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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(7)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785898

ABSTRACT

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) telemonitoring (TMg) has become widely implemented in routine clinical care. Objective measures of CPAP compliance, residual respiratory events, and leaks can be easily monitored, but limitations exist. This review aims to assess the role of TMg in CPAP-treated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. We report recent data related to the accuracy of parameters measured by CPAP and try to determine the role of TMg in CPAP treatment follow-up, from the perspective of both healthcare professionals and patients. Measurement and accuracy of CPAP-recorded data, clinical management of these data, and impacts of TMg on therapy are reviewed in light of the current literature. Moreover, the crucial questions of who and how to monitor are discussed. TMg is a useful tool to support, fine-tune, adapt, and control both CPAP efficacy and compliance in newly-diagnosed OSA patients. However, clinicians should be aware of the limits of the accuracy of CPAP devices to measure residual respiratory events and leaks and issues such as privacy and cost-effectiveness are still a matter of concern. The best methods to focus our efforts on the patients who need TMg support should be properly defined in future long-term studies.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Patient Compliance , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy
2.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 46, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacts Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) adherence over the long-term is unknown and only preliminary short-term data have been reported. METHODS: With the aim of describing the impact of the first and second waves of COVID-19 on PAP adherence during 2020 in France, we designed a cross-sectional study of Sleep-Apnea (SA)-patients under PAP telemonitoring. To examine PAP adherence in adult SA patients, we assessed de-identified data from a non-profit healthcare provider database during the period January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020. Included patients met the following criteria: (i) PAP-treated for at least 4 months before January 1, 2019 and with continuous PAP during both 2019 and 2020; (ii) ≥ 360 daily PAP telemonitored data per year. For PAP adherence, data were collected using the PAP-software. RESULTS: 8477/10482 patients were finally included in the analysis [72.4% male, median age 70 years (IQ25-75: 61-77], 25.6% < 62 years old, initial Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) of 41 (31-59)/h. Median PAP adherence was 7.21 (6.12-8.10) h/day in 2020 versus 7.12 (6.05-8.02) h/day in 2019, p < 0.001. The median difference in PAP adherence between the first 2020 lockdown and the corresponding 2019 weeks was 9.75 (CI95% 8.75-10.75) min/day, p < 0.001. The median difference in PAP adherence between the second 2020 lockdown and the corresponding 2019 weeks was 5.00 (CI95% 4.00-6.00) min/day, p < 0.001. If we consider the minimal clinically important difference of 30 min for PAP adherence, 30.4% and 26% of the patients increased their PAP adherence by at least 30 min during the first and second lockdowns respectively; 17.6% and 19.3% of the patients lowered their PAP adherence by at least 30 min in the first and second lockdowns, respectively. CONCLUSION: During the first and second lockdowns, the COVID-19 pandemic had a clinically irrelevant effect on PAP adherence for the study population. Future studies are needed to describe COVID-19 pandemic impact on PAP adherence not only for long-term PAP-treated SA patients but also for incident cases. Trial registration The COVADENE study was registered on March 1st, 2021 on ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04775966).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Pandemics , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Aged , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Polysomnography , Retrospective Studies , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early COVID-19 pandemic travel in Uganda was tightly restricted which affected demand for and access to care for pregnant women and small and sick newborns. In this study we describe changes to neonatal outcomes in one rural central Ugandan newborn unit before and during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We report outcomes from admissions captured in an electronic dataset of a well-established newborn unit before (September 2019 to March 2020) and during the early COVID-19 period (April-September 2020) as well as two seasonally matched periods one year prior. We report excess mortality as the percent change in mortality over what was expected based on seasonal trends. FINDINGS: The study included 2,494 patients, 567 of whom were admitted during the early COVID-19 period. During the pandemic admissions decreased by 14%. Patients born outside the facility were older on admission than previously (median 1 day of age vs. admission on the day of birth). There was an increase in admissions with birth asphyxia (22% vs. 15% of patients). Mortality was higher during COVID-19 than previously [16% vs. 11%, p = 0.017]. Patients born outside the facility had a relative increase of 55% above seasonal expected mortality (21% vs. 14%, p = 0.028). During this period patients had decreased antenatal care, restricted transport and difficulty with expenses and support. The hospital had difficulty with maternity staffing and supplies. There was significant community and staff fear of COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Increased newborn mortality during the early COVID-19 pandemic at this facility was likely attributed to disruptions affecting maternal and newborn demand for, access to and quality of perinatal healthcare. Lockdown conditions and restrictions to public transit were significant barriers to maternal and newborn wellbeing, and require further focus by national and regional health officials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals, Rural/statistics & numerical data , Infant Mortality , Adult , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Female , Hospitals, Rural/organization & administration , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Maternal Age , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Chest ; 160(1): 175-186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may endanger health care professionals. Various circuit setups have been described to reduce virus aerosolization. However, these setups may alter ventilator performance. