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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 953750, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198702

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recently, India witnessed an unprecedented surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM) cases. In addition to patient management issues, environmental Mucorales contamination possibly contributed to the outbreak. A recent study evaluated environment contamination by Mucorales in the hospital setting. However, a considerable number of CAM patients were never admitted to a hospital before the development of the disease. The present study, therefore, planned to evaluate Mucorales contamination of patients' residences. Methods: The residential environment of 25 patients with CAM living in north India was surveyed. Air samples were collected from indoor and immediate outdoor vicinity of the patients' residence and cultured on Dichloran Rose-Bengal Chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar with benomyl for selective isolation of Mucorales. Surface swab samples were also collected from the air coolers fitted in those residences and cultured on DRBC agar. The isolates were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was employed to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the environmental and patients' clinical isolates. Results: The median spore count (mean ± SD, cfu/m3) of Mucorales in the air of patients' bedrooms was significantly higher than in the air in other rooms in those residences (3.55 versus 1.5, p = 0.003) or the air collected directly from the front of the air cooler (p < 0.0001). The Mucorales spore count in the environment did not correlate with either ventilation of the room or hygiene level of the patients' residences. Rhizopus arrhizus was isolated from the environment of all patients' residences (n = 25); other Mucorales species isolated were Cunninghamella bertholletiae (n = 14), Rhizopus microsporus (n = 6), Rhizopus delemar (n = 6), Syncephalastrum racemosum (n = 1), Lichtheimia corymbifera (n = 1), and Mucor racemosus (n = 1). Genetic relatedness was observed between 11 environmental isolates from the patients' bedrooms and respective clinical isolates from patients. Discussion: The study supported the view that the patients might have acquired Mucorales from the home environment during the post-COVID-19 convalescence period. Universal masking at home during patients' convalescence period and environmental decontamination could minimize exposure in those susceptible patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Agar , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Benomyl , Chloramphenicol , Convalescence , Humans , Mucorales/genetics , Mucormycosis/epidemiology
2.
Allergy ; 77(12): 3704-3705, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136628
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1031254, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119769

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants of concern (VOC) raise obstacles in shaping vaccination strategies and ending the pandemic. Vaccinated SARS-CoV-2 convalescence shapes the current immune dynamics. We analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 VOC-specific cellular and humoral response of 57 adults: 42 convalescent mRNA vaccinated patients (C+V+), 8 uninfected mRNA vaccinated (C-V+) and 7 unvaccinated convalescent individuals (C+V-). While C+V+ demonstrated a superior humoral SARS-CoV-2 response against all analyzed VOC (alpha, delta, omicron) compared to C-V+ and C+V-, SARS-CoV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which can cross-recognize the alpha, delta and omicron VOC after infection and/or vaccination were observed in all there groups without significant differences between the groups. We observed a preserved cross-reactive C+V+ and C-V+ T cell memory. An inferior humoral response but preserved cross-reactive T cell memory in C+V- compared to C+V+ was observed, as well as an inferior humoral response but preserved cross-reactive T cell memory in C+V- compared to C-V+. Adaptive immunity generated after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination leads to superior humoral immune response against VOC compared to isolated infection or vaccination. Despite the apparent loss of neutralization potential caused by viral evolution, a preserved SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cell response with a robust potential for cross-recognition of the alpha, delta and omicron VOC was detected in all studied cohorts. Our results may have implications on current vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Convalescence , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger
4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 112(1): 201-212, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075041

ABSTRACT

T cells are thought to be an important correlates of protection against SARS-CoV2 infection. However, the composition of T cell subsets in convalescent individuals of SARS-CoV2 infection has not been well studied. The authors determined the lymphocyte absolute counts, the frequency of memory T cell subsets, and the plasma levels of common γ-chain in 7 groups of COVID-19 individuals, based on days since RT-PCR confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data show that both absolute counts and frequencies of lymphocytes as well as, the frequencies of CD4+ central and effector memory cells increased, and the frequencies of CD4+ naïve T cells, transitional memory, stem cell memory T cells, and regulatory cells decreased from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateaued thereafter. In addition, the frequencies of CD8+ central memory, effector, and terminal effector memory T cells increased, and the frequencies of CD8+ naïve cells, transitional memory, and stem cell memory T cells decreased from Days 15-30 to Days 61-90 and plateaued thereafter. The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21-common γc cytokines started decreasing from Days 15-30 till Days 151-180. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibit decreased levels of lymphocyte counts and frequencies, higher frequencies of naïve cells, regulatory T cells, lower frequencies of central memory, effector memory, and stem cell memory, and elevated plasma levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21. Finally, there was a significant correlation between memory T cell subsets and common γc cytokines. Thus, the study provides evidence of alterations in lymphocyte counts, memory T cell subset frequencies, and common γ-chain cytokines in convalescent COVID-19 individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Memory T Cells , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Interleukin-15/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-7/blood , Memory T Cells/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
5.
JCI Insight ; 7(19)2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064378

