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1.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(4): 651-657, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. A possible association has been reported between COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination and myocarditis. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to describe cardiac MRI findings in patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI between May 14, 2021, and June 14, 2021, for suspected myocarditis within 2 weeks of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Information regarding clinical presentation, hospital course, and events after hospital discharge were recorded. A cardiothoracic imaging fellow and cardiothoracic radiologist reviewed cardiac MRI examinations in consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. RESULTS. Of 52 patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI during the study period, five underwent MRI for suspected myocarditis after recent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. All five patients were male patients ranging in age from 16 to 19 years (mean, 17.2 ± 1.0 [SD] years) who presented within 4 days of receiving the second dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Troponin levels were elevated in all patients (mean peak troponin I value, 6.82 ± 4.13 ng/mL). Alternate possible causes of myocarditis were deemed clinically unlikely on the basis of medical history, physical examination findings, myocarditis viral panel, and toxicology screening. Cardiac MRI findings were consistent with myocarditis in all five patients on the basis of the Lake Louise criteria, including early gadolinium enhancement and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in all patients and corresponding myocardial edema in four patients. All five patients had a favorable hospital course and were discharged from the hospital in stable condition with improved or resolved symptoms after hospitalization (mean length of hospital stay, 4.8 days). Two patients underwent repeat cardiac MRI that showed persistent, although decreased, LGE. Three patients reported mild intermittent self-resolving chest pain after hospital discharge, and two patients had no recurrent symptoms after discharge. CONCLUSION. In this small case series, all patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination were male adolescents and had a favorable initial clinical course. All patients showed cardiac MRI findings typical of myocarditis from other causes. LGE persisted in two patients who underwent repeat MRI. These observations do not establish causality. CLINICAL IMPACT. Radiologists should be aware of a possible association of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and myocarditis and recognize the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of suspected myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , Young Adult
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778253, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775984

ABSTRACT

Background: Promoting technology diffusion and utilization is a key measure to address the great disparity in technical capacity within integrated health systems. However, even the effectiveness and appropriateness regarding technology has been widely recognized, its diffusion and utilization are still stagnant. The mechanisms that influence the technology from being recognized to being widely applied in practice remain largely unknown. Purpose: Taking hepatic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as an example, this study aimed to investigate the comprehensive influencing mechanism of organizational atmosphere and organizational practice on the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward diffusion and utilization of hepatic CEUS in the medical alliance. Methods: Based on the integration of organizational ready for change (ORC) and knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP), a structured questionnaire was developed. A multistage random sampling method was applied to investigate physicians who directly use CEUS working at the liver disease-related departments of sampled health institutions. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to verify the proposed hypotheses, and determine the relationship between the factors. Results: In total, 292 physicians were included. SEM results demonstrated that knowledge influenced both attitude and practice, while attitude positively predicted practice. Organizational practice and organizational atmosphere associated positively with each other. Organizational atmosphere positively affected the physicians' attitude toward CEUS diffusion and utilization (ß = 0.425, p < 0.001), while organizational practice positively affected corresponding knowledge (ß = 0.423, p < 0.001) and practice (ß = 0.275, p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a partial mediating effect between organizational practice and physicians' CEUS diffusion and utilization behavior. Conclusion: By verifying the influencing mechanism of organizational atmosphere and organizational practice on the physicians' KAP of hepatic CEUS diffusion and utilization, this study benefit tailoring strategies for promoting technology diffusion and utilization within medical alliance. It is recommended to develop an organizational atmosphere of advocating technology innovation, establish organizational support mechanism (SM) with multiple concrete supporting countermeasures, and so on.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Physicians , Ultrasonography , Atmosphere , Contrast Media , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
J Urol ; 207(1): 152-160, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769451

