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1.
Womens Health Issues ; 33(3): 235-241, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237268

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented changes in care delivery across the pregnancy care continuum. Our primary objective with this research was to characterize the range of ways that the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic affected pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum care experiences. METHODS: Pregnant and recently pregnant patients (n = 20) from obstetrics and gynecology clinical sites associated with Massachusetts General Hospital were interviewed about their experiences with prenatal care, childbirth, and postpartum care during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes. RESULTS: This sample included 20 pregnant and postpartum people, including 11 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 during pregnancy or postpartum and nine with suspected infection. The ways in which COVID-19 or suspected COVID-19 affected experiences of prenatal care, childbirth, and postpartum care were complex and varied. Three themes were identified across narratives of pregnancy, birth, and postpartum care: patient perceptions of diminished access to care, stigma due to COVID-19 infection, and limited capacity of providers to honor patient preferences. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of pregnant and recently pregnant people's experiences during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic can inform infection control policies and clinical care delivery practices that are more congruent with the needs and values of pregnant, birthing, and postpartum people as institutions craft responses to future pandemics. Approaches that maximize meaningful access across the pregnancy care continuum, center patients' priorities within adapted care models, and honor patient preferences as much as possible are important aspects of an appropriate response to future waves of COVID-19 and other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pandemics , Continuity of Patient Care , Parturition , Postpartum Period
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234935

ABSTRACT

People released from prison experience high health needs and face barriers to health care in the community. During the COVID-19 pandemic, people released early from California state prisons to under-resourced communities. Historically, there has been minimal care coordination between prisons and community primary care. The Transitions Clinic Network (TCN), a community-based non-profit organization, supports a network of California primary care clinics in adopting an evidence-based model of care for returning community members. In 2020, TCN linked the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) and 21 TCN-affiliated clinics to create the Reentry Health Care Hub, supporting patient linkages to care post-release. From April 2020-August 2022, the Hub received 8420 referrals from CDCR to facilitate linkages to clinics offering medical, behavioral health, and substance use disorder services, as well as community health workers with histories of incarceration. This program description identifies care continuity components critical for reentry, including data sharing between carceral and community health systems, time and patient access for pre-release care planning, and investments in primary care resources. This collaboration is a model for other states, especially after the Medicaid Reentry Act and amid initiatives to improve care continuity for returning community members, like California's Medicaid waiver (CalAIM).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , United States , Humans , Prisons , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Continuity of Patient Care , California , Chronic Disease , Referral and Consultation
3.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(5): e13136, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328191

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remdesivir was only approved for hospitalized patients. Our institution developed hospital-based, outpatient infusion centers for selected hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who had clinical improvement to allow for early dismissal. The outcomes of patients who transitioned to complete remdesivir in the outpatient setting were examined. Methods: Retrospective study of all hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 who received at least one dose of remdesivir from November 6, 2020, to November 5, 2021, at one of the Mayo Clinic hospitals. Results: Among 3029 hospitalized patients who received treatment with remdesivir for COVID-19, the majority (89.5%) completed the recommended 5-day course. Among them, 2169 (80%) patients completed treatment during hospitalization, whereas 542 (20.0%) patients were dismissed to complete remdesivir in outpatient infusion centers. Patients who completed the treatment in the outpatient setting had lower odds of death within 28 days (aOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.06-0.32, p < 0.001). However, their rate of subsequent hospital encounters within 30 days was higher (aHR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.79, p = 0.002). Among patients treated with remdesivir only in the inpatient setting, the adjusted odds of death within 28 days were significantly higher among those who did not complete the 5-day course of remdesivir (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.45-2.95, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study describes the clinical outcomes of a strategy of transitioning remdesivir therapy from inpatient to outpatient among selected patients. Mortality was lower among patients who completed the 5-day course of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Continuity of Patient Care
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(8)2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321695

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the architecture of a low-cost smart crutches system for mobile health applications. The prototype is based on a set of sensorized crutches connected to a custom Android application. Crutches were instrumented with a 6-axis inertial measurement unit, a uniaxial load cell, WiFi connectivity, and a microcontroller for data collection and processing. Crutch orientation and applied force were calibrated with a motion capture system and a force platform. Data are processed and visualized in real-time on the Android smartphone and are stored on the local memory for further offline analysis. The prototype's architecture is reported along with the post-calibration accuracy for estimating crutch orientation (5° RMSE in dynamic conditions) and applied force (10 N RMSE). The system is a mobile-health platform enabling the design and development of real-time biofeedback applications and continuity of care scenarios, such as telemonitoring and telerehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Humans , Biomechanical Phenomena , Smartphone , Continuity of Patient Care , Gait
5.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(S1): S46-S53, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297934