ABSTRACT

Protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection after COVID-19 vaccination may differ by variant. We enrolled vaccinated (n = 39) and unvaccinated (n = 11) individuals with acute, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron infection and performed SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and variant-specific antibody characterization at the time of acute illness and convalescence. Viral load at the time of infection was inversely correlated with antibody binding and neutralizing antibody responses. Across all variants tested, convalescent neutralization titers in unvaccinated individuals were markedly lower than in vaccinated individuals. Increases in antibody titers and neutralizing activity occurred at convalescence in a variant-specific manner. For example, among individuals infected with the Delta variant, neutralizing antibody responses were weakest against BA.2, whereas infection with Omicron BA.1 variant generated a broader response against all tested variants, including BA.2.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Convalescence , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Can J Cardiol ; 38(11): 1676-1683, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis is a rare complication of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. Little is known about the natural history of this complication. METHODS: Baseline and convalescent (≥ 90 days) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging assessments were performed in 20 consecutive patients meeting Updated Lake Louise Criteria for acute myocarditis within 10 days of mRNA-based vaccination. CMR-based changes in left ventricular volumes, mass, ejection fraction (LVEF), markers of tissue inflammation (native T1 and T2 mapping), and fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE] and extracellular volume [ECV]) were assessed between baseline and convalescence. Cardiac symptoms and clinical outcomes were captured. RESULTS: Median age was 23.1 years (range 18-39 years), and 17 (85%) were male. Convalescent evaluations were performed at a median (IQR) 3.7 (3.3-6.2) months. The LVEF showed a mean 3% absolute improvement, accompanied by a 7% reduction in LV end-diastolic volume and 5% reduction in LV mass (all P < 0.015). Global LGE burden was reduced by 66% (P < 0.001). Absolute reductions in global T2, native T1, and ECV of 2.1 ms, 58 ms, and 2.9%, repectively, were documented (all P ≤ 0.001). Of 5 patients demonstrating LVEF ≤ 50% at baseline, all recovered to above this threshold in convalescence. A total of 18 (90%) patients showed persistence of abnormal LGE although mean fibrosis burden was < 5% of LV mass in 85% of cases. No patient experienced major clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis showed rapid improvements in CMR-based markers of edema, contractile function, and global LGE burden beyond 3 months of recovery in this young patient cohort. However, regional fibrosis following edema resolution was commonly observed, justifying need for ongoing surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Myocarditis , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Female , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Convalescence , Ventricular Function, Left , Stroke Volume , Predictive Value of Tests , Fibrosis , RNA, Messenger , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocardium/pathology
7.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 42(5): 803-809, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Shugan Jieyu capsule on improving sleep and emotional disorder during Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescence. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and recruit 200 COVID-19 convalescence patients and then divide the subjects into two groups respectively: the experimental group ( 100) and the control group ( 100). Patients in the control group were given doses as a placebo, while those in the experimental group were given Shugan Jieyu capsule. The investigators mainly observed the differences between the two groups before and after treatment in terms of the rate of reduction and the rate of efficiency in Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17) total scores from baseline, and recorded the scores of Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale at 2 week, the 4 week and the 6 week respectively after treatment, and compared the differences between the groups. And the occurrence of adverse events was recorded. RESULTS: After 6-week treatment, there were statistically significant differences in the rate of reduction as well as efficiency in HAMD-17 scores, HAMA Total Scores, PHQ-15 Score, ISI Score from baseline in the experimental group and control group (< 0.05). There were 4 adverse events in the experimental group and 1 in the control group. CONCLUSION: Shugan Jieyu capsule could significantly improve sleep and emotional disorder in patients during COVID-19 convalescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Convalescence , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Sleep , Treatment Outcome
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(8): e0010724, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993442