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Urologists will benefit from an imaging modality which can assess intra and extraluminal characteristics of urethral strictures. We conducted a prospective pilot study evaluating the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography for the evaluation of bulbar urethral stricture disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a single, bulbar urethral stricture were prospectively recruited. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed at the time of surgical repair and at 4 months' followup using an Aplio i800 scanner (Canon Medical Systems, Tustin, California) with an i8CX1 transducer. Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microsphere ultrasound contrast (Lumason®, Bracco Imaging, Princeton, New Jersey) was injected retrograde through the urethra. Stiffness of the corpus spongiosum was measured at and adjacent to the stricture site. Stricture lengths based on retrograde urethrogram, grayscale ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound were correlated with measured intraoperative stricture length. RESULTS: Thirty men were enrolled. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (R2=0.709) showed the best correlation with intraoperative measured stricture length compared to retrograde urethrogram (R2=0.016) or grayscale ultrasound (R2=0.471). Stiffness of the spongiosum was greater at the site of the stricture (32.6±5.4 vs 27.3±5.8 kPa, p=0.044) and in narrower caliber strictures (p=0.044) but did not differ by stricture length (p=0.182). At followup (4.3±1.1 months) contrast-enhanced ultrasound detected stricture recurrence with 80% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 93% accuracy compared to cystoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates the ability of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography to become safe, accurate, and potentially efficacious modalities for assessing bulbar urethral strictures and spongiofibrosis.


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Urethral Stricture/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Microspheres , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography/methods
4.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(5): e421-e422, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722749

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A 22-year-old man visited the emergency department with chest pain. He had received a second dose of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA (Moderna) vaccine 5 days prior. 18F-FDG PET/MR revealed a focal FDG uptake and late gadolinium enhancement on the basal posterolateral wall of the left ventricle. Myocarditis after a COVID-19 vaccination has been reported predominantly after the second dose of mRNA vaccines in young men. This was a case of acute focal myocarditis after a COVID-19 mRNA vaccination, which was well-visualized by FDG PET/MRI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1768-1774, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-marketing surveillance studies have raised concerns of increased myocarditis rates following coronavirus disease-19 (Covid-19) mRNA vaccines. The present study aims to accumulate the published mRNA Covid-19 vaccine-associated myocarditis cases, describe their clinical characteristics and determine the factors predisposing to critical illness. METHODS: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, CENTRAL and Google Scholar were systematically searched from inception. Studies reporting adult myocarditis cases following BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccination were included. Individual participant data coming from case reports/series were pooled. Proportional random-effects meta-analysis was conducted by combining the pooled cohort and observational studies with aggregated data. RESULTS: Overall, 39 studies were included with a total of 129 patients. Most cases occurred in young males after the second vaccine dose. Myocarditis after the first dose was significantly associated with prior Covid-19 (p-value: 0.025). The most common electrocardiographic finding was ST-segment elevation, while late gadolinium enhancement was invariably observed in cardiac magnetic reasoning. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that signs of heart failure were predictive of subsequent critical illness (Odds ratio: 19.22, 95% confidence intervals-CI: 5.57-275.84). Proportion meta-analysis indicated that complete resolution of symptoms is achieved in 80.5% of patients (95% CI: 59.3-92.1), while the proportion of participants necessitating intensive care unit admission is 7.0% (95% CI: 3.8-12.9). CONCLUSIONS: Myocarditis following mRNA Covid-19 vaccination is typically mild, following an uncomplicated clinical course with rapid improvement of symptoms. Future research is needed to define its exact incidence, clarify its pathophysiology and determine the optimal management plan depending on its severity. Protocol registration: dx.https://doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.bxwtppen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Am J Cardiol ; 168: 135-141, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634616

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) is a severe complication described in a minority of patients with COVID-19. Myocarditis has been reported in patients with COVID-19, including MIS. In this study, we compared the clinical characteristics and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of COVID-19 myocarditis in patients with and without MIS. In the 330 patients with COVID-19 who were referred for CMR at our institution between July 24, 2020, to March 31, 2021, 40 patients were identified as having myocarditis, MIS myocarditis (n = 21) and non-MIS myocarditis (n = 19). MIS myocarditis was characterized by global myocardial inflammation/edema with significantly elevated native T1, whereas only regional inflammation, and edema were noted in the non-MIS group. Distinct late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) patterns-inferior myocardial involvement in non-MIS myocarditis and septal involvement in MIS myocarditis-were identified. The LGE burden was comparable between the 2 groups (5.9% vs 6.6%, MIS vs non-MIS group, p = 0.83). Myocarditis was diagnosed more frequently by CMR in the MIS group (70% vs 6.3%, MIS vs non-MIS, p <0.001). In the 20 patients with a sequential CMR study at a median 102-day follow-up, 25% had persistent myocardial edema. The LGE burden improved over time, from a median of 5.0% (interquartile range 3.4% to 7.3%) to 3.2% (interquartile range 2.0% to 3.8%; p <0.001). In conclusion, MIS and non-MIS myocarditis exhibit distinct characteristics by CMR. Persistent LGE and edema were common at follow-up CMR examination in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Predictive Value of Tests
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(3): 298-308, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620071