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the consequences of the various suggested circuit setups on ventilator efficacy during CPAP and noninvasive ventilation (NIV)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight circuit setups were evaluated on a bench test model that consisted of a three-dimensional printed head and an artificial lung. Setups included a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask, a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface, a single-limb circuit with a passive exhalation valve, three single-limb circuits with custom-made additional leaks, and two single-limb circuits with active exhalation valves. All setups were evaluated during NIV and CPAP. The following variables were recorded: the inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator, the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator, the triggering delay, the maximal inspiratory pressure delivered by the ventilator, the tidal volume generated to the artificial lung, the total work of breathing, and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator. RESULTS: With NIV, the type of circuit setup had a significant impact on inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator (P < .0001), the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001), the triggering delay (P < .0001), the maximal inspiratory pressure (P < .0001), the tidal volume (P = .0008), the work of breathing (P < .0001), and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001). Similar differences and consequences were seen with CPAP as well as with the addition of bacterial filters. Best performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask. Worst performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface. INTERPRETATION: Ventilator performance is significantly impacted by the circuit setup. A dual-limb circuit with oronasal mask should be used preferentially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Air Filters , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Critical Pathways/standards , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Research Design , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
5.
Thorax ; 77(3): 259-267, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) and high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) are considered 'aerosol-generating procedures' in the treatment of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To measure air and surface environmental contamination with SARS-CoV-2 virus when CPAP and HFNO are used, compared with supplemental oxygen, to investigate the potential risks of viral transmission to healthcare workers and patients. METHODS: 30 hospitalised patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen, with a fraction of inspired oxygen ≥0.4 to maintain oxygen saturation ≥94%, were prospectively enrolled into an observational environmental sampling study. Participants received either supplemental oxygen, CPAP or HFNO (n=10 in each group). A nasopharyngeal swab, three air and three surface samples were collected from each participant and the clinical environment. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed for viral and human RNA, and positive/suspected-positive samples were cultured for the presence of biologically viable virus. RESULTS: Overall 21/30 (70%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharynx. In contrast, only 4/90 (4%) and 6/90 (7%) of all air and surface samples tested positive (positive for E and ORF1a) for viral RNA respectively, although there were an additional 10 suspected-positive samples in both air and surfaces samples (positive for E or ORF1a). CPAP/HFNO use or coughing was not associated with significantly more environmental contamination than supplemental oxygen use. Only one nasopharyngeal sample was culture positive. CONCLUSIONS: The use of CPAP and HFNO to treat moderate/severe COVID-19 did not appear to be associated with substantially higher levels of air or surface viral contamination in the immediate care environment, compared with the use of supplemental oxygen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Humans , RNA, Viral
6.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(6): 627-634, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with delivery room respiratory support in at-risk infants who are initially vigorous and received delayed cord clamping (DCC). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Two perinatal centres in Melbourne, Australia. PATIENTS: At-risk infants born at ≥35+0 weeks gestation with a paediatric doctor in attendance who were initially vigorous and received DCC for >60 s. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delivery room respiratory support defined as facemask positive pressure ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure and/or supplemental oxygen within 10 min of birth. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-eight infants born at a median (IQR) gestational age of 39+3 (38+2-40+2) weeks were included. Cord clamping occurred at a median (IQR) of 128 (123-145) s. Forty-four (15%) infants received respiratory support at a median of 214 (IQR 156-326) s after birth. Neonatal unit admission for respiratory distress occurred in 32% of infants receiving delivery room respiratory support vs 1% of infants who did not receive delivery room respiratory support (p<0.001). Risk factors independently associated with delivery room respiratory support were average heart rate (HR) at 90-120 s after birth (determined using three-lead ECG), mode of birth and time to establish regular cries. Decision tree analysis identified that infants at highest risk had an average HR of <165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth following caesarean section (risk of 39%). Infants with an average HR of ≥165 beats per minute at 90-120 s after birth were at low risk (5%). CONCLUSIONS: We present a clinical decision pathway for at-risk infants who may benefit from close observation following DCC. Our findings provide a novel perspective of HR beyond the traditional threshold of 100 beats per minute.