ABSTRACT

Long Covid has raised awareness of the potentially disabling chronic sequelae that afflicts patients after acute viral infection. Similar syndromes of post-infectious sequelae have also been observed after other viral infections such as dengue, but their true prevalence and functional impact remain poorly defined. We prospectively enrolled 209 patients with acute dengue (n = 48; one with severe dengue) and other acute viral respiratory infections (ARI) (n = 161), and followed them up for chronic sequelae up to one year post-enrolment, prior to the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic. Baseline demographics and co-morbidities were balanced between both groups except for gender, with more males in the dengue cohort (63% vs 29%, p<0.001). Except for the first visit, data on symptoms were collected remotely using a purpose-built mobile phone application. Mental health outcomes were evaluated using the validated SF-12v2 Health Survey. Almost all patients (95.8% of dengue and 94.4% of ARI patients) experienced at least one symptom of fatigue, somnolence, headache, concentration impairment or memory impairment within the first week of enrolment. Amongst patients with at least 3-months of follow-up, 18.0% in the dengue cohort and 14.6% in the ARI cohort experienced persistent symptoms. The median month-3 SF-12v2 Mental Component Summary Score was lower in patients who remained symptomatic at 3 months and beyond, compared to those whose symptoms fully resolved (47.7 vs. 56.0, p<0.001), indicating that patients who self-reported persistence of symptoms also experienced functionally worse mental health. No statistically significant difference in age, gender distribution or hospitalisation status was observed between those with and without chronic sequelae. Our findings reveal an under-appreciated burden of post-infection chronic sequelae in dengue and ARI patients. They call for studies to define the pathophysiology of this condition, and determine the efficacy of both vaccines as well as antiviral drugs in preventing such sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/complications , Convalescence , Dengue/complications , Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2203659119, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991766

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed whole blood samples (n = 56) retrieved from 30 patients at 1 to 21 (median 9) mo after verified COVID-19 to determine the polarity and duration of antigen-specific T cell reactivity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-derived antigens. Multimeric peptides spanning the entire nucleocapsid protein triggered strikingly synchronous formation of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-17 ex vivo until ∼70 d after confirmed infection, whereafter this reactivity was no longer inducible. In contrast, levels of nucleocapsid-induced IL-2 and interferon-γ remained stable and highly correlated at 3 to 21 mo after infection. Similar cytokine dynamics were observed in unvaccinated, convalescent patients using whole-blood samples stimulated with peptides spanning the N-terminal portion of the spike 1 protein. These results unravel two phases of T cell reactivity following natural COVID-19: an early, synchronous response indicating transient presence of multipolar, antigen-specific T helper (TH) cells followed by an equally synchronous and durable TH1-like reactivity reflecting long-lasting T cell memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2429-2438, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prolonged recovery is common after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning Long COVID syndrome remain unknown. VWF/ADAMTS-13 imbalance, dysregulated angiogenesis, and immunothrombosis are hallmarks of acute COVID-19. We hypothesized that VWF/ADAMTS-13 imbalance persists in convalescence together with endothelial cell (EC) activation and angiogenic disturbance. Additionally, we postulate that ongoing immune cell dysfunction may be linked to sustained EC and coagulation activation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients were reviewed at a minimum of 6 weeks following acute COVID-19. ADAMTS-13, Weibel Palade Body (WPB) proteins, and angiogenesis-related proteins were assessed and clinical evaluation and immunophenotyping performed. Comparisons were made with healthy controls (n = 20) and acute COVID-19 patients (n = 36). RESULTS: ADAMTS-13 levels were reduced (p = 0.009) and the VWF-ADAMTS-13 ratio was increased in convalescence (p = 0.0004). Levels of platelet factor 4 (PF4), a putative protector of VWF, were also elevated (p = 0.0001). A non-significant increase in WPB proteins Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was observed in convalescent patients and WPB markers correlated with EC parameters. Enhanced expression of 21 angiogenesis-related proteins was observed in convalescent COVID-19. Finally, immunophenotyping revealed significantly elevated intermediate monocytes and activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in convalescence, which correlated with thrombin generation and endotheliopathy markers, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data provide insights into sustained EC activation, dysregulated angiogenesis, and VWF/ADAMTS-13 axis imbalance in convalescent COVID-19. In keeping with the pivotal role of immunothrombosis in acute COVID-19, our findings support the hypothesis that abnormal T cell and monocyte populations may be important in the context of persistent EC activation and hemostatic dysfunction during convalescence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , ADAMTS13 Protein , Angiopoietin-2 , COVID-19/complications , Convalescence , Humans , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Osteoprotegerin , Platelet Factor 4 , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombin , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2117089119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984597

