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1.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286034, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326982

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has impacted and changed consumer behavior because of a prolonged quarantine and lockdown. This study proposed a theoretical framework to explore and define the influencing factors of online consumer purchasing behavior (OCPB) based on electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) data mining and analysis. Data pertaining to e-WOM were crawled from smartphone product reviews from the two most popular online shopping platforms in China, Jingdong.com and Taobao.com. Data processing aimed to filter noise and translate unstructured data from complex text reviews into structured data. The machine learning based K-means clustering method was utilized to cluster the influencing factors of OCPB. Comparing the clustering results and Kotler's five products level, the influencing factors of OCPB were clustered around four categories: perceived emergency context, product, innovation, and function attributes. This study contributes to OCPB research by data mining and analysis that can adequately identify the influencing factors based on e-WOM. The definition and explanation of these categories may have important implications for both OCPB and e-commerce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Models, Theoretical , Data Mining/methods
2.
J Anxiety Disord ; 78: 102364, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304654

ABSTRACT

Pandemics are associated with panic buying (PB) of groceries and other supplies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, community leaders expressed frustration and bewilderment about PB. Psychological explanatory concepts, including those from social learning theory and the concept of the behavioral immune system, along with recent research, suggests the following account of pandemic-related PB. PB arises when people are told to go into self-isolation as part of pandemic containment interventions. Empirically, episodes of PB typically last 7-10 days and are likely initiated by highly fearful people. PB by an anxious minority of shoppers leads to fear contagion among other shoppers, amplified by widespread dissemination, via social media, of images and videos of PB and empty shelves in stores. Thus, a snow-balling effect arises where fear of scarcity creates real but short-term scarcity. People who are highly frightened of infection tend to have heightened disgust proneness. Toilet paper is a means of escaping disgust stimuli, and for this and other reasons, toilet paper became a target of PB for people frightened of contracting COVID-19. Exploitative or selfish over-purchasing also occurred, motivated by "dark" (e.g., psychopathic) personality traits. "Don't panic!" messages from community leaders were ineffective or counter-productive. Alternative forms of messaging are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Panic , Humans , Pandemics , Public Opinion , Social Media
3.
GM Crops Food ; 14(1): 1-13, 2023 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294305

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated significant economic loss and an unprecedented challenge to people's livelihoods. Using household data collected in November 2020, this study shows that the COVID-19 outbreak has significantly affected consumers' perceptions and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food in China. Their perceptions and purchase intentions have turned more negative, and their actual purchase of GM food has decreased after the COVID-19 outbreak. The study's results also indicate that consumers with more knowledge of genetic modification technology are less likely to change their perceptions of GM food.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food, Genetically Modified , Surveys and Questionnaires , Consumer Behavior , Intention
4.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 67(5): 520-521, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250072
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268926

ABSTRACT

The food delivery service is the most typical and visible example of online-to-offline (O2O) commerce. More consumers are using food delivery services for various reasons during the COVID-19 pandemic, making this business model viral worldwide. In the post-pandemic era, offering food delivery services will become the new normal for restaurants. Although a growing number of publications have focused on consumer behavior in this issue, no review paper has addressed current research and industry trends. Thus, this paper aims to review the literature published from 2020 to the present (October 2022) on consumers' use of food delivery services during the pandemic. A thematic review was conducted, with 40 articles searched from Scopus and Web of Science being included. Quantitative findings showed current research trends, and thematic analyses formed eight themes of factors influencing consumer behavior: (1) technical and utilitarian factors, (2) system-related attributes, (3) emotional and hedonic factors, (4) individual characteristics, (5) service quality, (6) risk-related factors, (7) social factors, and (8) food-related attributes. The paper also emphasizes COVID-19-related influences and suggests promising future research directions. The results offer insights into industry practices and starting points for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Services , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Problem Solving , Consumer Behavior
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252363