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although myocardial injury can occur with acute COVID-19, there is limited understanding of changes with myocardial metabolism in recovered patients. Objective: To examine myocardial metabolic changes early after recovery from COVID-19 using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) and associate these changes to abnormalities in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based function and tissue characterization measures and inflammatory blood markers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study took place at a single-center tertiary referral hospital system. A volunteer sample of adult patients within 3 months of a diagnosis of COVID-19 who responded to a mail invitation were recruited for cardiac PET/MRI and blood biomarker evaluation between November 2020 and June 2021. Exposures: Myocardial inflammation as determined by focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on PET. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, cardiac and inflammatory blood markers, and fasting combined cardiac 18F-FDG PET/MRI imaging were obtained. All patients with focal FDG uptake at baseline returned for repeated PET/MRI and blood marker assessment 2 months later. Results: Of 47 included patients, 24 (51%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 43 (13) years. The mean (SD) interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and PET/MRI was 67 (16) days. Most patients recovered at home during the acute infection (40 [85%]). Eight patients (17%) had focal FDG uptake on PET consistent with myocardial inflammation. Compared with those without FDG uptake, patients with focal FDG uptake had higher regional T2, T1, and extracellular volume (colocalizing with focal FDG uptake), higher prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement (6 of 8 [75%] vs 9 of 39 [23%], P = .009), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (mean [SD], 55% [4%] vs 62% [5%], P < .001), worse global longitudinal and circumferential strain (mean [SD], -16% [2%] vs -17% [2%], P = .02 and -18% [2%] vs -20% [2%], P = .047, respectively), and higher systemic inflammatory blood markers including interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Among patients with focal FDG uptake, PET/MRI, and inflammatory blood markers resolved or improved at follow-up performed a mean (SD) of 52 (17) days after baseline PET/MRI. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, myocardial inflammation was identified on PET in a small proportion of patients, was associated with cardiac MRI abnormalities and elevated inflammatory blood markers at baseline, and improved at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contrast Media , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(3): 4456-4468, 2022 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619771

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus represents an inspiring model for designing drug delivery systems due to its unique infection machinery mechanism. Herein, we have developed a biomimetic viruslike nanocomplex, termed SDN, for improving cancer theranostics. SDN has a unique core-shell structure consisting of photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6)-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (CeNLC) (virus core)@poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-functionalized MnO2 nanoparticles (virus spike), generating a virus-mimicking nanocomplex. SDN not only prompted cellular uptake through rough-surface-mediated endocytosis but also achieved mitochondrial accumulation by the interaction of cationic spikes and the anionic mitochondrial surface, leading to mitochondria-specific photodynamic therapy. Meanwhile, SDN could even mediate oxygen generation to relieve tumor hypoxia and, consequently, improve macrophage-associated anticancer immune response. Importantly, SDN served as a robust magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent due to the fast release of Mn2+ in the presence of intracellular redox components. We identified that SDN selectively accumulated in tumors and released Mn2+ to generate a 5.71-fold higher T1-MRI signal, allowing for effectively detecting suspected tumors. Particularly, SDN induced synergistic immunophotodynamic effects to eliminate malignant tumors with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, we present a novel biomimetic strategy for improving targeted theranostics, which has a wide range of potential biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Bionics/methods , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorophyllides/chemistry , Chlorophyllides/pharmacology , Contrast Media/chemistry , Contrast Media/pharmacology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Manganese Compounds/chemistry , Manganese Compounds/pharmacology , Neoplasms/immunology , Oxides/chemistry , Oxides/pharmacology , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Polyamines/chemistry , Polyamines/pharmacology
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7768383, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622118