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has incurred tremendous costs worldwide and is still threatening public health in the "new normal." The association between neutralizing antibody levels and metabolic alterations in convalescent patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In the present work, we conducted absolutely quantitative profiling to compare the plasma cytokines and metabolome of ordinary convalescent patients with antibodies (CA), convalescents with rapidly faded antibodies (CO), and healthy subjects. As a result, we identified that cytokines such as M-CSF and IL-12p40 and plasma metabolites such as glycylproline (gly-pro) and long-chain acylcarnitines could be associated with antibody fading in COVID-19 convalescent patients. Following feature selection, we built machine-learning-based classification models using 17 features (six cytokines and 11 metabolites). Overall accuracies of more than 90% were attained in at least six machine-learning models. Of note, the dipeptide gly-pro, a product of enzymatic peptide cleavage catalyzed by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), strongly accumulated in CO individuals compared with the CA group. Furthermore, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination experiments in healthy mice demonstrated that supplementation of gly-pro down-regulates SARS-CoV-2-specific receptor-binding domain antibody levels and suppresses immune responses, whereas the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin can counteract the inhibitory effects of gly-pro upon SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Our findings not only reveal the important role of gly-pro in the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection but also indicate a possible mechanism underlying the beneficial outcomes of treatment with DPP4 inhibitors in convalescent COVID-19 patients, shedding light on therapeutic and vaccination strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Cytokines , Dipeptides , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Dipeptides/blood , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Machine Learning , Metabolome , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 75(3): 276-285, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This is a descriptive study to characterize rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients during the early days of the pandemic. We hypothesized that asymptomatic infection may represent a large proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric SOT recipients. METHODS: We queried Organ Transplant Tracking Record (OTTR) for all pediatric SOT recipients followed at our center and reviewed medical records to identify patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 between March 15, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Patients were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): prior to planned procedures or because of symptoms; OR: tested by measurement of IgG to spike protein with their routine labs q 2-monthly. A positive PCR was called acute infection. A positive IgG with negative PCR was called convalescence. For immunologic studies, blood was obtained when the PCR or IgG was positive. Statistical comparisons were made between (1) acute infection versus convalescence; (2) acute infection versus SOT recipients without infection (called healthy controls); (3) liver transplant (LT) versus small bowel (SB)/multivisceral transplant (MVT); (4) positive versus negative test result. RESULTS: Of 257 LT recipients, 99 were tested: 6 were PCR positive, 13 were antibody positive. Of 150 SB/MVT recipients, 55 were tested: 4 were PCR positive, 6 were antibody positive. Of 8 simultaneous liver, kidney transplant recipients, 3 were tested: 1 was PCR positive. Symptoms when present were mostly mild. Patients with a positive test result were younger (6.3 vs 10.0 years; P = 0.017). We observed a rapid decline in viral load within 96 hours without a change in immunosuppression. Antibody lasted >8 months beyond the time it was monitored. Acute infection was associated with increased CD4 and CD8 T EM cell frequency ( P = 0.04, P = 0.03, respectively), decreased interferon (IFN)-γ production from T-cells (2.8% vs 11.3%; P = 0.006), and decreased CD8 TEMRA frequency (4.56% vs 11.70%; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, COVID-19 disease was mostly mild in pediatric SOT recipients with no rejection, patient death, or graft loss observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Convalescence , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902983

ABSTRACT

Many studies already reported on the association between patient characteristics on the severity of COVID-19 disease outcome, but the relation with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels is less clear. To investigate this in more detail, we performed a retrospective observational study in which we used the IgG antibody response from 11,118 longitudinal antibody measurements of 2,082 unique COVID convalescent plasma donors. COVID-19 symptoms and donor characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. Antibody responses were modelled using a linear mixed-effects model. Our study confirms that the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is associated with patient characteristics like body mass index and age. Antibody decay was faster in male than in female donors (average half-life of 62 versus 72 days). Most interestingly, we also found that three symptoms (headache, anosmia, nasal cold) were associated with lower peak IgG, while six other symptoms (dry cough, fatigue, diarrhoea, fever, dyspnoea, muscle weakness) were associated with higher IgG concentrations.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269882, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made a serious public health threat worldwide. Recent evidence has indicated that COVID-19 patients in convalescence frequently experience insomnia, which reduces their quality of life and causes unknown risks. The positive effect of cognitive behavior on insomnia has been well addressed in previous studies. Given the high infectivity and epidemicity of COVID-19, Internet-delivered intervention may be safer than face-to-face treatment. However, whether Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy can effectively improve the insomnia of COVID-19 patients in convalescence has not been completely determined yet. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to evaluate the effects of Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy on insomnia in COVID-19 patients in convalescence, with the aim to confer some guidance for its clinical application. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). Two researchers will retrieve the relevant literature on Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in convalescent patients with COVID-19 in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials gov, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from inception to 11th of December. In addition, we will review the relevant trials and references of the included literature and manually searched the grey literature. The two researchers will independently extracted data and information and evaluated the quality of the included literature. The Review Manager software (version 5.3) and Stata software (version 14.0) will be used for data analysis. The mean difference or the standardized mean difference of 95% CI will be used to calculate continuous variables to synthesize the data. In addition, I2 and Cochrane will be used for heterogeneity assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021271278.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Humans , Internet , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Research Design , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9045, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873542

