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1.
Pathologica ; 112(4): 174-177, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022379

ABSTRACT

Up to now, Italy is one of the European centers with the most active Coronavirus cases with 233,836 positive cases and 33,601 total deaths as of June 3rd. During this pandemic and dramatic emergency, Italian hospitals had also to face neoplastic pathologies, that still afflict the Italian population, requiring urgent surgical and oncological treatment. In our Cancer Center Hospital, the high volume of surgical procedures have demanded an equally high volume of intraoperative pathological examinations, but also posed an additional major challenge for the safety of the staff involved. The current commentary reports our experience in the past two months (since March 9th) for a total of 1271 frozen exams from 893 suspect COVID-19 patients (31 confirmed).


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/standards , Intraoperative Care/standards , Pandemics , Pathology/standards , /epidemiology , Humans , Intraoperative Care/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pathology/statistics & numerical data
2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 512: 58-62, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956958

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if implementation of biosafety action plans in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has affected laboratory quality metrics. METHODS: This retrospective study used quality data, including turnaround time (TAT) and number/type of unacceptable specimens from a stat laboratory supporting an outpatient medical clinic serving predominantly elderly cancer patients. Four months of data from the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-June 2020) were compared to the same months in 2019. RESULTS: March-May 2020 test volumes were decreased compared to 2019. June 2020 test volume was slightly increased compared to 2019. TATs in 2020 were similar/ slightly improved compared to the same months in 2019, due to shortened collect to receive and receive to verify TATs. The number and types of unacceptable specimens were similar in 2020 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the challenges to the system caused by the pandemic, laboratory quality metrics were maintained.


Subject(s)
Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Humans , Laboratories/standards , Neoplasms , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Specimen Handling/standards , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-831603

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Masks/standards
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50721, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-828134

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: apresentar atualizações para a ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes suspeitos e confirmados com COVID-19. Método: revisão compreensiva da literatura, com síntese narrativa das evidências de diretrizes e recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma e National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: as principais atualizações trazem informações sobre especificidades das manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar; preparação do ambiente, recursos humanos e materiais, reconhecimento da parada cardiorrespiratória e ações iniciais; estratégias de ventilação e acesso invasivo da via aérea; ajustes do ventilador mecânico e manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar em pacientes pronados. Considerações finais: profissionais de saúde envolvidos no atendimento à parada cardiorrespiratória de pacientes suspeitos e/ou confirmados com COVID-19 podem encontrar inúmeros desafios, portanto devem seguir com rigor o protocolo estabelecido para maximizar a efetividade das manobras de ressuscitação e minimizar o risco de contágio pelo vírus e sua disseminação.


Objective: to present updates for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19. Method: comprehensive literature review with narrative synthesis of the evidence of guidelines and recommendations from World Health Organization, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Results: the main updates bring information about the specifics of cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers; preparation of the environment and human and material resources, recognition of cardiorespiratory arrest and initial actions; ventilation and invasive airway access strategies; mechanical ventilator adjustments and cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers in patients in the prone position. Final considerations: health professionals involved in the care of cardiorespiratory arrest of suspected and/or confirmed patients with COVID-19 can face numerous challenges, so they must strictly follow the protocol established to maximize the effectiveness of resuscitation maneuvers and minimize the risk of contagion by the virus and its spread.


Objetivo: apresentar actualizaciones para la reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes sospechos os y confirmados con COVID-19. Método: revisión exhaustiva de la literatura con síntesis narrativa de la evidencia de guías y recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira, American Heart Association, Resuscitation Council UK, American College of Surgions Committee on Trauma and National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians. Resultados: las principales actualizaciones aportan información sobre los detalles de las maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar; preparación del medio ambiente y recursos humanos y materiales, reconocimiento de paro cardiorrespiratorio y acciones iniciales; estrategias de ventilación y acceso invasivo a las vías aéreas; ajustes del ventilador mecánico y maniobras de reanimación cardiopulmonar en pacientes en decúbito prono. Consideraciones finales: los profesionales de la salud involucrados en la atención del paro cardiorrespiratorio de pacientes sospechosos y/o confirmados con COVID-19 pueden enfrentar numerosos desafíos, por lo que deben seguir estrictamente el protocolo establecido para maximizar la efectividad de las maniobras de reanimación y minimizar el riesgo de contagio por el virus y supropagación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/standards , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus , Heart Arrest/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Clinical Protocols/standards , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Heart Arrest/rehabilitation , Heart Massage/methods , Nursing, Team/standards
6.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639283