ABSTRACT

Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States are at elevated risk for HIV relative to their heterosexual and/or non-BMSM counterparts, yet on average demonstrate suboptimal HIV care linkage and rates of HIV primary care retention. From October 2019 to December 2020, 69 adult (i.e., aged 18-65) BMSM enrolled in Building Brothers Up (2BU), a 6-session peer case management intervention delivered across 3 months and designed to improve retention in HIV primary care through to full viral suppression. Peer case management sessions included detailed assessment of participants' needs and barriers to treatment, which led to the development of a participant-centered treatment plan. All participants self-identified as Black, about three-quarters self-identified as gay (72.5%), and 46.4% reported an annual income of $5000 or less. A total of 69 participants enrolled in 2BU; however, multiply imputed chained equation logistic regressions were carried out on the final analytical data set (n = 40; 99 imputations) due to a large amount of COVID-19-related missing data. Although analyses of retention and achievement of viral suppression did not reach full significance, the probability of a Type-II hypothesis testing error was high, and viral load results (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-2.60; p = 0.08) suggested that increased attendance to peer case management sessions may be associated with improved odds of achieving full viral suppression among BMSM. The significant impact of national race-related civil unrest and the COVID-19 pandemic on the target population during implementation of 2BU is underscored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Black or African American , Case Management , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Siblings , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Healthc Qual ; 45(3): 169-176, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The necessary suspension of nonacute services by healthcare systems early in the COVID-19 pandemic was predicted to cause delays in routine care in the United States, with potentially serious consequences for chronic disease management. However, limited work has examined provider or patient perspectives about care delays and their implications for care quality in future healthcare emergencies. OBJECTIVE: This study explores primary care provider (PCP) and patient experiences with healthcare delays during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: PCPs and patients were recruited from four large healthcare systems in three states. Participants underwent semistructured interviews asking about their experiences with primary care and telemedicine. Data were analyzed using interpretive description. RESULTS: Twenty-one PCPs and 65 patients participated in interviews. Four main topics were identified: (1) types of care delayed, (2) causes for delays, (3) miscommunication contributing to delays, and (4) patient solutions to unmet care needs. CONCLUSIONS: Both patients and providers reported delays in preventive and routine care early in the pandemic, driven by healthcare system changes and patient concerns about infection risk. Primary care practices should develop plans for care continuity and consider new strategies for assessing care quality for effective chronic disease management in future healthcare system disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Continuity of Patient Care , Chronic Disease , Patient Outcome Assessment
7.
Med Care ; 61(Suppl 1): S62-S69, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community health centers (CHCs) pivoted to using telehealth to deliver chronic care during the coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic. While care continuity can improve care quality and patients' experiences, it is unclear whether telehealth supported this relationship. OBJECTIVE: We examine the association of care continuity with diabetes and hypertension care quality in CHCs before and during COVID-19 and the mediating effect of telehealth. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Electronic health record data from 166 CHCs with n=20,792 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension with ≥2 encounters/year during 2019 and 2020. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the association of care continuity (Modified Modified Continuity Index; MMCI) with telehealth use and care processes. Generalized linear regression models estimated the association of MMCI and intermediate outcomes. Formal mediation analyses assessed whether telehealth mediated the association of MMCI with A1c testing during 2020. RESULTS: MMCI [2019: odds ratio (OR)=1.98, marginal effect=0.69, z=165.50, P<0.001; 2020: OR=1.50, marginal effect=0.63, z=147.73, P<0.001] and telehealth use (2019: OR=1.50, marginal effect=0.85, z=122.87, P<0.001; 2020: OR=10.00, marginal effect=0.90, z=155.57, P<0.001) were associated with higher odds of A1c testing. MMCI was associated with lower systolic (ß=-2.90, P<0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (ß=-1.44, P<0.001) in 2020, and lower A1c values (2019: ß=-0.57, P=0.007; 2020: ß=-0.45, P=0.008) in both years. In 2020, telehealth use mediated 38.7% of the relationship between MMCI and A1c testing. CONCLUSIONS: Higher care continuity is associated with telehealth use and A1c testing, and lower A1c and blood pressure. Telehealth use mediates the association of care continuity and A1c testing. Care continuity may facilitate telehealth use and resilient performance on process measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Telemedicine , Humans , Cohort Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Continuity of Patient Care , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Community Health Centers
9.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 41(4): 176-181, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245338