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has generated an uncertain environment, which has motivated changes in consumers' behavior globally. However, previous studies have not clarified if these effects are equally strong throughout the population. In this research, we want to analyze if there are behavioral differences between long-COVID consumers and others. For this purpose, we analyzed a sample of 522 consumers divided into three groups depending on their type of exposure to the disease: those with long COVID; ones that had recovered from COVID-19; and those that had never had COVID-19. The results show that the effect that COVID-19 has on purchase behavior differs depending on the type of exposure to the disease. In fact, those with long COVID experienced more pleasure when purchasing than other people, but they needed higher trust levels in the enterprises to purchase from them, since that reduces their perception of uncertainty. Furthermore, for long-COVID individuals, an organization's legitimacy level is even more important than for other consumer groups with less contact with the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior , Trust , Uncertainty
7.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281948, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250130

ABSTRACT

Samgyeopsal is a popular Korean grilled dish with increasing recognition in the Philippines as a result of the Hallyu. The aim of this study was to analyze the preferability of Samgyeopsal attributes which includes the main entree, cheese inclusion, cooking style, price, brand, and drinks using Conjoint Analysis and market segmentation using k-means clustering. A total of 1018 responses were collected online through social media platforms by utilizing a convenience sampling approach. The results showed that the main entrée (46.314%) was found to be the most important attribute, followed by cheese (33.087%), price (9.361%), drinks (6.603%), and style (3.349%). In addition, k-means clustering identified 3 different market segments: high-value, core, and low-value consumers. Furthermore, this study formulated a marketing strategy that focused on enhancing the choice of meat, cheese, and price based on these 3 market segments. This study has significant implications for enhancing Samgyeopsal chain businesses and helping entrepreneurs with consumer preference on Samgyeopsal attributes. Finally, conjoint analysis with k-means clustering can be utilized and extended for evaluating food preferences worldwide.


Subject(s)
Consumer Behavior , Taste , Humans , Cluster Analysis , Marketing , Food Preferences , Republic of Korea
8.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282043, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266606

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the daily lives of individuals across the world as multiple variants continue introducing new complexities. In December 2021, which is when we conducted our study, pressure to resume the normalcy of daily life was mounting as a new variant, Omicron, was rapidly spreading. A variety of at-home tests detecting SARS-CoV-2, known to the general public as "COVID tests," were available for consumers to purchase. In this study, we conducted conjoint analysis utilizing an internet-based survey by presenting consumers (n = 583) with 12 different hypothetical at-home COVID test concepts that varied on five attributes (price, accuracy, time, where-to-buy, and method). Price was identified as the most important attribute, because participants were very price sensitive. Quick turnaround time and high accuracy were also identified as important. Additionally, although 64% of respondents were willing to take an at-home COVID test, only 22% reported they had previously taken the test. On December 21, 2021, President Biden announced the U.S. government would purchase 500 million at-home rapid tests and distribute them for free to Americans. Given the importance of price to participants, this policy of providing free at-home COVID tests was directionally appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Consumer Behavior
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(6)2023 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266466

ABSTRACT

Purchase intention has been acknowledged as an important factor influencing businesses' sales performances and sustainability. Thus, finding factors that influence purchase intention is essential to all relevant businesses. Based on the current importance of purchase intention to businesses, the main objective of this research was to investigate how country of origin, brand image, and perceived value influenced intentions to purchase COVID-19 medicines among Thai consumers. To accomplish this objective, researchers created a Google Form to survey 862 people around Thailand. However, researchers found only 653 valid data, which were analyzed through the structural equation model. The research findings revealed that perceived COVID-19 medicine value increased once the values of country of origin and brand image were highly considered by consumers. At the same time, consumers attempted to buy COVID-19 medicines for their COVID-19 treatments if the products contained high country of origin and perceived values. Finally, the perceived value was found to be a full mediator between brand image and purchase intention. In comparison, despite country of origin and perceived value being the significant factors in purchase intention, consumers' intention to purchase COVID-19 medicines depended significantly on the degree of the consumers' perceived value because perceived value contributed the highest impact on purchase intention. These results revealed that COVID-19 medicines were highly valued by many consumers because these medicines could help prevent heavy illness in consumers. As a result, consumers had a higher intention to purchase these medicines for their future COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Intention , Southeast Asian People , Thailand
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(19): 55382-55401, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266268