ABSTRACT

Standard precautions to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission implies that infected cell cultures and clinical specimens may undergo some sort of inactivation to reduce or abolish infectivity. We evaluated three heat inactivation protocols (56 °C-30 min, 60 °C-60 min and 92 °C-15 min) on SARS-CoV-2 using (i) infected cell culture supernatant, (ii) virus-spiked human sera (iii) and nasopharyngeal samples according to the recommendations of the European norm NF EN 14476-A2. Regardless of the protocol and the type of samples, a 4 Log10 TCID50 reduction was observed. However, samples containing viral loads > 6 Log10 TCID50 were still infectious after 56 °C-30 min and 60 °C-60 min, although infectivity was < 10 TCID50. The protocols 56 °C-30 min and 60 °C-60 min had little influence on the RNA copies detection, whereas 92 °C-15 min drastically reduced the limit of detection, which suggests that this protocol should be avoided for inactivation ahead of molecular diagnostics. Lastly, 56 °C-30 min treatment of serum specimens had a negligible influence on the results of IgG detection using a commercial ELISA test, whereas a drastic decrease in neutralizing titers was observed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Serologic Tests/methods , Virus Inactivation , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hot Temperature , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Serologic Tests/standards
8.
mBio ; 11(4)2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705638

ABSTRACT

Proponents of the use of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments with pathogens with pandemic potential (PPP) have argued that such experiments are necessary because they reveal important facets of pathogenesis and can be performed safely. Opponents of GOF experiments with PPP have argued that the risks outweigh the knowledge gained. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the vulnerability of human societies to a new PPP, while also validating some arguments of both camps, questioning others, and suggesting the need to rethink how we approach this class of experiments.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gain of Function Mutation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Biomedical Research/ethics , Biomedical Research/standards , Bioterrorism , Containment of Biohazards/ethics , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
9.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(12): 905-909, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease. The spread of the infection and the severe clinical disease have led to the widespread adoption of social distancing measures. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission have been applied at all social levels, including health care operators. Hence, this reports focuses on the description of a new protocol for the safe management of cytological samples processed by liquid-based cytology (LBC) with an evaluation of the changes in terms of morphology and immunoreactivity. METHODS: From March 11 to April 25, 2020, 414 cytological cases suspicious for SARS-CoV-2 were processed with a new virus-inactivating method suggested by Hologic, Inc, for all LBC specimens. RESULTS: The samples showed an increased amount of fibrin in the background. A slight decrease in cellular size was also observed in comparison with the standard method of preparation. Nonetheless, the nuclear details of the neoplastic cells were well identified, and the immunoreactivity of the majority of those cells was maintained. The cell blocks did not show significant differences in morphology, immunoreactivity, or nucleic acid stability. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some minor changes in the morphology of the cells, the results of this study highlight that the adoption of the new protocol for the biosafety of LBC-processed samples in pathology laboratories is important for minimizing the risk for personnel, trainees, and cytopathologists without impairing the diagnostic efficacy of the technique.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Specimen Handling/standards , /pathology , /transmission , Clinical Protocols/standards , Containment of Biohazards/trends , Histocytological Preparation Techniques/methods , Histocytological Preparation Techniques/standards , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital/trends , Liquid Biopsy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pathologists/standards , Pathology, Clinical/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Risk Factors , Specimen Handling/methods
10.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-656992

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Betacoronavirus , Masks/supply & distribution , Occupational Risks , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Masks/standards
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S48-S51, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609380

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 poses a great challenge to clinical and diagnostic services around the world. The need of biosafety practices can never be emphasised more than under current circumstances. The four pillars of biosafety namely, leadership, standard operating procedures, personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls must be employed for effective and safe practices in the clinical setting in general and laboratory settings in particular. Risk assessment must be carried out before meeting up the diagnostic challenge for COVID-19 and essential biorisk management measures are required to be taken. In our resource-poor settings, we need to adapt safe but cost-effective and improvised solutions to ensure safe handling of clinical samples from COVID-19 patients in the laboratories. The correct use of PPE and their suitable alternatives are available for selection and use. Disinfection of the lab areas and safe disposal of the clinical samples from such patients is also of paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Containment of Biohazards , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Laboratories/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment
12.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574875

