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1.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726020

ABSTRACT

Clinical samples collected in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), patients are commonly manipulated in biosafety level 2 laboratories for molecular diagnostic purposes. Here, we tested French norm NF-EN-14476+A2 derived from European standard EN-14885 to assess the risk of manipulating infectious viruses prior to RNA extraction. SARS-CoV-2 cell-culture supernatant and nasopharyngeal samples (virus-spiked samples and clinical samples collected in COVID-19 patients) were used to measure the reduction of infectivity after 10 minute contact with lysis buffer containing various detergents and chaotropic agents. A total of thirteen protocols were evaluated. Two commercially available formulations showed the ability to reduce infectivity by at least 6 log 10, whereas others proved less effective.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2883, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707349

ABSTRACT

We report the development of a large scale process for heat inactivation of clinical COVID-19 samples prior to laboratory processing for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-qPCR. With more than 266 million confirmed cases, over 5.26 million deaths already recorded at the time of writing, COVID-19 continues to spread in many parts of the world. Consequently, mass testing for SARS-CoV-2 will remain at the forefront of the COVID-19 response and prevention for the near future. Due to biosafety considerations the standard testing process requires a significant amount of manual handling of patient samples within calibrated microbiological safety cabinets. This makes the process expensive, effects operator ergonomics and restricts testing to higher containment level laboratories. We have successfully modified the process by using industrial catering ovens for bulk heat inactivation of oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab samples within their secondary containment packaging before processing in the lab to enable all subsequent activities to be performed in the open laboratory. As part of a validation process, we tested greater than 1200 clinical COVID-19 samples and showed less than 1 Cq loss in RT-qPCR test sensitivity. We also demonstrate the bulk heat inactivation protocol inactivates a murine surrogate of human SARS-CoV-2. Using bulk heat inactivation, the assay is no longer reliant on containment level 2 facilities and practices, which reduces cost, improves operator safety and ergonomics and makes the process scalable. In addition, heating as the sole method of virus inactivation is ideally suited to streamlined and more rapid workflows such as 'direct to PCR' assays that do not involve RNA extraction or chemical neutralisation methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Hot Temperature , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling/methods , Virus Inactivation , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4407-4419, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373615

ABSTRACT

Widespread infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has led to a global pandemic. Currently, various approaches are being taken up to develop vaccines and therapeutics to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Consequently, the S protein has become an important target protein for developing vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV2. However, the highly infective nature of SARS-CoV2 restricts experimentation with the virus to highly secure BSL3 facilities. The availability of fusion-enabled, nonreplicating, and nonbiohazardous mimics of SARS-CoV2 virus fusion, containing the viral S or S and M protein in their native conformation on mammalian cells, can serve as a useful substitute for studying viral fusion for testing various inhibitors of viral fusion. This would avoid the use of the BSL3 facility for fusion studies required to develop therapeutics. In the present study, we have developed SARS-CoV2 virus fusion mimics (SCFMs) using mammalian cells transfected with constructs coding for S or S and M protein. The fusogenic property of the mimic(s) and their interaction with the functional human ACE2 receptors was confirmed experimentally. We have also shown that such mimics can easily be used in an inhibition assay. These mimic(s) can be easily prepared on a large scale, and such SCFMs can serve as an invaluable resource for viral fusion inhibition assays and in vitro screening of antiviral agents, which can be shared/handled between labs/facilities without worrying about any biohazard while working under routine laboratory conditions, avoiding the use of BSL3 laboratory.Abbreviations :SCFM: SARS-CoV2 Virus Fusion Mimic; ACE2: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2; hACE2: Human Angiotensin-Converting enzyme 2; MEF: Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts; HBSS: Hanks Balanced Salt Solution; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Embryo, Mammalian , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression , Genes, Reporter , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells , Mice , Molecular Mimicry , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
4.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 34: e37234, 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328341