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has affected most aspects of product supply and consumer behaviors and led to transformations in the supply chain. The COVID-19 pandemic and the requirements to reduce its prevalence have led many people to shop online and encouraged many manufacturers to sell their products online. In this study, a manufacturer, who intends to possess an online sales channel, and a retailer, who has an in-person sales channel, are considered. Then, pricing strategies and collaboration mechanisms between them in the health-social dual-channel supply chain are investigated. This study is developed in three models, including centralized, decentralized, and collaborated under Stackelberg game, whereas the optimal price of products in each channel, level of implementation of health and safety protocols in retailers, advertising level, and status of online shopping performance are obtained for improving customer trust. Moreover, the demand is represented as a function of selling prices of products in online and in-person shops, compliance level of health protocols, level of online shopping performance, and advertising in health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the centralized model provides more profit for the manufacturer, the collaborated model provides the highest profit for the retailer. Thus, since the supply chain profit of centralized and collaborated models is close, the collaboration model is the best option for members in this situation. Sensitivity analysis is finally performed to evaluate the impact of key parameters, and then according to obtained results, some management insights are suggested for the dual-channel supply chain during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Costs and Cost Analysis , Commerce/methods , Advertising , Consumer Behavior
11.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283821, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279981

ABSTRACT

This study aims to elicit consumer preferences regarding telehealth and face-to-face consultations in Australia. It used a discrete choice experiment, presenting participants with a series of hypothetical choices, and based on their responses, infer what is most important to them. Data were analysed using conditional logit regression and latent class analysis. A total of 1,025 participants completed the survey, considering four different clinical scenarios. Face-to-face contacts were, on average, preferred to either telephone or video services. However, telehealth was identified as an attractive option if it prevents significant travel and can be conducted with a familiar doctor. Participants were strongly driven by cost, particularly greater than $30. Telehealth was least preferred for situations involving a new and unknown physical symptom, and relatively more preferred for surgical follow-up. The latent class analysis demonstrates only 15.9% of participants appeared unwilling to consider telehealth. The findings of this study suggest that meeting the needs of the Australian population requires a blended approach to service delivery, with telehealth being valued in a range of clinical scenarios. Price sensitivity was evident, therefore if telehealth services can be delivered with lower patient cost, then they are likely to be attractive.


Subject(s)
Consumer Behavior , Telemedicine , Humans , Australia , Patient Preference , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1005265, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246166

ABSTRACT

Introduction: China is now in the post-period of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control. While facing normalized epidemic prevention and control, consumers behavioral intention and decision-making will still be influenced by the epidemic's development and the implementation of specific epidemic prevention measures in the medium to long term. With the impact of external epidemic prevention environment and measures, consumers' channel behavior has changed. How to better promote channel integration by adopting consumers' channel migration behavior is important for channel coordination strategies. Methods: This paper takes fresh product retailing under normal epidemic prevention and control as an example and examines the change in channel migration behavior. Based on the value-based adoption model (VAM), this paper discusses the influence of channel characteristics and channel switching costs on channel migration intention, the mediating effect of perceived value between various influencing factors and channel migration intention, and the moderating effect of channel switching cost on perceived value and channel migration intention. Thus, an empirical study was carried out with 292 samples to verify the hypotheses. Results: The results show that under normal epidemic prevention and control, the influencing factors in the VAM model have a significant impact on channel migration intention; perceived value plays a mediating role between various influencing factors and channel migration intention. Discussions: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on daily life and purchasing behavior. In the context of this pandemic, we have confirmed that consumers will probably change to other retailers when the usefulness, entertainment, and cost meet their expectation for purchasing fresh products. Channel characteristics have versatile features, such as channel structure and supply chain mode, which affect consumer behaviors in different ways. The perceived value comes from expectations and experience. Retailers should try to keep their products fresh and provide consumers with a high-level shopping experience during sale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Consumer Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Intention
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245955