ABSTRACT

. A model of continuity of care for not residents through medical-nursing teleconsultation in a Hub & Spoke network. INTRODUCTION: The Seasonal Continuity of Care (CAS) is a service of the Bergamo Health Protection Agency that provides medical and healthcare services, guaranteeing outpatient or home care to Italian and foreign tourists and seasonal workers during the months of July and August. The Covid-19 pandemic and the shortage of doctors made it impossible to provide the service in 2021 as in previous summer seasons. AIMS: To activate a CAS service with the involvement of nurses. METHODS: A "Hub-Spoke" network model was activated; nurses in the Spoke sites, with the patient in attendance, through teleconsultation by video call, made remote contact with a doctor in the Hub. RESULTS: In the 3 Spoke CASs, from 2 to 22 August 2021, 274 services (of which 14.3% were teleconsultations between the nurse at the Spoke CAS site and the doctor at the Hub site) and 162 repeat prescription requests were made. Teleconsultation was mainly performed for patients with acute pathology (71.8%), mainly for arthralgia and fever. In the majority of cases, it was sufficient to answer to the needs of the patient (87.2%); a small number of cases were referred to a doctor's appointment (10.3%) or to Emergency Department (2.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Nurse triage reduced the time of medical visits, allowing more patients to be taken care of. The need for digital infrastructure, training and integration with district services emerged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Humans , Pandemics , Continuity of Patient Care , Italy
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1018060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224907

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 has disrupted the health and socioeconomic sectors, particularly in resource-poor settings such as Guinea. Like many sub-Saharan countries, Guinea is facing shortcomings related to its fragile health system and is further affected by the passage of the Ebola virus disease. The pandemic has worsened the socio-economic situation of the poorest people, leading to their exclusion from health care. To promote access to care for the most vulnerable populations, a system was set up to provide care for these people who are victims of health marginalization to promote their access to care. This study aimed to analyze access to health services by vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Guinea through the establishment of a health indigent fund (HIF). Methods: This was a qualitative study to assess the project implementation process. A total of 73 in-depth individual interviews were conducted with beneficiaries, health workers, community health workers and members of the HIF management committee, and a few informal observations and conversions were also conducted in the project intervention areas. The data collected were transcribed and coded using the deductive and inductive approaches with the Nvivo software before applying the thematic analysis. Results: A total of 1,987 indigents were identified, of which 1,005 were cared for and 64 referred to all 38 intervention health facilities within the framework of the HIF. All participants appreciated the project's social action to promote access to equitable and quality health care for this population excluded from health care services. In addition, the project has generated waves of compassion and solidarity toward these "destitute" people whose main barrier to accessing health care remains extreme poverty. A state of poverty that leads some to sell their assets (food or animal reserves) or to go into debt to ensure access to care for their children, considered the most at risk. Conclusion: The HIF can be seen as an honest attempt to provide better access to health care for the most vulnerable groups. Some challenges need to be addressed including the current system of acquiring funds before the attempt can be considered scalable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Management , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Guinea/epidemiology , Poverty , Community Health Workers , Continuity of Patient Care
11.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 30(4): 674-682, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The onset of COVID-19 and related policy responses made it difficult to study interactive health informatics solutions in clinical study settings. Instrumented log and event data from interactive systems capture temporal details that can be used to generate insights about care continuity during ongoing pandemics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate user interactions with a digital health wallet (DHW) system for addressing care continuity challenges in chronic disease management in the context of an ongoing pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed user interaction log data generated by clinicians, nurses, and patients from the deployment of a DHW in a feasibility study conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kenya. We used the Hamming distance from Information Theory to quantify deviations of usage patterns extracted from the events data from predetermined workflow sequences supported by the platform. RESULTS: Nurses interacted with all the user interface elements relevant to triage. Clinicians interacted with only 43% of elements relevant to consultation, while patients interacted with 67% of the relevant user interface elements. Nurses and clinicians deviated from the predetermined workflow sequences by 42% and 36%, respectively. Most deviations pertained to users going back to previous steps in their usage workflow. CONCLUSIONS: User interaction log analysis is a valuable alternative method for generating and quantifying user experiences in the context of ongoing pandemics. However, researchers should mitigate the potential disruptions of the actual use of the studied technologies as well as use multiple approaches to investigate user experiences of health technology during pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Continuity of Patient Care , Triage , Feasibility Studies
12.
Int J Med Inform ; 172: 105003, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, chronic patients are at a higher risk of contamination with the virus. Specific strategies are required to restrict these patients' exposure to contaminated areas and improve medication adherence. One suggested strategy is tele-visiting, which is effective for the continuity of care and medication adherence during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the effect of tele-visiting services via telephone on chronic patients' medication adherence before and after implementing a tele-visit program during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: All patients received the tele-visit twice on the phone during the study. To compare patients' medication adherence in face-to-face visits and tele-visit, an adapted version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 was used. Paired-samples T-test was run to measure participants' medication adherence before and after the tele-visit program. RESULTS: The tele-visit was run for 314 patients. The participants' adherence score before the intervention was 60.02, and after the intervention was 59.9. As the paired-sample T-test results showed, the difference between these two was not statistically significant. Moreover, medication adherence was not significantly associated with any of these variables: BMI, occupation, comorbidities, duration of disease, age, gender, marital status, and education level. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings showed that chronic patients' medication adherence did not differ significantly in face-to-face visits and tele-visiting. During the Covid-19 pandemic, due to the effectiveness of tele-visiting services, they can be used effectively to lower the transmission rate of the disease and reduce healthcare providers' burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medication Adherence , Humans , Comorbidity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Continuity of Patient Care , Telemedicine
13.
Natl Med J India ; 35(3): 142-146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2156077

