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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 441-464, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844279

ABSTRACT

The emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents hazards to researchers and other laboratory personnel in research settings where the live virus is stored and handled. The Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) Core Facility (CF) at Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine in National University of Singapore (NUS Medicine) has implemented a biorisk management (BRM) system to ensure that biorisk to employees, the public, or the environment are consistently minimized to an acceptable level while working with SARS-CoV-2. This chapter summarizes how a BRM system can be implemented in academic institutions based on international standards in the context of existing local legislations/regulations and institutional policies/guidelines to minimize the risk of laboratory-acquired infections and deliberate misuse of the newly emerged virus, SARS-CoV-2 in BSL-3 laboratories. The BRM programs prioritize performing risk assessments prior to implementation of work processes and reassessing the risk portfolio of the facilities from time to time, determining root causes and prevention of recurrences. Focusing on awareness-raising and educating the laboratory users in biosafety and biosecurity, and identifying opportunities for improvement are the other key factors for a sustainable and successful BRM system in the NUS Medicine BSL-3 CF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Laboratories , Risk Assessment
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 395-439, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844278

ABSTRACT

In this chapter, we discuss potential incidents associated with SARS-CoV-2 experimental work in high containment research laboratories. The risk landscape in high containment laboratories is changing due to the strong innovation drive of the life sciences research. Thus, the WHO has recommended life sciences organizations to incorporate good research practices and ethical principles into a risk-based approach of the biorisk management (BRM). Currently, BRM systems in high containment laboratories are predominantly steered by operational personnel and laboratory professional. It is well known that without having a systematic approach and leadership support from the organization, the BRM system in the high containment laboratory will not be sustainable. Even though the roles of organizations and their leadership in establishing the BRM system are spelt out in many international standards, guidance documents and national legislations, operational aspects of these roles are rarely discussed.It is therefore important for everyone to understand about their roles in organizational processes (communication, decision, and performance evaluation) involved in implementation of BRM related operational activities. In this chapter, discussion is based on operational activities of four main organizational behaviors that are considered to have strengthened BRM systems in high containment laboratories: (1) displaying a visible commitment and support to the BRM system from different levels of management, (2) developing a competent and responsible workforce with BRM technical skills and problem identification/solving skills, (3) integrating learning and improvement principles into the BRM system, and (4) enhancing the continuous motivation of laboratory personnel to avoid complacency. The categorization of these organizational behaviors is based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's principles and guidance for strengthening the safety and security culture in nuclear facilities. Furthermore, we encourage the laboratory management to identify gaps in processes and activities related to those organizational behaviors so that one could rapidly address biosafety and biosecurity vulnerabilities in high containment laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Laboratories , Biological Factors , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ ; 377: o954, 2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788941
5.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related biosafety guidelines for dental clinical practice in the early stage of the pandemic, focusing on quality assessment. METHODS: Electronic (via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, Brazilian Library in Dentistry, and Cochrane Library) and gray literature searches were performed for documents published up to May 12, 2020. Guidelines updated until April 17, 2021 were identified. Documents were included as guidelines if they (1) consisted of a set of statements, directions, or principles presenting current or future rules or policy; (2) were developed by government agencies, institutions, organizations, or expert panels; and (3) were related to the general conduct of healthcare activities rather a particular condition. Two researchers, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II, independently extracted the recommendations and evaluated the quality of the guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty-seven documents from 19 countries were included in the review. These documents presented 122 recommendations related to (1) professional biosafety; (2) patients'/companions' safety; (3) the organization and biosafety of the physical dental facility environment; and (4) the work process in dental care. Overall, the scientific quality of the guidelines was considered low. Some recommendations presented in these guidelines would require further research to establish their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: We found a wide variety of biosafety guidelines for dental practice regarding COVID-19 in the early months of the pandemic, but their quality was low. Biosafety recommendations should be frequently updated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
6.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210139, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1736590

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards biosafety recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic at a Brazilian dental school. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 2020 with the clinical staff of a Brazilian dental school. The whole clinical staff was sent pre-tested self-administered online questionnaires about knowledge and attitudes towards the recommendations for biosafety in dental settings in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistical analyses were carried out for proportion calculation. Results Disposable head covering caps, isolation gowns, and gloves were the most frequently reported personal protective equipment (PPE). The rates ranged from 52.9% to 88.5% for N95 respirators, from 68.6% to 92.6% for face shields, from 47.4% to 67.5% for conventional eye protection shields, and 45.1% to 77.4% for eye protection with solid side shields. Chlorhexidine gluconate was the most frequent mouthwash indicated before clinical dental care. The percentage of agreement to provide clinical care to patients with suspected COVID-19 varied from 23.5% to 50.0%. The percentage of respondents who agreed that bioaerosol-generating procedures should be avoided was higher than 74.5%. Less than 50% knew the correct sequence for doffing of PPE. Conclusion This study revealed important gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards prevention and control measures against infection in dental environments in the context of COVID-19, indicating the need for improvements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Education, Dental , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19 , Schools, Dental , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Infection Control
7.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726020