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research is to examine the relationships between the following variables (a) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), composed of Attitudes (ATT), Subjective Norms (SN), and Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC); and (b) Consciousness (EC) on the dependent variable Environmentally Responsible Purchase Intention (ERPI) from the perspective of the Latin American consumer in a pandemic. Currently, the literature on the relationships proposed in the explanatory model is still scarce at a theoretical and practical level, without empirical evidence in Latin America. The data collection is from 1624 voluntary responses from consumers in Chile (n = 400), Colombia (n = 421), Mexico (n = 401), and Peru (n = 402) collected through online surveys. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) and multi-group to test invariance analysis and the moderating effects, we can determine the relationship between the variables in the proposed model, generating evidence from Latin American countries. The empirical analysis verified that Attitude (ATT), Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), and Environmental Consciousness (CE) have a positive and significant effect on Environmentally Responsible Purchase Intention (ERPI). The results also show that the generation variable presents invariance. Therefore, the groups are not different at the model level for the generation variable, becoming relevant to the difference at the path level. Therefore, the results of this study become a relevant contribution, indicating a moderating effect on the generation variable. This research provides insights for understanding Latin American consumers, and managerial implications are also provided for developing strategies to promote sustainable consumption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Change , Humans , Latin America , Psychological Theory , Attitude , Intention , Surveys and Questionnaires , Consumer Behavior
14.
J Environ Manage ; 334: 117480, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232004

ABSTRACT

Greater efforts are required to educate the public about marine conservation as the marine environment continues to deteriorate over time. A way to remotely travel during the pandemic is provided by virtual reality technologies in marine ecotourism. In order to present a theoretical framework that explains consumers' propensity to participate in virtual reality technology, this study draws on the theories of perceived risk, trust, and attitude. An online survey with 451 respondents was administered in Singapore and structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the data. The results reflect that perceived health risk, perceived financial risk, perceived social risk, and perceived performance risk, mediated by trust and attitude, have a significant influence on consumers' willingness to participate in virtual reality technologies in marine ecotourism. After analyzing their total effects, trust was found to have the highest effect on willingness to participate, followed by attitude, perceived social risk, perceived financial risk, perceived health risk, and perceived performance risk. Overall, the present research offers new perspectives on comprehending the drivers of willingness to participate, as well as implicating policies to raise public awareness of marine conservation, as well as to raise more money to support marine conservation initiatives.


Subject(s)
Attitude , Virtual Reality , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , Consumer Behavior
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(4)2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235780

ABSTRACT

The current study builds on both the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to examine why consumers in Saudi Arabia engage in excessive food-buying behavior amid COVID-19. The study tests the direct impact of food consumption culture, perceived severity of COVID-19, and religiosity on excessive food-buying intentions and the indirect effect through attitudes toward excessive food buying. The results of the inner model using SmartPLS4 showed that the perceived severity of COVID-19 has a direct significant positive effect on attitudes toward excessive food buying and excessive food-buying intention. Despite food consumption culture being found to have no direct significant effect on excessive food-buying intention during the pandemic, it has a direct effect on attitudes toward excessive food buying. Surprisingly, religiosity was found to have a positive effect on consumers' attitudes and excessive food-buying intentions. The results confirm that consumers misunderstood Islamic religious principles regarding food consumption, which does not accept excessive buying or food waste. Attitudes toward excessive food buying were found to mediate the relationship between food consumption culture, perceived severity of COVID-19, religiosity, and excessive food-buying intention. The results of the study are discussed and implications are highlighted for academics and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Humans , Food , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires , Attitude , Intention , Consumer Behavior
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216036