ABSTRACT

Long-term antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 have focused on responses to full-length spike protein, specific domains within spike, or nucleoprotein. In this study, we used high-density peptide microarrays representing the complete proteome of SARS-CoV-2 to identify binding sites (epitopes) targeted by antibodies present in the blood of COVID-19 resolved cases at 5 months post-diagnosis. Compared to previous studies that evaluated epitope-specific responses early post-diagnosis (< 60 days), we found that epitope-specific responses to nucleoprotein and spike protein have contracted, and that responses to membrane protein have expanded. Although antibody titers to full-length spike and nucleoprotein remain steady over months, taken together our data suggest that the population of epitope-specific antibodies that contribute to this reactivity is dynamic and evolves over time. Further, the spike epitopes bound by polyclonal antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent serum samples aligned with known target sites that can neutralize viral activity suggesting that the maintenance of these antibodies might provide rapid serological immunity. Finally, the most dominant epitopes for membrane protein and spike showed high diagnostic accuracy providing novel biomarkers to refine blood-based antibody tests. This study provides new insights into the specific regions of SARS-CoV-2 targeted by serum antibodies long after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Phosphoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.05.25.22275300

ABSTRACT

Resident memory T cells (TRM) present at the respiratory tract may be essential to enhance early SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance, thus limiting viral infection and disease. While long-term antigen (Ag)-specific TRM are detectable beyond 11 months in the lung of convalescent COVID-19 patients after mild and severe infection1, it is unknown if mRNA vaccination encoding for the SARS-CoV-2 S-protein can induce this frontline protection. We found that the frequency of CD4+ T cells secreting interferon (IFN)g in response to S-peptides was similar in the lung of mRNA-vaccinated patients compared to convalescent-infected patients. However, in vaccinated patients, lung responses presented less frequently a TRM phenotype compared to convalescent infected individuals and polyfunctional TRM were virtually absent. Thus, a robust and wide TRM response established in convalescent-infected individuals may be advantageous in limiting disease if the virus is not block by initial mechanisms of protection, such as neutralization. Still, mRNA vaccines can induce modest responses within the lung parenchyma potentially contributing to the overall disease control.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases , COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Convalescence
18.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103972, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A major challenge of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is to better define "protective thresholds" to guide the global response. We aimed to characterize the longitudinal dynamics of the antibody responses in naturally infected individuals in Chile and compared them to humoral responses induced after immunization with CoronaVac-based on an inactivated whole virus -or the BNT162b2- based on mRNA-vaccines. We also contrasted them with the respective effectiveness and efficacy data available for both vaccines. METHODS: We determined and compared the longitudinal neutralizing (nAb) and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) antibody responses of 74 COVID-19 individuals (37 outpatient and 37 hospitalized) during the acute disease and convalescence. We also assessed the antibody boosting of 36 of these individuals who were immunized after convalescence with either the CoronaVac (n = 30) or the BNT162b2 (n = 6) vaccines. Antibody titres were also measured for 50 naïve individuals immunized with two doses of CoronaVac (n = 35) or BNT162b2 (n = 15) vaccines. The neutralizing level after vaccination was compared to those of convalescent individuals and the predicted efficacy was estimated. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induced robust nAb and anti-N antibody responses lasting >9 months, but showing a rapid nAb decay. After convalescence, nAb titres were significantly boosted by vaccination with CoronaVac or BNT162b2. In naïve individuals, the calculated mean titre induced by two doses of CoronaVac or BNT162b2 was 0·2 times and 5.2 times, respectively, that of convalescent individuals, which has been proposed as threshold of protection. CoronaVac induced no or only modest anti-N antibody responses. Using two proposed logistic models, the predicted efficacy of BNT162b2 was estimated at 97%, in close agreement with phase 3 efficacy studies, while for CoronaVac it was ∼50% corresponding to the lowest range of clinical trials and below the real-life data from Chile (from February 2 through May 1, 2021 during the predominant circulation of the Gamma variant), where the estimated vaccine effectiveness to prevent COVID-19 was 62·8-64·6%. INTERPRETATION: The decay of nAbs titres in previously infected individuals over time indicates that vaccination is needed to boost humoral memory responses. Immunization of naïve individuals with two doses of CoronaVac induced nAbs titres that were significantly lower to that of convalescent patients, and similar to vaccination with one dose of BTN162b2. The real life effectiveness for CoronaVac in Chile was higher than estimated; indicating that lower titres and additional cellular immune responses induced by CoronaVac might afford protection in a highly immunized population. Nevertheless, the lower nAb titre induced by two doses of CoronaVac as compared to the BTN162b2 vaccine in naïve individuals, highlights the need of booster immunizations over time to maintain protective levels of antibody, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. FUNDING: FONDECYT 1161971, 1212023, 1181799, FONDECYT Postdoctorado 3190706 and 3190648, ANID Becas/Doctorado Nacional 21212258, PIA ACT 1408, CONICYT REDES180170, Centro Ciencia & Vida, FB210008, Financiamiento Basal para Centros Científicos y Tecnológicos de Excelencia grants from the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) of Chile; NIH-NIAD grants U19AI135972, R01AI132633 and contracts HHSN272201400008C and 75N93019C00051; the JPB Foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project grant 2020-215611 (5384); and by anonymous donors. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Convalescence , Humans
19.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.05.12.22274989