ABSTRACT

Background The Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown in India caused disruptions in cancer treatment due to the restriction on movement of patients. We aimed to maintain continuity in cancer treatment during the lockdown through teleconsultations. We tried to reach out to our patients using telephonic consultations by establishing a Teleconsult Centre facility run by a team of doctors and patient navigators. Methods We telephonically contacted all patients who had outpatient appointments from 23 March to 30 April 2020 at our centre through the Teleconsult Centre to understand their current circumstances, feasibility of follow-up, local resources and offered best possible alternatives to continue cancer treatment, if required. Results Of the 2686 patients scheduled for follow-up during this period, we could contact 1783 patients in 9 working days. Through teleconsultations, we could defer follow-ups of 1034 patients (57.99%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55.6%-60.3%), thus reducing the need for patients to travel to the hospital. Change in systemic therapy was made in 75 patients (4.2%, 95% CI 3.3%-5.2%) as per the requirements and available resources. Symptoms suggestive of disease progression were picked up in 12 patients (0.67%, 95% CI 0.35%-1.17%), who were advised to meet local physicians. Conclusion Our study suggests that the majority of patients on follow-up can be managed with teleconsultation in times of crisis. Teleconsultation has the potential of being one of the standard methods of patient follow-up even during periods of normalcy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , India/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(6): 1053-1061, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129802

