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1.
Appetite ; 168: 105743, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607686

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to a strict lockdown in France for 2 months, drastically changing the daily life of the population. We investigated changes in perceived diet quality and cooking practices during the lockdown in comparison with the preceding period. Between June 9 and 30, 2020, 2422 participants were recruited and completed a questionnaire regarding the evolution of their overall diet and cooking habits during the lockdown. Descriptive analyses showed that 41.5% of participants described dietary changes with a similar proportion reporting positive or negative changes (22.0% and 19.5%, respectively). The exceptional circumstances of the lockdown provided a positive opportunity for some people to improve their diet quality by spending more time cooking (54.8% of those reporting a positive change) or eating more fresh products, including fruits and vegetables (47.4%). By contrast, other participants reported a decline in their diet quality, mainly caused by poorer dietary choices due to the consumption of comfort food (50.3% of those reporting a negative change), snacking (40.1%), or food supply issues (35.9%). The lockdown led to a massive rise in home cooking with 42.0% of all participants cooking more frequently (vs 7.0% cooking less), as barriers such as time constraints were reduced. Using multivariate analyses, we found that this change in cooking frequency varied among population subgroups, especially in regard to financial situation, as individuals in financial difficulty tended to cook less. As home cooking has already been linked to better diet quality and thus health status, our results suggest that the lockdown increased social health inequalities. An adequate public health response is therefore needed to support nutritionally vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vegetables
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403592

ABSTRACT

Globally, household and ambient air pollution (HAAP) leads to approximately seven million premature deaths per year. One of the main sources of household air pollution (HAP) is the traditional stove. So-called improved cookstoves (ICS) do not reduce emissions to levels that benefit health, but the poorest communities are unlikely to have access to cleaner cooking in the medium term. Therefore, ICS are being promoted as an intermediate step. This paper summarises the current evidence on the ICS available to the global poorest, utilising data from the Clean Cookstoves Catalog and systematic review evidence from the field. The cheapest stoves offer little reduction in HAP. Only one ICS, available at US$5 or less, (the canarumwe) minimally reduced pollutants based on ISO testing standards and no studies included in the systematic reviews reported tested this stove in the field. We recommend field testing all ICS as standard, and clear information on stove characteristics, sustainability, safety, emissions efficiency, in-field performance, affordability, availability in different settings, and the ability of the stove to meet community cooking needs. In addition, ICS should be promoted alongside a suite of measures, including improved ventilation and facilities to dry wood, to further reduce the pollutant levels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Household Articles , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Biomass , Cooking , Particulate Matter/analysis
3.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389468

ABSTRACT

Natural products are gaining more interest recently, much of which focuses on those derived from medicinal plants. The common chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), of the Astraceae family, is a prime example of this trend. It has been proven to be a feasible source of biologically relevant elements (K, Fe, Ca), vitamins (A, B1, B2, C) as well as bioactive compounds (inulin, sesquiterpene lactones, coumarin derivatives, cichoric acid, phenolic acids), which exert potent pro-health effects on the human organism. It displays choleretic and digestion-promoting, as well as appetite-increasing, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial action, all owing to its varied phytochemical composition. Hence, chicory is used most often to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Chicory was among the plants with potential against SARS-CoV-2, too. To this and other ends, roots, herb, flowers and leaves are used. Apart from its phytochemical applications, chicory is also used in gastronomy as a coffee substitute, food or drink additive. The aim of this paper is to present, in the light of the recent literature, the chemical composition and properties of chicory.


Subject(s)
Chicory/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chicory/physiology , Cooking , Food Hypersensitivity/etiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376828

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dirt removal (bacteria and organic matter) of several hand-cleaning procedures. The results from the hand hygiene experiment indicated that washing hands with warm water and soap for 20 s is the most effective method investigated when hands are either dirty or greasy. Even if not proper washing, rinsing under running water for 5 s is a cleaning procedure that may significantly reduce the probability of cross-contamination, as it removes 90% of the hands' dirt. Although less effective than water and soap, the usage of antibacterial wipes was significantly more effective than wet wipes, indicating that they are a better choice when water and soap are not available. The results of this study enable us to inform consumers about the effectiveness of hand-cleaning procedures applied in their homes when cooking. Moreover, it can make consumers understand why, during the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities recommended washing hands as a preventive measure of infection and using an anti-bacterial hand gel or wiping hands with an antimicrobial wipe if water and soap are not available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Bacteria , Colony Count, Microbial , Cooking , Hand , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps
5.
Appetite ; 167: 105598, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316379