Subject(s)
Critical Pathways/standards , Delivery, Obstetric , Electrocardiography/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Umbilical Cord , Australia/epidemiology , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Constriction , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Heart Rate , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data
8.
Chest ; 160(1): 175-186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may endanger health care professionals. Various circuit setups have been described to reduce virus aerosolization. However, these setups may alter ventilator performance. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the consequences of the various suggested circuit setups on ventilator efficacy during CPAP and noninvasive ventilation (NIV)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight circuit setups were evaluated on a bench test model that consisted of a three-dimensional printed head and an artificial lung. Setups included a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask, a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface, a single-limb circuit with a passive exhalation valve, three single-limb circuits with custom-made additional leaks, and two single-limb circuits with active exhalation valves. All setups were evaluated during NIV and CPAP. The following variables were recorded: the inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator, the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator, the triggering delay, the maximal inspiratory pressure delivered by the ventilator, the tidal volume generated to the artificial lung, the total work of breathing, and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator. RESULTS: With NIV, the type of circuit setup had a significant impact on inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator (P < .0001), the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001), the triggering delay (P < .0001), the maximal inspiratory pressure (P < .0001), the tidal volume (P = .0008), the work of breathing (P < .0001), and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001). Similar differences and consequences were seen with CPAP as well as with the addition of bacterial filters. Best performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask. Worst performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface. INTERPRETATION: Ventilator performance is significantly impacted by the circuit setup. A dual-limb circuit with oronasal mask should be used preferentially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Air Filters , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Critical Pathways/standards , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Research Design , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
10.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(4): e392-e394, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No published protocol to guide the withdrawal of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with COVID-19 exists. CASE SERIES: Description of the introduction of a novel protocol, developed by consensus to guide the withdrawal of CPAP for patients diagnosed as dying with COVID-19 in an acute hospital. OUTCOME: 19 patients died on the high-dependency respiratory unit following treatment with CPAP. 89% died with CPAP withdrawn. The dying trajectory was difficult to predict. Symptoms were managed promptly and effectively with a combination of opioids, benzodiazepines and close medical supervision. No concerns were raised by families regarding the decision making or withdrawal process. DISCUSSION: The use of the protocol ensures a comfortable and dignified death and supports the delivery of individualised care at the end of life. Future research on this topic should focus on qualitative outcomes and consider the applicability of this protocol in other patient groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 144, 2021 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus associated with high mortality rates. The use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) has been recognised as a management option for severe COVID-19 (NHS, Specialty guides for patient management during the coronavirus pandemic Guidance for the role and use of non-invasive respiratory support in adult patients with coronavirus (confirmed or suspected), https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng159 ). We offered ward-based CPAP to COVID-19, dialysis patients not suitable for escalation to ICU. The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of CPAP for COVID-19 dialysis patients compared to non-dialysis COVID-19 patients outside of the intensive care setting. We further aimed to investigate factors associated with improved outcomes. METHODS: Data was collected from a single centre (Royal Preston Hospital, UK), from March to June 2020. Treatment outcomes were compared for dialysis and non-dialysis dependent patients who received CPAP with limitations on their escalation and resuscitation status. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models were used to compare outcomes. The primary study outcome was 30 day mortality. Confounders including length of admission, systemic anticoagulation and ultrafiltration volumes on dialysis were also analysed. RESULTS: Over the study period, 40 dialysis patients tested positive for COVID-19, with 30 requiring hospital admission. 93% (n = 28) required supplementary oxygen and 12% (n = 9) required CPAP on the ward. These patients were compared to a serial selection of 14 non-dialysis patients treated with CPAP during the same period. Results showed a significant difference in 30 day survival rates between the two groups: 88.9% in the dialysis group vs. 21.4% in the non-dialysis group. Statistical modelling showed that anticoagulation was also an important factor and correlated with better outcomes. CONCLUSION: This is to the best of our knowledge, the largest series of COVID-19 dialysis patients treated with CPAP in a ward-based setting. In general, dialysis dependent patients have multiple co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus making them vulnerable to COVID-19 and not always suitable for treatment in ICU. We showed a significantly lower 30 day mortality rate with the use of CPAP in the dialysis group (11.1%) compared to the non-dialysis group (78.6%). Despite a small sample size, we believe this study provides impetus for further work clarifying the role of CPAP in treating COVID-19 dialysis dependent patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Units , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nephrology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
12.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(2): 197-202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191093