ABSTRACT

Clinical samples collected in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), patients are commonly manipulated in biosafety level 2 laboratories for molecular diagnostic purposes. Here, we tested French norm NF-EN-14476+A2 derived from European standard EN-14885 to assess the risk of manipulating infectious viruses prior to RNA extraction. SARS-CoV-2 cell-culture supernatant and nasopharyngeal samples (virus-spiked samples and clinical samples collected in COVID-19 patients) were used to measure the reduction of infectivity after 10 minute contact with lysis buffer containing various detergents and chaotropic agents. A total of thirteen protocols were evaluated. Two commercially available formulations showed the ability to reduce infectivity by at least 6 log 10, whereas others proved less effective.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Chlorocebus aethiops , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
13.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(3): 143-151, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215983

ABSTRACT

As a result of the 2019 novel human coronavirus (COVID-19) global spread, medical examiner/coroner offices will inevitably encounter increased numbers of COVID-19-infected decedents at autopsy. While in some cases a history of fever and/or respiratory distress (eg, cough or shortness of breath) may suggest the diagnosis, epidemiologic studies indicate that the majority of individuals infected with COVID-19 develop mild to no symptoms. Those dying with-but not of-COVID-19 may still be infectious, however. While multiple guidelines have been issued regarding autopsy protocol in cases of suspected COVID-19 deaths, there is some variability in the recommendations. Additionally, limited recommendations to date have been issued regarding scene investigative protocol, and there is a paucity of publications characterizing COVID-19 postmortem gross and histologic findings. A case of sudden unexpected death due to COVID-19 is presented as a means of illustrating common autopsy findings, as well as diagnostic and biosafety considerations. We also review and summarize the current COVID-19 literature in an effort to provide practical evidence-based biosafety guidance for medical examiner-coroner offices encountering COVID-19 at autopsy.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/standards , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Mortuary Practice/methods , Mortuary Practice/standards , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Triage , United States
15.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 128(5): 317-320, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38690

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus pandemic, which started in Wuhan, China, spread around the globe with dramatic and lethal effects. From the initial Chinese epicenter, the European diaspora taxed the resources of several countries and especially those of Italy, which was forced into a complete social and economic shutdown. Infection by droplets contaminating hands and surfaces represents the main vehicle of diffusion of the virus. The common and strong efforts to contain the pandemic have relevant effects on the management of samples from histopathology laboratories. The current commentary reports and focuses on the protocols and guidelines in use at a large tertiary Italian hospital that accordingly are proposed for adoption in Italian laboratories as a potential model for national guidelines for the coronavirus emergency.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytological Techniques/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytological Techniques/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
16.
J Am Soc Cytopathol ; 9(3): 202-211, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15970

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The infection has predominantly respiratory transmission and is transmitted through large droplets or aerosols, and less commonly by contact with infected surfaces or fomites. The alarming spread of the infection and the severe clinical disease that it may cause have led to the widespread institution of social distancing measures. Because of repeated exposure to potentially infectious patients and specimens, health care and laboratory personnel are particularly susceptible to contract COVID-19. This review paper provides an assessment of the current state of knowledge about the disease and its pathology, and the potential presence of the virus in cytology specimens. It also discusses the measures that cytology laboratories can take to function during the pandemic, and minimize the risk to their personnel, trainees, and pathologists. In addition, it explores potential means to continue to educate trainees during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cell Biology/trends , Clinical Laboratory Services/standards , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Specimen Handling/standards , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Services/trends , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Safety , Specimen Handling/trends
18.
J Histotechnol ; 43(2): 102-104, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2831

ABSTRACT

The 2019 Coronavirus epidemic, provisionally called 2019-nCoV, was first identified in Wuhan, China, in persons exposed to a seafood or wet market. There is an international push to contain the virus and prevent its spread. It is feasible that potentially infectious samples may be received in histopathology laboratories for diagnosis. This technical note presents disinfection procedures and histotechnology processes that should alleviate the risk of infection to laboratory staff. Using data obtained from similar coronaviruses, e.g. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), experts are confident that 70% ethanol and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite should inactivate the virus. Formalin fixation and heating samples to 56oC, as used in routine tissue processing, were found to inactivate several coronaviruses and it is believed that 2019-nCoV would be similarly affected.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Disinfection/methods , Pandemics , Pathology, Clinical/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Disinfection/standards , Histological Techniques/standards , Humans , Laboratories/standards , Pathology, Clinical/standards
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