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns had a significant impact on Australian food supply, with potential implications for food purchasing, preparation and consumption behaviours. Therefore, we explored Australian primary food gatekeepers' perceptions and responses towards their culinary behaviours during COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns. We conducted online semi-structured interviews with 25 Australian primary food gatekeepers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We found that the majority of food gatekeepers during the lockdown reported increased home cooking and experimentation in the kitchen, enhanced their food literacy such as cooking skills and confidence, meal planning and purchasing skills, and increased consumption of family meals. However, they also reported less positive outcomes such as increases in snacking and alcohol intake, baking less healthy foods and overall increases in food intake. There is a need to develop comprehensive nutritional programs for Australian primary food gatekeepers to increase their food literacy and confidence in food preparation and cooking. Future research could explore if these newly adopted behaviours positively impact primary food gatekeepers' dietary behaviours and if these behaviours sustain over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Australia , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295893

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic enforced social restrictions with abrupt impacts on mental health and changes to health behaviors. From a randomized clinical trial, we assessed the impact of culinary education on home cooking practices, coping strategies and resiliency during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). Participants (n = 28) were aged 25-70 years with a BMI of 27.5-35 kg/m2. The intervention consisted of 12 weekly 30-min one-on-one telemedicine culinary coaching sessions. Coping strategies were assessed through the Brief Coping with Problems Experienced Inventory, and resiliency using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Home cooking practices were assessed through qualitative analysis. The average use of self-care as a coping strategy by the intervention group was 6.14 (1.66), compared to the control with 4.64 (1.69); p = 0.03. While more intervention participants had high (n = 5) and medium (n = 8) resiliency compared to controls (n = 4, n = 6, respectively), this difference was not significant (p = 0.33). Intervention participants reported using home cooking skills such as meal planning and time saving techniques during the pandemic. The key findings were that culinary coaching via telemedicine may be an effective intervention for teaching home cooking skills and promoting the use of self-care as a coping strategy during times of stress, including the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Cooking , Education, Distance/methods , Emotional Adjustment , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Cooking/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/therapy , Psychological Tests , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282545

ABSTRACT

In order to identify the status of salt-related knowledge and behavior of the residents who were active in WeChat software between 2019 and 2020, 10-day salt-related surveys were conducted in 2019 and 2020 based on the WeChat public platform of China Healthy Lifestyle for All Campaign. Distribution and scores of salt-related knowledge, salt reduction behavior and high-salt intake behavior between 2019 and 2020 were compared. Data of 2109 participants in 2019 and 12,732 participants in 2020 were left for analysis. Overall, 88.2% of participants in 2019 had a willingness to reduce the amount of cooking salt in their households, significantly lower than 90.2% in 2020 (p-value < 0.05). In 2019 and 2020, over 80% of the participants knew fine dried noodles contain salt, but less than 30% knew ice cream contains salt. Over 78% of participants chose 5 g or 6 g for the maximum daily salt intake of healthy adults, and about 98% of participants knew that excessive salt intake would increase the risk of hypertension in both years. The percentage of participants who used salt measuring spoons asked restaurants to use less salt, read the sodium content on the nutrition facts table, chose foods with low sodium content and regularly used low-sodium salt, were 36.1%, 45.0%, 44.1%, 40.3% and 35.8% in 2019, and the percentage increased significantly to 46.4%, 49.2%, 50.8%, 47.1% and 43.4% in 2020 (all p-value < 0.05). The percentage of people regularly eating pickled mustard tubers, salted vegetables and sauce foods or using high-salt condiments also increased from 2019 to 2020. The median of salt-related knowledge scores, salt reduction behavior scores and high-salt intake behavior scores were 11, 2, 5 points in 2019, and 10, 3, 5 points in 2020, respectively. Compared to 2019, the salt-related knowledge score was relatively lower, while the salt reduction behavior score and high-salt intake behavior score were relatively higher in 2020. Besides, the score of salt-related knowledge and behaviors differed in different gender, age and hypertension groups. The COVID-19 epidemic may have influenced the salt-related knowledge and behaviors status of WeChat users in China. Promotion and education of salt-related knowledge and online behavior intervention are still needed, particularly for male and hypertension patients in the future.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mobile Applications , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cooking , Diet, Sodium-Restricted/methods , Female , Health Promotion/methods , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259555