ABSTRACT

Generational theory assumes that generational cohorts develop similar attitudes and beliefs. The Generation Y/Millennials group is currently one of the most important generations in the market as they have a presence in the labour market with a high income of their own, which creates higher demand for products, especially in the food market which is very sensitive to consumer decisions. The aim of this study was to show the consumer behaviour of Generation Y in the market for innovative food products and to propose marketing models created on the basis of research on a Polish sample of Millennials. The research was conducted in the period before the COVID-19 pandemic on a group of 544 selected respondents. Descriptive statistics of the SPSS program were used to process the results obtained. Among the most important of the results was identifying the decision-makers who are purchasing innovative products and the influence of third parties on their decision. In the first instance, consumers look for innovative food products in large retail chains (hypermarkets and supermarkets), however, they pay attention to both the quality of the products on offer and the price. Values such as freshness and taste also play a role in their purchasing decisions. Sources of information about innovative products in the Polish food market include culinary blogs recommending innovative products, and the opinions of dieticians and nutritionists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food , Marketing
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200252

ABSTRACT

Organizations and individuals are unprepared for an unexpected outbreak of COVID-19. While most of the literature focuses on improvised reactions at the organizational level, this paper focuses on understanding improvised reactions at the individual level. This paper draws on previous research applying improvisation to the field of consumer behavior and introduces consumer knowledge acquisition as a mediating variable and tightness-looseness culture as a moderating variable from the perspective of mixed emotions of awe and anxiety to explain the mechanism of consumers with mixed emotions of awe and anxiety on improvisation behavior based on the environment of a COVID-19 outbreak. Data from 330 participants in Study 1 examined the effect of mixed emotions of awe and anxiety on improvisation behavior through knowledge acquisition, and data from 434 participants in Study 2 examined the moderating effect of relaxed culture. The findings suggest that consumers with mixed emotions report a higher willingness to acquire knowledge and report higher levels of improvisational behavior. Consumers behaved differently in different environments. Consumers with mixed emotions responded more strongly to improvisation in the loose-culture environment than in the tight-culture environment, and the mixed emotions of awe and anxiety had a positive effect on individual consumers' improvisational behavior through the mediating role of knowledge acquisition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotions , Humans , Consumer Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Affect , Anxiety/epidemiology
18.
Health Econ ; 32(4): 822-852, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172917

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze economic costs and consequences of local non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) aimed at containing the Covid-19 pandemic. Using comprehensive data on municipal and regional policies in Norway, we implement a difference-in-differences framework identifying impacts of local NPIs from discontinuous differential shifts in outcomes following the implementation of new policies. In treated municipalities, local NPIs lead to persistent reductions in mobility, persistent increases in unemployment, and transient reductions in consumer spending. Analyses of spatial spillovers show that the implementation of local NPIs increases retail mobility in untreated neighboring municipalities. Overall, our findings suggest that local NPIs have economic consequences for local economies and induce residents to shift their consumption of goods and services to neighboring municipalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Consumer Behavior , Marketing , Norway
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163392

ABSTRACT

Allowing there to be an undersupply of medical resources and infection amid the social workforce, this paper proposes a theory to show how panic buying is induced and how bad the workforce status could be. By developing a novel general equilibrium model, we find that for any retail price that is higher than the buyer's reserve value, the buying competition will be induced and the medical resources supply will further be tightened. Moreover, if the transmission rate of COVID-19 surpasses the theoretical threshold that is proposed by this paper, the whole workforce in our simulated economy will inevitably be infected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Panic , Marketing , Consumer Behavior , Workforce
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120996

ABSTRACT

This study explored the willingness and purchase of travel insurance during the COVID-19 pandemic amongst working adults to ensure their safety and welfare through the lens of the theory of planned behavior. Primary data were gathered from 1,118 working adults across Malaysia and analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling. The study outcomes revealed that attitude toward travel insurance was significantly influenced by insurance literacy, perceived health risk, and health consciousness. The willingness of working adults to purchase travel insurance was highly influenced by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls but unaffected by perceived product risks. The purchase of travel insurance was positively influenced by the willingness to purchase travel insurance. In fact, travel insurance literacy and perceived health risk should be emphasized amongst working adults to encourage them to purchase travel insurance policies for traveling abroad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insurance , Adult , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Travel
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