ABSTRACT

Clinical samples collected in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), patients are commonly manipulated in biosafety level 2 laboratories for molecular diagnostic purposes. Here, we tested French norm NF-EN-14476+A2 derived from European standard EN-14885 to assess the risk of manipulating infectious viruses prior to RNA extraction. SARS-CoV-2 cell-culture supernatant and nasopharyngeal samples (virus-spiked samples and clinical samples collected in COVID-19 patients) were used to measure the reduction of infectivity after 10 minute contact with lysis buffer containing various detergents and chaotropic agents. A total of thirteen protocols were evaluated. Two commercially available formulations showed the ability to reduce infectivity by at least 6 log 10, whereas others proved less effective.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
8.
Environ Res ; 211: 113062, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719723

ABSTRACT

New Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious illness that has generated a pandemic crisis worldwide. One of the fundamental questions in science and society is how SARS-CoV-2 has been originated to design best practices directed to prevent and/or to cope with future hazardous pathogens. The study confronts this question here developing a meta-analysis, which endeavors to explain, whenever possible, unknown sources of the SARS-CoV-2. Findings suggest that the natural spillover of novel viral agents that generate more than 6.00 M deaths worldwide in about two years (such as, SARS-CoV-2 from February 2020 to March 2022) has a remote probability of occurrence (using an analogy with the probability of natural disasters generating a lot of fatalities), whereas science advances on hazardous viral agents and consequential lab accident have a (higher) probability of occurrence (about 13-20% like in manifold lab accidents). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest the vital role of improving the technical guidelines of biosafety at all levels in laboratories during the development of scientific research of experimental virology on hazardous pathogens to minimize risks of pandemic threats in environment and human society.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Laboratories , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2883, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707349

ABSTRACT

We report the development of a large scale process for heat inactivation of clinical COVID-19 samples prior to laboratory processing for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. With more than 266 million confirmed cases, over 5.26 million deaths already recorded at the time of writing, COVID-19 continues to spread in many parts of the world. Consequently, mass testing for SARS-CoV-2 will remain at the forefront of the COVID-19 response and prevention for the near future. Due to biosafety considerations the standard testing process requires a significant amount of manual handling of patient samples within calibrated microbiological safety cabinets. This makes the process expensive, effects operator ergonomics and restricts testing to higher containment level laboratories. We have successfully modified the process by using industrial catering ovens for bulk heat inactivation of oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab samples within their secondary containment packaging before processing in the lab to enable all subsequent activities to be performed in the open laboratory. As part of a validation process, we tested greater than 1200 clinical COVID-19 samples and showed less than 1 Cq loss in RT-qPCR test sensitivity. We also demonstrate the bulk heat inactivation protocol inactivates a murine surrogate of human SARS-CoV-2. Using bulk heat inactivation, the assay is no longer reliant on containment level 2 facilities and practices, which reduces cost, improves operator safety and ergonomics and makes the process scalable. In addition, heating as the sole method of virus inactivation is ideally suited to streamlined and more rapid workflows such as 'direct to PCR' assays that do not involve RNA extraction or chemical neutralisation methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Hot Temperature , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1833-1837, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633510

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Bangladesh, there was a scarcity of ideal biocontainment facilities to detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a risk group of 3 organisms. Molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 must be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory with BSL-3-equivalent infection prevention and control practices. Establishing these facilities within a short timeframe proved to be an enormous challenge, including locating a remote space distant from the university campus to establish a laboratory, motivating the laboratory staff to work with a novel pathogen without any prior experience, allocation of funds for essential equipment and accessories, and arrangement of a safe waste management system for environmental hazard reduction. This report also highlights several limitations, such as the facility's architectural design that did not follow the biosafety guidelines, lack of continuous flow of funds, and an inadequate number of laboratory personnel. This article describes various efforts taken to overcome the challenges during the establishment of this facility that may be adopted to create similar facilities in other regions of the country. Establishing a BSL-2 laboratory with BSL-3-equivalent infection prevention and control practices will aid in the early detection of a large number of cases, thereby isolating persons with COVID-19, limiting the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and promoting a robust public health response to contain the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Facility Design and Construction/methods , Laboratories/standards , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0110821, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559792