ABSTRACT

Objetivo relatar a experiência de produção de máscaras cirúrgicas por uma comissão de produção de inovação tecnológica. Método estudo descritivo do tipo relato de experiência. O processo de produção envolveu seis costureiras, uma cortando o tecido-não-tecido hospitalar, uma na máquina Overlock para fazer o acabamento nas laterais e quatro, costurando na máquina Reta. Foi utilizado tecido-não-tecido gramatura de 60, linhas brancas e arame galvanizado encapado. Resultado a produção chegou a 1.300 máscaras cirúrgicas por dia. Todas passaram pelo teste de qualidade em uma central de distribuição antes de serem encaminhadas aos serviços de saúde. O processo foi gerenciado por duas enfermeiras. Conclusão a estratégia relatada representou a produção de 63 mil unidades de máscaras cirúrgicas e foi uma maneira alternativa de suprir a demanda de máscaras cirúrgicas nos serviços de saúde, contribuindo para melhorar a segurança dos profissionais de saúde no âmbito da COVID-19.


Objetivo informar la experiencia de producción de mascarillas quirúrgicas por una comisión de producción de innovación tecnológica. Método estudio descriptivo del tipo informe de experiencia. El proceso de producción implicó seis costureras, una cortando la tela no tejida hospitalaria, una en la máquina Sobrehilada para hacer el acabado en los lados y cuatro cosiendo en la máquina Recta. Se utilizó una tela no tejida de 60 gramos, hilos blancos y un alambre galvanizado camuflado. Resultado la producción alcanzó 1.300 máscaras quirúrgicas por día. El proceso fue gestionado por dos enfermeras. Conclusión la estrategia reportada representó la producción de 63.000 unidades de mascarillas quirúrgicas y fue una forma alternativa de satisfacer la demanda de mascarillas quirúrgicas en los servicios de salud, contribuyendo a mejorar la seguridad de los profesionales de la salud en el contexto da la COVID-19.


Objective to report the experience of production of surgical masks by a committee of technological innovation production. Method descriptive study of the experience-report type. The production process involved six seamstresses, one cutting the hospital nonwoven fabric, one at the Overlock stitch machine to make the finish of sides and four sewing with the Straight stitch machine. A 60-grammage nonwoven fabric, white thread and a cloaked galvanized wire were used. Result production reached 1,300 surgical masks per day. The process was managed by two nurses. Conclusion the strategy reported represented the production of 63,000 units of surgical masks and was an alternative to meet the demand for surgical masks in health services, contributing to improve the safety of health professionals within the scope of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Masks/supply & distribution , Quality Control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Equipment and Supplies, Disasters , Masks/economics , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0241734, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325370

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucially important to the safety of both patients and medical personnel, particularly in the event of an infectious pandemic. As the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases exponentially in the United States and many parts of the world, healthcare provider demand for these necessities is currently outpacing supply. In the midst of the current pandemic, there has been a concerted effort to identify viable ways to conserve PPE, including decontamination after use. In this study, we outline a procedure by which PPE may be decontaminated using ultraviolet (UV) radiation in biosafety cabinets (BSCs), a common element of many academic, public health, and hospital laboratories. According to the literature, effective decontamination of N95 respirator masks or surgical masks requires UV-C doses of greater than 1 Jcm-2, which was achieved after 4.3 hours per side when placing the N95 at the bottom of the BSCs tested in this study. We then demonstrated complete inactivation of the human coronavirus NL63 on N95 mask material after 15 minutes of UV-C exposure at 61 cm (232 µWcm-2). Our results provide support to healthcare organizations looking for methods to extend their reserves of PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Decontamination/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Equipment Reuse , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Laboratories/organization & administration , Masks/virology , N95 Respirators/virology , Radiometry/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200276, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a proposal for making and distributing masks for population in risk, with guidance on the stages of making them and the care in handling them based on the development of educational video and infographic. METHOD: Experience report on the stages of the process of training people to make fabric masks for the population at risk, between March and June 2020, in a city in the interior of São Paulo. RESULTS: 1,650 masks were made and distributed to vulnerable population groups from different contexts and tutorial video and infographic were elaborated and released to enable people to make their own masks with resources available at home. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: It was possible to manufacture and distribute masks for the population at risk and develop educational actions to contain the disease, given the advance of confirmed cases and deaths by Covid-19, corroborating the role of nursing in health education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Masks/supply & distribution , Vulnerable Populations , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Health Education , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Textiles , Video Recording
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 617042, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221946