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 restrictions in spring 2020, college students experienced closed dormitories and increased unemployment and many students moved in with their families. College students were vulnerable to food insecurity pre-pandemic and this study examined how the living situations and food security status changed for Midwestern university students due to COVID-19 restrictions. An email survey administered to Iowa State University students between the ages of 18 and 30 who physically attended campus prior to its closure produced 1434 responses. Students living with a parent or guardian increased by 44% and were less likely to experience food insecurity or less likely to work. They had lower stress and ate more home-cooked meals. Students living on their own had higher rates of food insecurity, greater stress, poorer health status, higher cooking self-efficacy, and worked more hours. Seventeen percent of all students were food insecure; related factors were non-White ethnicity, lower cooking self-efficacy, undergraduate status, receipt of financial aid, employment, stress, living in the same situation as before the campus closure, and consumption of more take-out or fast food. These individuals had more barriers to food access. Knowledge of these factors provide useful information to inform future support services for this population in similar conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Food Security , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Students , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Cooking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Family , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Midwestern United States , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130406, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169125

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries took strong lockdown policy to reduce disease spreading, resulting in mitigating the ambient air pollution due to less traffic and industrial emissions. However, limited studies focused on the household air pollution especially in rural area, the potential risk induced by indoor air pollution exposure was unknown during this period. This field study continuously measured real-time PM2.5 levels in kitchen, living room, and outdoor in the normal days (Period-1) and the days of COVID-19 lockdown overlapping the Chinese Spring Festival (Period-2) in rural homes in China. The average daily PM2.5 concentrations increased by 17.4 and 5.1 µg/m3 in kitchen and living room during Period-2, respectively, which may be due to more fuel consumption for cooking and heating caused by larger family sizes than those during the normal days. The ambient PM2.5 concentration in rural areas in Period-2 decreased by 6.7 µg/m3 compared to the Period-1, less than the drop in urban areas (26.8 µg/m3). An increase of mass fraction of very fine particles in ambient air was observed during lockdown overlapping annual festival days, which could be explained by the residential solid fuel burning. Due to higher indoor air pollution level and longer time spent in indoor environments, daily personal exposure to PM2.5 was 134 ± 40 µg/m3 in Period-2, which was significantly higher than that during in Period-1 (126 ± 27 µg/m3, p < 0.05). The increase of personal PM2.5 exposure during Period-2 could potentially have negative impact on human health, indicating further investigations should be performed to estimate the health impact of global COVID-19 lockdown on community, especially in rural homes using solid fuels as the routine fuels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Environmental Monitoring , Family Characteristics , Holidays , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Altern Complement Med ; 26(11): 971-975, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159434
11.
Appetite ; 163: 105220, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157122

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify individual, household and sociodemographic factors associated with changes in food consumption that lead to changes in the diet quality, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic concerning Brazilian adults. Improvements or worsening in diet quality (IDQ or WDQ) were verified using an exploratory online survey which investigated whether participants (n = 4780) increased or decreased their consumption of food subgroups that mark positive or negative food patterns. Respondents also agreed or disagreed with their beliefs about food safety, cooking skills, family support, home characterization, feelings and behaviors. All factors of influence on the IDQ or WDQ groups were always compared against the general participants (who did not change their diet sufficiently to be classified into these groups). Individuals from the IDQ group spent more time on food (81.4% versus 62.0%), started to cook more often (91.4%), were more confident with their cooking skills (p < 0.01) and positive feelings were at least 2.5 times more prevalent. Adjusted analysis showed the chance to improve diet was 1.39 higher among those who did not feel overworked and increased 1.07 in each additional cooking chore shared between household members. For each additional positive feeling, the odds were 1.41 to IDQ and 0.67 to WDQ. Moreover, for each additional negative feeling the chances for WDQ were 1.21 and 0.90 for IDQ. Those in the WDQ group were more unaware of issues related to contagion during meals, they were not afraid of eating food prepared outside their home and agreed that industrialized food is safer (OR = 1.85). These results highlight the associated factors in improving or worsening diet patterns as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, supporting messages presented in Dietary Guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Brazil , Cooking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Emotions , Feeding Behavior , Habits , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112723