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently considered a significant threat to global health and global economy. This new rapidly spreading virus causes enormous stress to healthcare systems as large number of patients present with respiratory failure, needing intubation and mechanical ventilation. While the industry is racing to meet the rising demand for ventilators, all the alternative respiratory support modalities are employed to save lives in hospitals around the globe. We hereby report 6 patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 and treated with continuous positive airway pressure in a negative pressure isolated room in a tertiary center in western Greece. The rapid progression of mild flu-like symptoms to respiratory failure in all patients was controlled with the use of continuous positive airway pressure making this strategy a reasonable alternative to respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2 as it may avert intubation and mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Greece , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5559, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125054

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for noninvasive respiratory support devices has dramatically increased, sometimes exceeding hospital capacity. The full-face Decathlon snorkeling mask, EasyBreath (EB mask), has been adapted to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as an emergency respiratory interface. We aimed to assess the performance of this modified EB mask and to test its use during different gas mixture supplies. CPAP set at 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O was delivered to 10 healthy volunteers with a high-flow system generator set at 40, 80, and 120 L min-1 and with a turbine-driven ventilator during both spontaneous and loaded (resistor) breathing. Inspiratory CO2 partial pressure (PiCO2), pressure inside the mask, breathing pattern and electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) were measured at all combinations of CPAP/flows delivered, with and without the resistor. Using the high-flow generator set at 40 L min-1, the PiCO2 significantly increased and the system was unable to maintain the target CPAP of 10 and 15 cmH2O and a stable pressure within the respiratory cycle; conversely, the turbine-driven ventilator did. EAdi significantly increased with flow rates of 40 and 80 L min-1 but not at 120 L min-1 and with the turbine-driven ventilator. EB mask can be safely used to deliver CPAP only under strict constraints, using either a high-flow generator at a flow rate greater than 80 L min-1, or a high-performance turbine-driven ventilator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Adult , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Diving , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Masks , Pandemics , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilators, Mechanical
15.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 80, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge of patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is an effective interface to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) noninvasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). METHODS: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e., non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients' data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were included; 42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full treatment and 28% of the DNI patients (P < 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg (P < 0.001); respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P < 0.001). C-reactive protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO2/FiO2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04424992.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Treatment Outcome
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066838

ABSTRACT

We report a case of aortoenteric fistula 2 years following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for mycotic aneurysm presenting as upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Initial CT angiogram did not reveal the bleeding or connection to bowel, but endoscopy was suspicious of endograft in the duodenum. Management required a multidisciplinary approach. To stabilise the patient and to control bleeding, a 'bridging' endograft extension was performed. This was followed by open surgical removal of the EVAR endograft and lower limb in situ revascularisation. During postoperative recovery, the patient developed atypical, staged multisystemic symptoms (cardiac, pulmonary and neurological). With increasing awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic, the patient was found SARS-CoV-2-positive, which explained the progression of his symptoms. This was also reflected on other case reports in literature later.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Infected/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Intestinal Fistula/complications , Vascular Fistula/complications , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aorta/diagnostic imaging , Aorta/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Humans , Intestinal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Fistula/surgery , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Fistula/surgery
18.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(1): e14-e19, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043992

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore if chest X-ray severity, assessed using a validated scoring system, predicts patient outcome on admission and when starting continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP) for COVID-19. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective case-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: There were 163 patients with COVID-19 deemed candidates for CPAP on admission, including 58 who subsequently required CPAP. OUTCOME MEASURES: On admission, we measured the proportion of patients meeting a composite 'negative' outcome of requiring CPAP, intubation or dying versus successful ward-based care. For those escalated to CPAP, 'negative' outcomes were intubation or death versus successful de-escalation of respiratory support. RESULTS: Our results were stratified into tertiles, those with 'moderate' or 'severe' X-rays on admission had significantly higher odds of negative outcome versus 'mild' (odds ratio (OR) 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.121-4.803; p=0.023; and OR 3.600; 95% CI 1.681-7.708; p=0.001, respectively). This could not be demonstrated in those commencing CPAP (OR 0.976; 95% CI 0.754-1.264; p=0.856). CONCLUSIONS: We outline a scoring system to stratify X-rays by severity and directly link this to prognosis. However, we were unable to demonstrate this association in the patients commencing CPAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
19.
Pulmonology ; 27(4): 305-312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039538

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 related Acute Respiratory Failure, may be successfully treated with Conventional Oxygen therapy, High Flow Nasal Cannula, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure or Bi-level Positive-Pressure ventilation. Despite the accumulated data in favor of the use of different Non-invasive Respiratory therapies in COVID-19 related Acute Respiratory Failure, it is not fully understood when start, escalate and de-escalate the best respiratory supportive option for the different timing of the disease. Based on the current published experience with Non-invasive Respiratory therapies in COVID-19 related Acute Respiratory Failure, we propose an algorithm in deciding when to start, when to stop and when to wean different NIRT. This strategy may help clinicians in better choosing NIRT during this second COVID-19 wave and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Hypoxia/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Algorithms , Blood Gas Analysis , Cannula , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Patient Positioning , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Prone Position , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Emerg Med J ; 37(9): 565-566, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024248

ABSTRACT

We report the experience of prone ventilation in selected patients treated with helmet non-invasive ventilation (NIV) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for acute respiratory failure in COVID-19 pneumonia. Preliminary results showed an improvement in the PaO2 value and PaO2/FiO2 ratio after 1 hour of prone ventilation. No variation of the lung ultrasound pattern before and after prone ventilation has been detected. At the time of writing, we attempted proning with helmet NIV CPAP in 10 patients. In 4 out of 10 patients, the attempt failed due to lack of compliance of the patient, scarce pain control even with ongoing treatment and refusal by the patient to prone positioning.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Oxygen Consumption , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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