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is wreaking havoc around the world. Considering that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from SARS-CoV-2 infected cells might play a role in a viremic phase contributing to disease progression and that standard methods for EV isolation have been reported to co-isolate viral particles, we would like to recommend the use of heightened laboratory safety measures during the isolation of EVs derived from SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue and blood from COVID-19 patients. Research needs to be conducted to better understand the role of EVs in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, disease progression, and transmission. EV isolation procedures should include approaches for protection from SARS-CoV-2 contamination. We recommend the EV and virology scientific communities develop collaborative projects where relationships between endogenous EVs and potentially lethal enveloped viruses are addressed to better understand the risks and pathobiology involved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Endocytosis/physiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Genome Packaging , Viremia/pathology
8.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125522

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis, the handling of biological samples from confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals demanded the use of inactivation protocols to ensure laboratory operators' safety. While not standardized, these practices can be roughly divided into two categories, namely heat inactivation and solvent-detergent treatments. These routine procedures should also apply to samples intended for Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) analysis. Assessing the impact of virus-inactivating pre-treatments is therefore of pivotal importance, given the well-known variability introduced by different pre-analytical steps on downstream EVs isolation and analysis. Arguably, shared guidelines on inactivation protocols tailored to best address EVs-specific requirements will be needed among the analytical community, yet deep investigations in this direction have not yet been reported. We here provide insights into SARS-CoV-2 inactivation practices to be adopted prior to serum EVs analysis by comparing solvent/detergent treatment vs. heat inactivation. Our analysis entails the evaluation of EVs recovery and purity along with biochemical, biophysical and biomolecular profiling by means of a set of complementary analytical techniques: Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, Western Blotting, Atomic Force Microscopy, miRNA content (digital droplet PCR) and tetraspanin assessment by microarrays. Our data suggest an increase in ultracentrifugation (UC) recovery following heat treatment; however, it is accompanied by a marked enrichment in EVs-associated contaminants. On the other hand, solvent/detergent treatment is promising for small EVs (<150 nm range), yet a depletion of larger vesicular entities was detected. This work represents a first step towards the identification of optimal serum inactivation protocols targeted to EVs analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/pharmacology , Extracellular Vesicles/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Hot Temperature , Humans , MicroRNAs/analysis , Microarray Analysis , Microscopy, Atomic Force , SARS-CoV-2 , Tetraspanins/analysis , Ultracentrifugation
9.
Cell ; 184(8): 2229-2238.e13, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095902

ABSTRACT

The biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) requirement to culture severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a bottleneck for research. Here, we report a trans-complementation system that produces single-round infectious SARS-CoV-2 that recapitulates authentic viral replication. We demonstrate that the single-round infectious SARS-CoV-2 can be used at BSL-2 laboratories for high-throughput neutralization and antiviral testing. The trans-complementation system consists of two components: a genomic viral RNA containing ORF3 and envelope gene deletions, as well as mutated transcriptional regulator sequences, and a producer cell line expressing the two deleted genes. Trans-complementation of the two components generates virions that can infect naive cells for only one round but does not produce wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Hamsters and K18-hACE2 transgenic mice inoculated with the complementation-derived virions exhibited no detectable disease, even after intracranial inoculation with the highest possible dose. Thus, the trans-complementation platform can be safely used at BSL-2 laboratories for research and countermeasure development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , A549 Cells , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Genetic Complementation Test/methods , Genome, Viral , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virulence , Virus Replication
10.
Cytometry A ; 99(1): 11-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086332

ABSTRACT

Cytometry is playing a crucial role in addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. In this commentary-written by a variety of stakeholders in the cytometry, immunology, and infectious disease communities-we review cytometry's role in the COVID-19 response and discuss workflow issues critical to planning and executing effective research in this emerging field. We discuss sample procurement and processing, biosafety, technology options, data sharing, and the translation of research findings into clinical environments. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/trends , Flow Cytometry/trends , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , /trends , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , /methods
11.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 313(10): 811-813, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074410

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected almost all aspects of our life including health care services. A lot of dermatopathology laboratories have stopped working during this pandemic. This article aims at reviewing the challenges and effects of COVID-19 on the practice of dermatopathology in view of the current guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Protective Devices , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans
14.
Pathology ; 52(7): 790-795, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042622

