoidable reduction of survey data poses challenges for informing biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, developing future stock assessments of harvested species, and providing strategic advice for ecosystem-based management. We present a diversified framework involving integration of monitoring data with empirical models and simulations to inform ecosystem status within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. We augment trawl observations collected from a limited fisheries survey with survey effort reduction simulations, use of seabird diets as indicators of fish abundance, and krill species distribution modeling trained on past observations. This diversified approach allows for evaluation of ecosystem status during data-poor situations, especially during the COVID-19 era. The challenges to ecosystem monitoring imposed by the pandemic may be overcome by preparing for unexpected effort reduction, linking disparate ecosystem indicators, and applying new species modeling techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Fisheries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biodiversity , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fishes , Food Chain , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(5): 4881-4905, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345884

ABSTRACT

The development of biodegradable packaging, based on agro-industrial plant products and by-products, can transform waste into products with high added value and reduce the use of conventional nonrenewable packaging. Green-based active packaging has a variety of compounds such as antimicrobials, antioxidants, aromatics, among others. These compounds interact with packaged products to improve food quality and safety and favor the migration of bioactive compounds from the polymeric matrix to food. The interest in the potential hygienic-sanitary benefit of these packages has been intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic, which made the population more aware of the relevant role of packaging for protection and conservation of food. It is estimated that the pandemic scenario expanded food packaging market due to shift in eating habits and an increase in online purchases. The triad health, sustainability, and circular economy is a trend in the development of packaging. It is necessary to minimize the consumption of natural resources, reduce the use of energy, avoid the generation of waste, and emphasize the creation of social and environmental values. These ideas underpin the transition from the emphasis on the more subjective discourse to the emphasis on the more practical method of thinking about the logic of production and use of sustainable packaging. Presently, we briefly review some trends and economic issues related to biodegradable materials for food packaging; the development and application of bio-based active films; some opportunities beyond COVID-19 for food packaging segment; and perspectives in circular economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Packaging , Food Safety , Recycling , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Food Packaging/economics , Food Packaging/methods , Food Safety/methods , Humans , Recycling/methods
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249781, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172882

ABSTRACT

The expansion of cities and their impacts currently constitutes a challenge for the achievement of sustainable development goals (SDGs). In this respect, assessments of resource consumption and the delivery of appropriate policies to support resource conservation are of paramount importance. Previous works in the literature have focused on one specific resource (e.g., water, energy, food) at the household level, while others have analysed the inter-relations among different resources (i.e., the nexus approach) at larger spatial scales (e.g., urban level). Moreover, household behavioural attitudes are generally excluded while assessing resource consumption scenarios. This work overcomes previous limitations by proposing a causal-loop structure derived from the literature, from which simulations of different scenarios can be generated that consider the nexus between food, energy and water at the household level. These simulations can provide alternative scenarios to assess the impacts of monetary policies as well as education and communication actions on the enhancement of resource savings and consider both their current use and household preferences. The metropolitan area of Napoli was chosen as the testbed area for the simulations. The results, in relation to the testbed, proved that communication actions would be most appropriate to increase the level of resource savings. The business-as-usual scenario was especially sensitive to variations in individual preferences towards pro-environmental behaviours and showed their higher impacts on the results. Improvements of this method and its derived scenarios in the context of the urban planning process could support the implementation of informed policies towards the conservation of key resources and promotion of sustainable citizen behaviour.


Subject(s)
City Planning/methods , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Cities , Commerce/methods , Food , Public Policy , Sustainable Development , Water , Water Supply/methods
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244440, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021672

ABSTRACT

Effectively communicating risk is critical to reducing conflict in human-wildlife interactions. Using a survey experiment fielded in the midst of contentious public debate over flying fox management in urban and suburban areas of Australia, we find that stories with characters (i.e., narratives) are more effective than descriptive information at mobilizing support for different forms of bat management, including legal protection, relocation, and habitat restoration. We use conditional process analysis to show that narratives, particularly with accompanying images, are effective because they cause emotional reactions that influence risk perception, which in turn drives public opinion about strategies for risk mitigation. We find that prior attitudes towards bats matter in how narrative messages are received, in particular in how strongly they generate shifts in affective response, risk perception, and public opinion. Our results suggest that those with warm prior attitudes towards bats report greater support for bat dispersal when they perceive impacts from bats to be more likely, while those with cool priors report greater support for bat protection when they perceive impacts from bats to be more positive, revealing 1) potential opportunities for targeted messaging to boost public buy-in of proposals to manage risks associated with human-wildlife interactions, and 2) potential vulnerabilities to disinformation regarding risk.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Narration , Public Opinion , Animal Distribution , Animals , Australia , Ecosystem , Emotions , Humans , Risk Evaluation and Mitigation
16.
Sci Adv ; 6(36)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760201

ABSTRACT

Global strategies to halt the dual crises of biodiversity loss and climate change are often formulated separately, even though they are interdependent and risk failure if pursued in isolation. The Global Safety Net maps how expanded nature conservation addresses both overarching threats. We identify 50% of the terrestrial realm that, if conserved, would reverse further biodiversity loss, prevent CO2 emissions from land conversion, and enhance natural carbon removal. This framework shows that, beyond the 15.1% land area currently protected, 35.3% of land area is needed to conserve additional sites of particular importance for biodiversity and stabilize the climate. Fifty ecoregions and 20 countries contribute disproportionately to proposed targets. Indigenous lands overlap extensively with the Global Safety Net. Conserving the Global Safety Net could support public health by reducing the potential for zoonotic diseases like COVID-19 from emerging in the future.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Climate Change , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Climate , Earth, Planet , Ecosystem , Humans , Public Health
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