ABSTRACT

Evidence of short-term impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on family life is emerging. Continued research can shed light on potential longer-term impacts. An online survey of U.S. parents with 4- to 8-year-old children (n = 1000) was administered in October 2020. The survey examined parent-reported impacts of COVID-19 on lifestyle (e.g., work, child-care, grocery shopping), as well as current family food acquisition and eating behaviors (e.g., cooking, restaurant use). Descriptive statistics were calculated, incorporating sampling weights based on sociodemographics. In terms of COVID-19 impacts, parents reported increases in working from home, decreased work hours, and increased child care and instruction, with most children attending school or receiving care at home. Parents reported increased home cooking and online grocery shopping; only 33% reported increased take-out or delivery from restaurants. About half of parents reported that their child dined at restaurants, 62% reported getting take-out, and 57% reported delivery from restaurants at least 2-3 times per month. About half viewed dining at restaurants as safe, while take-out and delivery were seen as safe by around three-quarters. Approximately two-thirds reported recent food insecurity. These nationally-representative results illustrate possible longer-lasting shifts in family life, with the potential to impact health and well-being. Sociodemographic differences and research and policy implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Cooking , Humans , Parents , Restaurants
13.
Indoor Air ; 31(5): 1484-1494, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109549

ABSTRACT

Air quality in indoor environments can have significant impacts on people's health, comfort, and productivity. Particulate matter (PM; also referred to as aerosols) is an important type of air pollutant, and exposure to outdoor PM has been associated with a variety of diseases. In addition, there is increasing recognition and concern of airborne transmission of viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome corona-virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), especially in indoor environments. Despite its importance, indoor PM data during the COVID-19 pandemic are scarce. In this work, we measured and compared particle number and mass concentrations in aircraft cabins during commercial flights with various indoor environments in Atlanta, GA, during July 2020, including retail stores, grocery stores, restaurants, offices, transportation, and homes. Restaurants had the highest particle number and mass concentrations, dominated by cooking emissions, while in-flight aircraft cabins had the lowest observed concentrations out of all surveyed spaces.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Air Pollution , Particulate Matter/analysis , Aircraft/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cooking , Environmental Monitoring , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Particle Size , Restaurants/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Supermarkets
14.
S Afr Med J ; 111(1): 17-19, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067957

ABSTRACT

Illuminating paraffin (kerosene) is the primary cooking fuel for approximately two million South Africans. The highly flammable and toxic fuel is burnt in poorly made stoves that are prone to malfunction and are associated with accidental fires, burns and household air pollution. However, the fuel continues to be used as it is easily decanted, widely available in neighbourhood outlets, perceived as affordable, and often the only available option for low-income urban settlements. It is anticipated that increased and enforced home congestion during COVID-19 lockdowns will exacerbate exposure of homebound families to unsafe energy, especially during the cold winter months. Based on an accumulation of evidence on the health and socioeconomic impacts of paraffin, this article advocates for its expedited phase-out and substitution with safer energy.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Burns/epidemiology , Fires/statistics & numerical data , Kerosene/adverse effects , Public Policy , Accidents, Home/economics , Accidents, Home/statistics & numerical data , Air Pollution/economics , Burns/economics , Burns/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Economic Factors , Electric Power Supplies , Fires/economics , Fuel Oils , Household Articles , Humans , Kerosene/poisoning , Paraffin , Poisoning , Poverty , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Urban Population
15.
Food Chem ; 349: 129178, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065087

ABSTRACT

Chinese steamed breads (CSB) and noodles are staple foods for many people. The production of frozen steamed products and boiled noodles has kept increasing. This is due to the increasing demand of ready-to-eat frozen food products from the market. Frozen storage significantly increases the self-life of the products and reduces the production costs. On the other hand, the freezing and frozen storage lead to quality loss of the frozen products. This review summarizes effects of freezing and frozen storage on diverse quality attributes (e.g., structural and textural properties) of frozen northern-type steamed breads and boiled noodles. Food safety of the frozen products related to the COVID-19 pandemic is discussed. To counteract the quality loss of the frozen products, suitable processing methods, selection of basic ingredients and uses of various food additives can be done. Research gaps to improve the textural, cooking and nutritional quality of frozen CSB and noodles are suggested.