ABSTRACT

The current public health emergency surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, that is the illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in thousands of cases in Australia since 25 January 2020 when the first case was diagnosed. This emerging virus presents particular hazards to researchers and laboratory staff in a clinical setting, highlighted by rapid and widespread global transmission. Based on the epidemiological and clinical data that have become available in mid-2020, we propose the interim classification of SARS-CoV-2 as a Risk Group 3 organism is reasonable, and discuss establishing Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) regulations accordingly. Despite its global spread, the reported mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 ranging from 0.13% to 6.22% is considerably less than that of other Risk Group 4 agents including Ebola and Marburg viruses with fatality rates as high as 90%. In addition, studies have demonstrated that approximately 86% of patients presenting with severe courses of the disease are aged 70 years or above, with the presence of comorbid conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases in the majority of all fatal cases. In contrary to recent discussions surrounding the protective and administrative measures needed in a laboratory, the emerging evidence surrounding mortality rate, distinct demographics of severe infections, and the presence of underlying diseases does not justify the categorisation of SARS-CoV-2 as a Risk Group 4 organism. This article summarises biosafety precautions, control measures and appropriate physical containment facilities required to minimise the risk of laboratory-acquired infections with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Laboratories , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Australia , Humans , Occupational Health
17.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1053-1062, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus outbreak that has emerged in the past 20 years, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). One important aspect, highlighted by many global health organizations, is that this novel coronavirus outbreak may be especially hazardous to healthcare personnel, including laboratory professionals. Therefore, the aim of this document, prepared by the COVID-19 taskforce of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), is to provide a set of recommendations, adapted from official documents of international and national health agencies, on biosafety measures for routine clinical chemistry laboratories that operate at biosafety levels 1 (BSL-1; work with agents posing minimal threat to laboratory workers) and 2 (BSL-2; work with agents associated with human disease which pose moderate hazard). We believe that the interim measures proposed in this document for best practice will help minimazing the risk of developing COVID-19 while working in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Clinical Laboratory Services , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Laboratories , Laboratory Personnel , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Drug Test Anal ; 13(2): 460-465, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893219

ABSTRACT

The current study examined the stability of several antidoping prohibited substances analytes in urine after 15-min exposure to UV-C light in a Biosafety Level 2 cabinet. The urine matrices were exposed within the original antidoping bottles with the aim to destroy DNA/RNA and possible SARS CoV-2. The analytes small molecules Phase I and Phase II metabolites and peptides, in total 444, endogenous, internal standards, and prohibited substances, pH, and specific gravity in urine were studied. The accredited analytical methods were used by Anti-Doping Laboratory Qatar for the comparison of data of the same urine samples analyzed with and without UV-C exposure. In the study conditions, no problems of stability were detected in the substances spiked in the urine samples exposed in the UV-C irradiation.


Subject(s)
Anabolic Agents/urine , Substance Abuse Detection/methods , Urinalysis/methods , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Doping in Sports , Humans , Ultraviolet Rays
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240578, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881157

ABSTRACT

The initial phase dynamics of an epidemic without containment measures is commonly well modelled using exponential growth models. However, in the presence of containment measures, the exponential model becomes less appropriate. Under the implementation of an isolation measure for detected infectives, we propose to model epidemic dynamics by fitting a flexible growth model curve to reported positive cases, and to infer the overall epidemic dynamics by introducing information on the detection/testing effort and recovery and death rates. The resulting modelling approach is close to the Susceptible-Infectious-Quarantined-Recovered model framework. We focused on predicting the peaks (time and size) in positive cases, active cases and new infections. We applied the approach to data from the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Fits on limited data before the observed peaks illustrate the ability of the flexible growth model to approach the estimates from the whole data.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
20.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 76: 102036, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863229

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced forensic practitioners to consider how we perform our normal duties, especially when those duties involve humans. The potential for contracting the virus from working in close contact with living sufferers is high, and we have yet to fully determine the risk of infection from the deceased. In an attempt to support the community, the Journal of Forensic & Legal Medicine has drawn together three articles which underline the importance of continued forensic medical practice during the pandemic and highlight some factors to consider in a Roadmap towards safe practice. Our Roadmap has intentionally taken an international perspective and supports other work we have published in the Journal on our collective response to the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mortuary Practice/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Forensic Medicine/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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