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As the first step in the HIV care continuum, timely diagnosis is central to reducing transmission of the virus and ending the HIV epidemic. Studies have shown that distance from a testing site is essential for ease of access to services and educational material. This study shows how location-allocation analysis can be used to improve allocation of HIV testing services utilizing existing publicly available data from 2015 to 2019 on HIV prevalence, testing site location, and factors related to HIV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: The ArcGIS Location-Allocation analytic tool was used to calculate locations for HIV testing sites using a method that minimizes the distance between demand-point locations and service facilities. ZIP code level demand was initially specified on the basis of the percentage of late HIV diagnoses and in a sensitivity analysis on the basis of a composite of multiple factors. Travel time and distance from demand to facilities determined the facility location allocation. This analysis was conducted from 2021 to 2022. RESULTS: Compared with the 37 facilities located in 20 (43%) Philadelphia ZIP codes, the model proposed reallocating testing facilities to 37 (79%) ZIP codes using percent late diagnoses to define demand. On average, this would reduce distance to the facilities by 65% and travel time to the facilities by 56%. Results using the sensitivity analysis were similar. CONCLUSIONS: A wider distribution of HIV testing services across the city of Philadelphia may reduce distance and travel time to facilities, improve accessibility of testing, and in turn increase the percentage of people with knowledge of their status.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections , Humans , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Knowledge , Travel , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
15.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 297, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained, routine care is vital to the health of people with HIV (PWH) and decreasing transmission of HIV. We evaluated whether the identification of PWH at-risk of falling out of care and prompts for outreach were effective in retaining PWH in care in the United States. METHODS: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, 20 AIDS Healthcare Foundation Healthcare Centers (HCCs) were randomized to the intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) arm; all maintained existing retention efforts. The intervention included daily automated flags in CHORUS™, a mobile app and web-based reporting solution utilizing electronic health record data, that identified PWH at-risk of falling out of care to clinic staff. Among flagged PWH, the association between the intervention and visits after a flag was assessed using logistic regression models fit with generalized estimating equations (independent correlation structure) to account for clustering. To adjust for differences between HCCs, models included geographic region, number of PWH at HCC, and proportions of PWH who self-identified as Hispanic or had the Ryan White Program as a payer. RESULTS: Of 15,875 PWH in care, 56% were flagged; 76% (intervention) and 75% (control) resulted in a visit, of which 76% were within 2 months of the flag. In adjusted analyses, flags had higher odds of being followed by a visit (odds ratio [OR]: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 1.21) or a visit within 2 months (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.17) at intervention than control HCCs. Among at-risk PWH with viral loads at baseline and study end, the proportion with < 50 copies/mL increased in both study arms, but more so at intervention (65% to 74%) than control (62% to 67%) HCCs. CONCLUSION: Despite challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, adding an intervention to existing retention efforts, and the reality that behavior change takes time, PWH flagged as at-risk of falling out of care were marginally more likely to return for care at intervention than control HCCs and a greater proportion achieved undetectability. Sustained use of the retention module in CHORUS™ has the potential to streamline retention efforts, retain more PWH in care, and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was first registered at Clinical Trials.gov (NCT04147832, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04147832 ) on 01/11/2019.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections , Retention in Care , Humans , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Decision Support Systems, Clinical
16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 16(6): 768-774, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113810

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine the differences in the continuity of health care for type 2 diabetic patients before and during COVID pandemic in family medicine depending on whether the physician who provided care finished vocational training in family medicine or not. METHODS: This retrospective longitudinal research lasted from 2018 to 2020 in eight family medicine practices on 648 patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before 2018, and without Sars-Cov2 infection in previous medical history in Zagreb, Croatia. Follow-up parameters (HbA1c, LDL, eGFR, blood pressure, BMI, eye fundus and neurological findings, number of check-ups and vaccination against the flu) were noted before (2018, 2019), and in the COVID period (2020) in the care of family medicine specialists (FMPs) and without it (FMPws). RESULTS: No differences were found between the gender and age of patients. A decrease was seen in existing laboratory findings (64-47%, P < 0.001), eye fundus check-ups (39-37%, P = NS), neurologist check-ups (28-25%, P = NS) and FMP check-ups (382-321, P < 0.001) during the COVID period with significant differences between FMPs and FMPws. Significant changes were seen in LDL cholesterol (2.7-2.4 mmol/L, P < 0.001) and eGFR (83-80 ml/min/1.73 m2, P = 0.002), but BMI, blood pressure and HbA1c (>7% had 42% of patients) values did not differ during the COVID period. CONCLUSION: According to the observed parameters, the continuity of care for diabetic patients in Zagreb has worsened during the COVID pandemic but remained significantly better in care of FMPs than in FMPws, without differences in achieving target values of follow-up parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycated Hemoglobin , Croatia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Primary Health Care , Continuity of Patient Care
17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(1): 89-92, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096391
18.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276461, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare utilization decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, likely due to reduced transmission of infections and healthcare avoidance. Though various investigations have described these changing patterns in children, most have analyzed specific care settings. We compared healthcare utilization, prescriptions, and diagnosis patterns in children across the care continuum during the first year of the pandemic with preceding years. STUDY DESIGN: Using national claims data, we compared enrollees under 18 years during the pre-pandemic (January 2016 -mid-March 2020) and pandemic (mid-March 2020 through March 2021) periods. The pandemic was further divided into early (mid-March through mid-June 2020) and middle (mid-June 2020 through March 2021) periods. Utilization was compared using interrupted time series. RESULTS: The mean number of pediatric enrollees/month was 2,519,755 in the pre-pandemic and 2,428,912 in the pandemic period. Utilization decreased across all settings in the early pandemic, with the greatest decrease (76.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 72.6-80.5%) seen for urgent care visits. Only well visits returned to pre-pandemic rates during the mid-pandemic. Hospitalizations decreased by 43% (95% CI 37.4-48.1) during the early pandemic and were still 26.6% (17.7-34.6) lower mid-pandemic. However, hospitalizations in non-psychiatric facilities for various mental health disorders increased substantially mid-pandemic. CONCLUSION: Healthcare utilization in children dropped substantially during the first year of the pandemic, with a shift away from infectious diseases and a spike in mental health hospitalizations. These findings are important to characterize as we monitor the health of children, can be used to inform healthcare strategies during subsequent COVID-19 surges and/or future pandemics, and may help identify training gaps for pediatric trainees. Subsequent investigations should examine how changes in healthcare utilization impacted the incidence and outcomes of specific diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Ambulatory Care , Continuity of Patient Care , Retrospective Studies
19.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(3): 203-210, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078019