ABSTRACT

Equitable and timely access to COVID-19-related care has emerged as a major challenge, especially in developing and low-income countries. In India, ∼65% of the population lives in villages where infrastructural constraints limit the access to molecular diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. Especially, the requirement of a cold chain transport for sustained sample integrity and associated biosafety challenges pose major bottlenecks to the equitable access. Here, we developed an innovative clinical specimen collection medium, named SupraSens microbial transport medium (SSTM). SSTM allowed a cold chain-independent transport at a wide temperature range (15°C to 40°C) and directly inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (<15 min). Evaluation of SSTM compared to commercial viral transport medium (VTM) in field studies (n = 181 patients) highlighted that, for the samples from same patients, SSTM could capture more symptomatic (∼26.67%, 4/15) and asymptomatic (52.63%, 10/19) COVID-19 patients. Compared to VTM, SSTM yielded significantly lower quantitative PCR (qPCR) threshold cycle (Ct) values (mean ΔCt > -3.50), thereby improving diagnostic sensitivity of SSTM (18.79% [34/181]) versus that of VTM (11.05% [20/181]). Overall, SSTM had detection of COVID-19 patients 70% higher than that of VTM. Since the logistical and infrastructural constraints are not unique to India, our study highlights the invaluable global utility of SSTM as a key to accurately identify those infected and control COVID-19 transmission. Taken together, our data provide a strong justification to the adoption of SSTM for sample collection and transport during the pandemic. IMPORTANCE Approximately forty-four percent of the global population lives in villages, including 59% in Africa (https://unhabitat.org/World%20Cities%20Report%202020). The fast-evolving nature of SARS-CoV-2 and its extremely contagious nature warrant early and accurate COVID-19 diagnostics across rural and urban population as a key to prevent viral transmission. Unfortunately, lack of adequate infrastructure, including the availability of biosafety-compliant facilities and an end-to-end cold chain availability for COVID-19 molecular diagnosis, limits the accessibility of testing in these countries. Here, we fulfill this urgent unmet need by developing a sample collection and transport medium, SSTM, that does not require cold chain, neutralizes the virus quickly, and maintains the sample integrity at broad temperature range without compromising sensitivity. Further, we observed that use of SSTM in field studies during pandemic improved the diagnostic sensitivity, thereby establishing the feasibility of molecular testing even in the infrastructural constraints of remote, hilly, or rural communities in India and elsewhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Containment of Biohazards , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Specimen Handling/instrumentation
12.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0183721, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546443

ABSTRACT

Research activities with infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are currently permitted only under biosafety level 3 (BSL3) containment. Here, we report the development of a single-cycle infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus replicon particle (VRP) system with a luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) dual reporter that can be safely handled in BSL2 laboratories to study SARS-CoV-2 biology. The spike (S) gene of SARS-CoV-2 encodes the envelope glycoprotein, which is essential for mediating infection of new host cells. Through deletion and replacement of this essential S gene with a luciferase and GFP dual reporter, we have generated a conditional SARS-CoV-2 mutant (ΔS-VRP) that produces infectious particles only in cells expressing a viral envelope glycoprotein of choice. Interestingly, we observed more efficient production of infectious particles in cells expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein G [ΔS-VRP(G)] than in cells expressing other viral glycoproteins, including S. We confirmed that infection from ΔS-VRP(G) is limited to a single round and can be neutralized by anti-VSV serum. In our studies with ΔS-VRP(G), we observed robust expression of both luciferase and GFP reporters in various human and murine cell types, demonstrating that a broad variety of cells can support intracellular replication of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, treatment of ΔS-VRP(G)-infected cells with either of the anti-CoV drugs remdesivir (nucleoside analog) and GC376 (CoV 3CL protease inhibitor) resulted in a robust decrease in both luciferase and GFP expression in a drug dose- and cell-type-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings show that we have developed a single-cycle infectious SARS-CoV-2 VRP system that serves as a versatile platform to study SARS-CoV-2 intracellular biology and to perform high-throughput screening of antiviral drugs under BSL2 containment. IMPORTANCE Due to the highly contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2 and the lack of immunity in the human population, research on SARS-CoV-2 has been restricted to biosafety level 3 laboratories. This has greatly limited participation of the broader scientific community in SARS-CoV-2 research and thus has hindered the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs. By deleting the essential spike gene in the viral genome, we have developed a conditional mutant of SARS-CoV-2 with luciferase and fluorescent reporters, which can be safely used under biosafety level 2 conditions. Our single-cycle infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus replicon system can serve as a versatile platform to study SARS-CoV-2 intracellular biology and to perform high-throughput screening of antiviral drugs under BSL2 containment.