Subject(s)
Bread/analysis , Flour/analysis , Food Storage , Cooking , Freezing , Humans , Nutritive Value , Steam
16.
Appetite ; 161: 105117, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033539

ABSTRACT

The frequency of cooking at home has not been assessed globally. Data from the Gallup World Poll in 2018/2019 wave (N = 145,417) were collected in 142 countries using telephone and face to face interviews. We describe differences in frequency of 'scratch' cooking lunch and dinner across the globe by gender. Poisson regression was used to assess predictors of cooking frequency. Associations between disparities in cooking frequency (at the country level) between men and women with perceptions of subjective well-being were assessed using linear regression. Across the globe, cooking frequency varied considerably; dinner was cooked more frequently than lunch; and, women (median frequency 5 meals/week) cooked both meals more frequently than men (median frequency 0 meals/week). At the country level, greater gender disparities in cooking frequency are associated with lower Positive Experience Index scores (-0.021, p = 0.009). Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the frequency with which men and women cook meals varied considerably between nations; and, women cooked more frequently than men worldwide. The pandemic, and related 'stay at home' directives have dramatically reshaped the world, and it will be important to monitor changes in the ways and frequency with which people around the world cook and eat; and, how those changes relate to dietary patterns and health outcomes on a national, regional and global level.


Subject(s)
Cooking/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
17.
Health Informatics J ; 27(1): 1460458220976719, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030278

ABSTRACT

Healthy eating is an important issue affecting a large part of the world population, so human diets are becoming increasingly popular, especially with the devastating consequences of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19). A realistic and sustainable diet plan can help us to have a healthy eating habit since it considers most of the expectations from a diet without any restriction. In this study, the classical diet problem has been extended in terms of modelling, data sets and solution approach. Inspired by animals' hunting strategies, it was re-modelled as a many-objective optimisation problem. In order to have realistic and applicable diet plans, cooked dishes are used. A well-known many-objective evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the diet problem. Results show that our approach can optimise specialised daily menus for different user types, depending on their preferences, age, gender and body index. Our approach can be easily adapted for users with health issues by adding new constraints and objectives. Our approach can be used individually or by dietitians as a decision support mechanism.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy/methods , Energy Intake , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Behavioral Sciences , Body Mass Index , Cooking/economics , Cooking/methods , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Food Preferences , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Vegetarians
18.
Environ Int ; 147: 106335, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987641

ABSTRACT

Clean cooking energy strategies are critical for reducing air pollution, improving health, and achieving related Sustainable Development Goals. The recent COVID-19 lockdowns may impact the transition towards clean cooking fuels. The nationwide lockdown is likely to affect key factors such as energy access, income, transportation, etc., that play a role in decisions influencing household fuel use. The rural population already bears the burden of poverty and may not be able to afford and access clean cooking fuels during the lockdown. They are thus vulnerable to reversion to their traditional cooking methods using solid biomass fuels. The household air pollution caused due to the use of polluting fuels increases their susceptibility to non-communicable diseases, and thus may intensify the risk and severity of COVID-19 infection. Hence, there is an urgent need to expand sustainable energy solutions worldwide. The present study applies the DPSIR modeling framework to establish a set of comprehensive indicators for addressing the transition towards clean cooking fuels during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also provides insights on various strategies adopted in India in response to the COVID-19 pandemic for maintaining continuity of delivering benefits under a clean cookstove program. The study offers future directions to ensure the transition towards cleaner fuels and sustainability.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Humans , India , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 36(9): 689-702, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947903

ABSTRACT

In Spring/Summer 2020, most individuals living in the United States experienced several months of social distancing and stay-at-home orders because of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinicians, restaurant cooks, cashiers, transit operators, and other essential workers (EWs), however, continued to work outside the home during this time in order to keep others alive and maintain a functioning society. In the United States, EWs are often low-income persons of color who are more likely to face socioeconomic vulnerabilities, systemic racism, and health inequities. To assess the various impacts of COVID-19 on EWs, an online survey was distributed to a representative sample of individuals residing in six states during May/June 2020. The sample included 990 individuals who identified as EWs and 736 nonessential workers (NWs). We assessed differences between EW and NW respondents according to three categories related to health equity and social determinants of health: (1) demographics (e.g. race/ethnicity); (2) COVID-19 exposure risk pathways (e.g. ability to social distance); and (3) COVID-19 risk perceptions (e.g. perceived risk of contracting COVID-19). EWs were more likely to be Black or Hispanic than NWs and also had lower incomes and education levels on average. Unsurprisingly, EWs were substantially more likely to report working outside the home and less likely to report social distancing and wearing masks indoors as compared to NWs. EWs also perceived a slightly greater risk of contracting COVID-19. These findings, which we discuss in the context of persistent structural inequalities, systemic racism, and health inequities within the United States, highlight ways in which COVID-19 exacerbates existing socioeconomic vulnerabilities faced by EWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity , Industry/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , Social Determinants of Health , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Commerce , Cooking , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
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