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a critical impact on healthcare systems across the world, as well as on mental health in the general population; however, evidence regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with schizophrenia and on the onset of psychotic symptoms is currently emerging. RECENT FINDINGS: People living with schizophrenia are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and present worse COVID-19-related outcomes, including mortality. They show low levels of information and of concern regarding the possibility of contagion and infection but presented substantially stable levels of psychotic symptoms and even increased subjective well being during the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2, as well as the prolonged social isolation and the spread of misinformation, appear to be responsible in some cases for the onset of psychotic symptoms. SUMMARY: Clinicians should inform and educate their patients on the risks related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 and on the precautions that they should adopt to avoid contagion. Particular attention should be devoted to maintaining the continuity of care, especially in frail patients. Telemedicine might represent a valid support, but face-to-face visits in some cases remain essential. The hypothesis of a direct role of viral infection on the onset of psychotic disorders is currently debated, as viral involvement of central nervous system appears to be rather infrequent in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia , Telemedicine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Schizophrenia/therapy
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 465, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Care continuum models (also known as care cascade models) are used by researchers and health system planners to identify potential gaps or disparities in healthcare, but these models have limited applications to complex or chronic clinical conditions. Cyclical continuum models that integrate more complex clinical information and that are displayed using circular data visualization tools may help to overcome these limitations. We performed proof-of-concept cyclical continuum modeling for one such group of conditions-musculoskeletal infections-and assessed for racial and ethnic disparities across the complex care process related to these infections. METHODS: Cyclical continuum modeling was performed in a diverse, retrospective cohort of 1648 patients with musculoskeletal infections, including osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and/or infectious myositis, in the University of New Mexico Health System. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative odds of each element or outcome of care in the continuum. Results were visualized using circularized, map-like images depicting the continuum of care. RESULTS: Racial and ethnic disparities differed at various phases in the care process. Hispanic/Latinx patients had evidence of healthcare disparities across the continuum, including diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61, 2.60 compared to a white non-Hispanic reference category]; osteomyelitis (OR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.63); and amputation (OR 1.48; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.00). Native American patients had evidence of disparities early in the continuum (diabetes mellitus OR 3.59, 95% CI: 2.63, 4.89; peripheral vascular disease OR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.45, 4.30; osteomyelitis OR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.95) yet lower odds of later-stage complications (amputation OR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.69, 1.52). African American/Black non-Hispanic patients had higher odds of primary risk factors (diabetes mellitus OR 2.70; 95% CI: 1.41, 5.19; peripheral vascular disease OR 4.96; 95% CI: 2.06, 11.94) and later-stage outcomes (amputation OR 2.74; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.45) but not intervening, secondary risk factors (osteomyelitis OR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.48). CONCLUSIONS: By identifying different structural and clinical barriers to care that may be experienced by groups of patients interacting with the healthcare system, cyclical continuum modeling may be useful for the study of healthcare disparities.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities , White People , Continuity of Patient Care , Ethnicity , Humans , Mexico , Retrospective Studies , United States
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