Subject(s)
Genetic Engineering , Recombination, Genetic , Replicon , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Laboratories/standards , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication
13.
Air Med J ; 41(1): 88-95, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525664

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused an overwhelming pandemic. To relieve overloaded intensive care units in the most affected regions, the French Ministry of Defence triggered collective air medical evacuations (medevacs) on board an Airbus A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport of the French Air Force. Such a collective air medevac is a big challenge regarding biosafety; until now, only evacuations of a single symptomatic patient with an emergent communicable disease, such as Ebola virus disease, have been conducted. However, the COVID-19 pandemic required collective medevacs for critically ill patients and involved a virus that little is known about still. Thus, we performed a complete risk analysis using a process map and FMECA (Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis) to assess the risk and implement mitigation measures for health workers, flight crew, and the environment. We report the biosafety management experienced during 6 flights with a total of 36 critically ill COVID-19-positive patients transferred with no casualties while preserving both staffs and aircraft.


Subject(s)
Air Ambulances , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 543, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased the physical and psychological stress of medical workers. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of job burnout and its impact on work ability among Biosafety Laboratory (BSL) staffs during the COVID-19 epidemic in Xinjiang. METHODS: A total of 7911 qualified BSL staffs in Xinjiang were investigated by electronic questionnaires. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) was used for job burnout survey. Work Ability Index (WAI) was used for work ability survey. The prevalence and risk factors of job burnout in BSL staffs were analyzed through chi square test, t-test and one-way ANOVA. And then, the influence of demographic and job-related variables, i.e., confounding factors, were eliminated to the greatest extent by the propensity score analysis (PSA) method, to investigate the impact of job burnout on work ability in BSL staffs. RESULTS: A total of 67.6% BSL staffs experienced job burnout. There were significant differences in the detection rate of job burnout among demographic and job-related variables, including gender, age, ethnicity, education, working years, professional title, marital status, number of night shift per month and overall sleep condition (all P < 0.05). The detection rate of job burnout in female was higher than that in male. The detection rates of job burnout in 45-50 years old, Han ethnicity, education of postgraduate or above, 11-20 years of working, intermediate professional title, married, staff with many night shifts per month and poor overall sleep condition were higher than that of other groups. The average burnout scores of the Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Cynicism (CY), Reduced Personal Accomplishment (PA) scale were 10.00 ± 5.99, 4.64 ± 4.59 and 15.25 ± 8.16, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the three dimensions of job burnout, i.e., EE, CY, PE, were negatively correlated with work ability and significantly affected the work ability of BSL staffs (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the prevalence of job burnout is extremely common among BSL staffs. In addition, the work ability decreases with the increase of job burnout and the improvement of job burnout can enhance work ability among BSL staffs.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Epidemics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work Capacity Evaluation
15.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0127621, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494956