ABSTRACT

Background: The suspension of the surgical activity, the burden of the infection in immunosuppressed patients, and the comorbidities underlying end-stage organ disease have impacted transplant programs significantly, even life-saving procedures, such as liver transplantation. Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to explore the challenges faced by transplant programs and the adopted strategies to overcome them, with a focus on indications for imaging in liver transplant candidates. Results: Liver transplantation relies on an appropriate imaging method for its success. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chest CT showed an additional value to detect early signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection and other screening modalities are less accurate than radiology. Conclusion: There is an emerging recognition of the chest CT value to recommend its use and help COVID-19 detection in patients. This examination appears highly sensitive for liver transplant candidates and recipients, who otherwise would have not undergone it, particularly when asymptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , Liver/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tissue Donors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color/methods
12.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 140, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(51): e28423, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594101

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Transverse myelitis is an infectious or noninfectious inflammatory spinal cord syndrome. We report a rare case of transverse myelitis following vaccination against COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old male presented with progressive sensorimotor dysfunction of the bilateral lower limbs 7 days after receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine against COVID-19. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed intramedullary lesions with gadolinium enhancement on the Th1/2 and Th5/6 vertebral levels. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing showed a mildly increased level of total protein and positive oligoclonal bands (OCB). DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with acute transverse myelitis. INTERVENTION: The patient received 5 days of intravenous methylprednisolone pulse (1000 mg/day) followed by oral prednisolone (30 mg/day with gradual tapering). OUTCOMES: The patient fully recovered from muscle weakness of the lower limbs. He was discharged from our hospital and able to independently walk without unsteadiness. LESSON: This is a rare case of transverse myelitis following COVID-19 vaccination. Positive OCB in CSF in the present case highlights the possibility of autoimmune processes, including polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes, following vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Myelitis, Transverse , Vaccination , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
Heart Lung ; 52: 170-173, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587703

ABSTRACT

Recently, new criteria for the diagnosis of pericarditis have been published. This paper has been thought to point out the limits in the new criteria specificity as well in the application of the new criteria for the diagnosis of pericarditis as recently demonstrated by studies based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of A 18y old male with no significant past medical history who presented with complaints of chest pain typical for pericarditis, initially labeled as pericarditis; the patient was evaluated by electrocardiography, trans-thoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; the condition, based on electrocardiogram and trans-thoracic echocardiography findings, was labeled as pericarditis in keeping with current diagnostic criteria. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated myocardial edema with no T2-defined pericardial inflammation on TIR/T2 imaging; late gadolinium enhancement imaging demonstrated multiple irregular, punctate, epicardial zones. The constellation of findings was consistent with acute myocarditis without pericardial involvement. In conclusion, limits in specificity of the newly published criteria for diagnosis of pericarditis, which add to the already demonstrated limits in sensitivity, subsist. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging plays a unique role in the initial assessment of pericarditis; this is particularly important in the Covid-19 era in light of the increasing incidence of myocarditis and pericarditis; also, the case suggests that the combination of information between advanced echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may have an important diagnostic role in this setting. Additionally, we suggest that despite recent enthusiasm for colchicine, its role may be best defined in those with myocarditis, not pericarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Contrast Media , Electrocardiography , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Pericarditis/diagnostic imaging
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211056800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 was initially considered to be a respiratory illness, but current findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is increasingly expressed in cardiac myocytes as well. COVID-19 may lead to cardiovascular injuries, resulting in myocarditis, with inflammation of the heart muscle. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review collates current evidence about demographics, symptomatology, diagnostic, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infected patients with myocarditis. METHODS: In accordance with PRISMA 2020 guidelines, a systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Central, Web of Science and Google Scholar until August, 2021. A combination of the following keywords was used: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, myocarditis. Cohorts and case reports that comprised of patients with confirmed myocarditis due to COVID-19 infection, aged >18 years were included. The findings were tabulated and subsequently synthesized. RESULTS: In total, 54 case reports and 5 cohorts were identified comprising 215 patients. Hypertension (51.7%), diabetes mellitus type 2 (46.4%), cardiac comorbidities (14.6%) were the 3 most reported comorbidities. Majority of the patients presented with cough (61.9%), fever (60.4%), shortness of breath (53.2%), and chest pain (43.9%). Inflammatory markers were raised in 97.8% patients, whereas cardiac markers were elevated in 94.8% of the included patients. On noting radiographic findings, cardiomegaly (32.5%) was the most common finding. Electrocardiography testing obtained ST segment elevation among 44.8% patients and T wave inversion in 7.3% of the sample. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging yielded 83.3% patients with myocardial edema, with late gadolinium enhancement in 63.9% patients. In hospital management consisted of azithromycin (25.5%), methylprednisolone/steroids (8.5%), and other standard care treatments for COVID-19. The most common in-hospital complication included acute respiratory distress syndrome (66.4%) and cardiogenic shock (14%). On last follow up, 64.7% of the patients survived, whereas 31.8% patients did not survive, and 3.5% were in the critical care unit. CONCLUSION: It is essential to demarcate COVID-19 infection and myocarditis presentations due to the heightened risk of death among patients contracting both myocardial inflammation and ARDS. With a multitude of diagnostic and treatment options available for COVID-19 and myocarditis, patients that are under high risk of suspicion for COVID-19 induced myocarditis must be appropriately diagnosed and treated to curb co-infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(12): 2115-2116, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506530
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501689