ABSTRACT

Background Effective COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are mainly available in high-income countries. ChulaCov19, a prefusion non-stabilized Spike protein-encoding, nucleoside-modified mRNA, lipid nanoparticle encapsulated vaccine development, aims to enhance accessibility of mRNA vaccine and future pandemic preparedness for low- to middle-income countries. Methods Seventy-two eligible volunteers, 36 aged 18-55 (adults) followed by 36 aged 56-75 (elderly) enrolled in a dose escalation study of ChulaCov19 mRNA vaccine. Two doses of vaccine were given 21 days apart at 10, 25, or 50 g/dose (12/group). Safety was the primary and immunogenicity the secondary outcome. Human convalescents' (HCS) and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccinees' sera provided comparison panels. Results All three doses of ChulaCov19 were well tolerated and elicited robust dose-dependent and age-dependent B- and T-cell responses. Transient mild/moderate injection site pain, fever, chills, fatigue, and headache were more common after the second dose. Four weeks after the second ChulaCov19: dose at 10, 25, and 50 g dose, MicroVNT-50 Geometric mean titer (GMT) against wild-type was 848, 736 and 1,140 IU/mL, respectively, versus 267 IU/mL for HCS. All dose levels elicited 100% seroconversion, with GMT ratio 4-8-fold higher than for HCS (p<0.01), and high IFN{gamma} spot-forming cells/million peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The 50 g dose induced better cross-neutralization against Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants than lower doses. Conclusions ChulaCov19 at 50 g/dose is well tolerated and elicited higher neutralizing antibodies than HCS with strong T-cell responses. These antibodies cross neutralized four variants of concern and ChulaCov19 has therefore proceeded to phase 2 and 3 clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pain , Headache , Fever , Convalescence , Fatigue
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838132, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809394

ABSTRACT

The majority of COVID-19 patients experience mild to moderate disease course and recover within a few weeks. An increasing number of studies characterized the long-term changes in the specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, but how COVID-19 shapes the innate and heterologous adaptive immune system after recovery is less well known. To comprehensively investigate the post-SARS-CoV-2 infection sequelae on the immune system, we performed a multi-omics study by integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing, single-cell ATAC-sequencing, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, and functional validation experiments in 14 convalescent COVID-19 and 15 healthy individuals. We showed that immune responses generally recover without major sequelae after COVID-19. However, subtle differences persist at the transcriptomic level in monocytes, with downregulation of the interferon pathway, while DNA methylation also displays minor changes in convalescent COVID-19 individuals. However, these differences did not affect the cytokine production capacity of PBMCs upon different bacterial, viral, and fungal stimuli, although baseline release of IL-1Ra and IFN-γ was higher in convalescent individuals. In conclusion, we propose that despite minor differences in epigenetic and transcriptional programs, the immune system of convalescent COVID-19 patients largely recovers to the homeostatic level of healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Convalescence , Disease Progression , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2
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