ABSTRACT

The emergence of life-threatening zoonotic diseases caused by betacoronaviruses, including the ongoing coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, has highlighted the need for developing preclinical models mirroring respiratory and systemic pathophysiological manifestations seen in infected humans. Here, we showed that C57BL/6J wild-type mice intranasally inoculated with the murine betacoronavirus murine hepatitis coronavirus 3 (MHV-3) develop a robust inflammatory response leading to acute lung injuries, including alveolar edema, hemorrhage, and fibrin thrombi. Although such histopathological changes seemed to resolve as the infection advanced, they efficiently impaired respiratory function, as the infected mice displayed restricted lung distention and increased respiratory frequency and ventilation. Following respiratory manifestation, the MHV-3 infection became systemic, and a high virus burden could be detected in multiple organs along with morphological changes. The systemic manifestation of MHV-3 infection was also marked by a sharp drop in the number of circulating platelets and lymphocytes, besides the augmented concentration of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, IL-12, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), thereby mirroring some clinical features observed in moderate and severe cases of COVID-19. Importantly, both respiratory and systemic changes triggered by MHV-3 infection were greatly prevented by blocking TNF signaling, either via genetic or pharmacologic approaches. In line with this, TNF blockage also diminished the infection-mediated release of proinflammatory cytokines and virus replication of human epithelial lung cells infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Collectively, results show that MHV-3 respiratory infection leads to a large range of clinical manifestations in mice and may constitute an attractive, lower-cost, biosafety level 2 (BSL2) in vivo platform for evaluating the respiratory and multiorgan involvement of betacoronavirus infections. IMPORTANCE Mouse models have long been used as valuable in vivo platforms to investigate the pathogenesis of viral infections and effective countermeasures. The natural resistance of mice to the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has launched a race toward the characterization of SARS-CoV-2 infection in other animals (e.g., hamsters, cats, ferrets, bats, and monkeys), as well as adaptation of the mouse model, by modifying either the host or the virus. In the present study, we utilized a natural pathogen of mice, MHV, as a prototype to model betacoronavirus-induced acute lung injure and multiorgan involvement under biosafety level 2 conditions. We showed that C57BL/6J mice intranasally inoculated with MHV-3 develops severe disease, which includes acute lung damage and respiratory distress that precede systemic inflammation and death. Accordingly, the proposed animal model may provide a useful tool for studies regarding betacoronavirus respiratory infection and related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Cell Line , Containment of Biohazards , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1114, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease has had a profound impact worldwide since it was discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Laboratory testing is crucial to prompt identification of positive cases, initiation of treatment and management strategies. However, medical scientists are vulnerable to infection due to the risk of exposure in the laboratory and the community. This study sought to determine the awareness of laboratory safety measures, assess the personal efforts of medical scientists in creating a safe laboratory environment for testing and examine the laboratory safety enabling factors. METHODS: The data used for the study were generated among medical scientists in Nigeria through an internet-broadcasted questionnaire and were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25). RESULTS: The majority of the respondents had a high awareness of laboratory safety measures (60.3%) and demonstrated good personal efforts in creating a safe laboratory testing environment (63%). The level of awareness of laboratory safety measures was significantly associated with respondents' level of education (χ2 = 6.143; p = 0.046) and influences respondents' efforts in creating a safe laboratory testing environment (p = 0.007). However, just a few respondents could convincingly attest to the availability of adequate and appropriate PPE with proper utilization training (45.1%), adequate rest and other welfare packages (45.8%) as well as access to appropriate Biological Safety Cabinets (BSCs) and other essential equipment in their laboratories (48.8%). Furthermore, a significant association existed between the availability of laboratory safety enabling factors and respondents' efforts in creating a safe environment for testing with the p-value ranging between < 0.0001 and 0.003. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that despite the high awareness of safety measures and good personal efforts of the study participants in creating a safe laboratory-testing environment, there was poor availability of safety facilities, equipment, support and welfare packages required to enhance their safety. It is, therefore, crucial to provide necessary laboratory biosafety equipment and PPE in order not to compromise medical scientists' safety as they perform their duties in COVID-19 pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related biosafety guidelines for dental clinical practice in the early stage of the pandemic, focusing on quality assessment. METHODS: Electronic (via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, Brazilian Library in Dentistry, and Cochrane Library) and gray literature searches were performed for documents published up to May 12, 2020. Guidelines updated until April 17, 2021 were identified. Documents were included as guidelines if they (1) consisted of a set of statements, directions, or principles presenting current or future rules or policy; (2) were developed by government agencies, institutions, organizations, or expert panels; and (3) were related to the general conduct of healthcare activities rather a particular condition. Two researchers, using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II, independently extracted the recommendations and evaluated the quality of the guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty-seven documents from 19 countries were included in the review. These documents presented 122 recommendations related to (1) professional biosafety; (2) patients'/companions' safety; (3) the organization and biosafety of the physical dental facility environment; and (4) the work process in dental care. Overall, the scientific quality of the guidelines was considered low. Some recommendations presented in these guidelines would require further research to establish their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: We found a wide variety of biosafety guidelines for dental practice regarding COVID-19 in the early months of the pandemic, but their quality was low. Biosafety recommendations should be frequently updated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil , Containment of Biohazards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
19.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 53-58, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Most existing biocontainment units (BCUs) in U.S. hospitals are designed to care for a limited number of patients infected with epidemiologically significant pathogens. The COVID-19 pandemic presented substantial challenges to hospital preparedness and operations because of its high incidence rate and the high risk of transmission to staff members. This article describes a novel practice innovation: a hospital-wide deployment of nurses on a trained BCU team to support hospital staff in safely caring for patients with COVID-19. Their responsibilities included assisting in the development of guidelines and providing training on safety protocols and the appropriate use of personal protective equipment. The authors show how this deployment contributed significantly to staff education and support during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Nursing Staff, Hospital/organization & administration , COVID-19/transmission , Clinical Protocols , Containment of Biohazards , Humans
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