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have described non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy related to a variety of autoimmune diseases. However, very few case reports describe Sjögren disease as a contributing factor to cardiomyopathy. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with a history of Sjögren disease who presented with cardiogenic shock. Laboratory testing and cardiac MRI revealing apical septal late gadolinium enhancement were consistent with an autoimmune aetiology. After ruling out ischaemic, infectious and other possible causes, the patient's clinical presentation was thought to be related to underlying Sjögren disease. She was treated with intravenous steroids and evidence-based heart failure therapy, but she eventually died after having declined heart transplantation. Given the rarity of Sjögren disease, no diagnostic criteria or standard treatment has been established for cardiomyopathy related to this disease. Diagnosis should be considered in patients who show evidence of autoimmune processes after other possible causes are ruled out.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies , Sjogren's Syndrome , Aged , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/drug therapy
19.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 218(4): 651-657, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND. A possible association has been reported between COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination and myocarditis. OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to describe cardiac MRI findings in patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. METHODS. This retrospective study included patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI between May 14, 2021, and June 14, 2021, for suspected myocarditis within 2 weeks of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Information regarding clinical presentation, hospital course, and events after hospital discharge were recorded. A cardiothoracic imaging fellow and cardiothoracic radiologist reviewed cardiac MRI examinations in consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. RESULTS. Of 52 patients without known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent cardiac MRI during the study period, five underwent MRI for suspected myocarditis after recent COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. All five patients were male patients ranging in age from 16 to 19 years (mean, 17.2 ± 1.0 [SD] years) who presented within 4 days of receiving the second dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Troponin levels were elevated in all patients (mean peak troponin I value, 6.82 ± 4.13 ng/mL). Alternate possible causes of myocarditis were deemed clinically unlikely on the basis of medical history, physical examination findings, myocarditis viral panel, and toxicology screening. Cardiac MRI findings were consistent with myocarditis in all five patients on the basis of the Lake Louise criteria, including early gadolinium enhancement and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in all patients and corresponding myocardial edema in four patients. All five patients had a favorable hospital course and were discharged from the hospital in stable condition with improved or resolved symptoms after hospitalization (mean length of hospital stay, 4.8 days). Two patients underwent repeat cardiac MRI that showed persistent, although decreased, LGE. Three patients reported mild intermittent self-resolving chest pain after hospital discharge, and two patients had no recurrent symptoms after discharge. CONCLUSION. In this small case series, all patients with myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination were male adolescents and had a favorable initial clinical course. All patients showed cardiac MRI findings typical of myocarditis from other causes. LGE persisted in two patients who underwent repeat MRI. These observations do not establish causality. CLINICAL IMPACT. Radiologists should be aware of a possible association of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and myocarditis and recognize the role of cardiac MRI in the assessment of suspected myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , Young Adult
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