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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892899

ABSTRACT

We studied the kinetics of the reaction of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC or RSH) with cupric ions at an equimolar ratio of the reactants in aqueous acid solution (pH 1.4-2) using UV/Vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. Cu2+ showed a strong catalytic effect on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical (ABTSr) consumption and autoxidation of NAC. Difference spectra revealed the formation of intermediates with absorption maxima at 233 and 302 nm (ε302/Cu > 8 × 103 M-1 cm-1) and two positive Cotton effects centered at 284 and 302 nm. These intermediates accumulate during the first, O2-independent, phase of the NAC autoxidation. The autocatalytic production of another chiral intermediate, characterized by two positive Cotton effects at 280 and 333 nm and an intense negative one at 305 nm, was observed in the second reaction phase. The intermediates are rapidly oxidized by added ABTSr; otherwise, they are stable for hours in the reaction solution, undergoing a slow pH- and O2-dependent photosensitive decay. The kinetic and spectral data are consistent with proposed structures of the intermediates as disulfide-bridged dicopper(I) complexes of types cis-/trans-CuI2(RS)2(RSSR) and CuI2(RSSR)2. The electronic transitions observed in the UV/Vis and CD spectra are tentatively attributed to Cu(I) → disulfide charge transfer with an interaction of the transition dipole moments (exciton coupling). The catalytic activity of the intermediates as potential O2 activators via Cu(II) peroxo-complexes is discussed. A mechanism for autocatalytic oxidation of Cu(I)-thiolates promoted by a growing electronically coupled -[CuI2(RSSR)]n- polymer is suggested. The obtained results are in line with other reported observations regarding copper-catalyzed autoxidation of thiols and provide new insight into these complicated, not yet fully understood systems. The proposed hypotheses point to the importance of the Cu(I)-disulfide interaction, which may have a profound impact on biological systems.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Antioxidants , Copper/chemistry , Disulfides , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxygen/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7193, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890250

ABSTRACT

The current Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has exemplified the need for simple and efficient prevention strategies that can be rapidly implemented to mitigate infection risks. Various surfaces have a long history of antimicrobial properties and are well described for the prevention of bacterial infections. However, their effect on many viruses has not been studied in depth. In the context of COVID-19, several surfaces, including copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) coatings have been described as efficient antiviral measures that can easily be implemented to slow viral transmission. In this study, we detected antiviral properties against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) on surfaces, which were coated with Cu by magnetron sputtering as thin Cu films or as Cu/Ag ultrathin bimetallic nanopatches. However, no effect of Ag on viral titers was observed, in clear contrast to its well-known antibacterial properties. Further enhancement of Ag ion release kinetics based on an electrochemical sacrificial anode mechanism did not increase antiviral activity. These results clearly demonstrate that Cu and Ag thin film systems display significant differences in antiviral and antibacterial properties which need to be considered upon implementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Silver , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Copper/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology
3.
Inorg Chem ; 61(24): 8992-8996, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878482

ABSTRACT

The first encoded SARS-CoV-2 protein (Nsp1) binds to the human 40S ribosome and blocks synthesis of host proteins, thereby inhibiting critical elements of the innate immune response. The final 33 residues of the natively unstructured Nsp1 C-terminus adopt a helix-turn-helix geometry upon binding to the ribosome. We have characterized the fluctuating conformations of this peptide using circular dichroism spectroscopy along with measurements of tryptophan fluorescence and energy transfer. Tryptophan fluorescence decay kinetics reveal that copper(II) binds to the peptide at micromolar concentrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that the metal ion coordinates to the lone histidine residue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Circular Dichroism , Copper/chemistry , Humans , Peptides/chemistry , Tryptophan/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Virulence Factors
4.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715755

ABSTRACT

The interaction of phages with abiotic environmental surfaces is usually an understudied field of phage ecology. In this study, we investigated the virucidal potential of different metal salts, metal and ceramic powders doped with Ag and Cu ions, and newly fabricated ceramic and metal surfaces against Phi6 bacteriophage. The new materials were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and/or selective laser melting (SLM) techniques and had different surface free energies and infiltration features. We show that inactivation of Phi6 in solutions with Ag and Cu ions can be as effective as inactivation by pH, temperature, or UV. Adding powder to Ag and Cu ion solutions decreased their virucidal effect. The newly fabricated ceramic and metal surfaces showed very good virucidal activity. In particular, 45%TiO2 + 5%Ag + 45%ZrO2 + 5%Cu, in addition to virus adhesion, showed virucidal and infiltration properties. The results indicate that more than 99.99% of viruses deposited on the new ceramic surface were inactivated or irreversibly attached to it.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Copper/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Bacteriophage phi 6/growth & development , Bacteriophage phi 6/physiology , Ceramics/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Powders/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Temperature
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3316, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713215

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, caused the COVID-19 pandemic, characterized by its high rate of contamination, propagation capacity, and lethality rate. In this work, we approach the use of phthalocyanines as an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, as they present several interactive properties of the phthalocyanines (Pc) of Cobalt (CoPc), Copper (CuPc) and without a metal group (NoPc) can interact with SARS-CoV-2, showing potential be used as filtering by adsorption on paints on walls, masks, clothes, and air conditioning filters. Molecular modeling techniques through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics were used, where the target was the external structures of the virus, but specifically the envelope protein, main protease, and Spike glycoprotein proteases. Using the g_MM-GBSA module and with it, the molecular docking studies show that the ligands have interaction characteristics capable of adsorbing the structures. Molecular dynamics provided information on the root-mean-square deviation of the atomic positions provided values between 1 and 2.5. The generalized Born implicit solvation model, Gibbs free energy, and solvent accessible surface area approach were used. Among the results obtained through molecular dynamics, it was noticed that interactions occur since Pc could bind to residues of the active site of macromolecules, demonstrating good interactions; in particular with CoPc. Molecular couplings and free energy showed that S-gly active site residues interacted strongly with phthalocyanines with values ​​of - 182.443 kJ/mol (CoPc), 158.954 kJ/mol (CuPc), and - 129.963 kJ/mol (NoPc). The interactions of Pc's with SARS-CoV-2 may predict some promising candidates for antagonists to the virus, which if confirmed through experimental approaches, may contribute to resolving the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cobalt/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Humans
6.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703897

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised the problem of efficient, low-cost materials enabling the effective protection of people from viruses transmitted through the air or via surfaces. Nanofibers can be a great candidate for efficient air filtration due to their structure, although they cannot protect from viruses. In this work, we prepared a wide range of nanofibrous biodegradable samples containing Ag (up to 0.6 at.%) and Cu (up to 20.4 at.%) exhibiting various wettability. By adjusting the magnetron current (0.3 A) and implanter voltage (5 kV), the deposition of TiO2 and Ag+ implantation into PCL/PEO nanofibers was optimized in order to achieve implantation of Ag+ without damaging the nanofibrous structure of the PCL/PEO. The optimal conditions to implant silver were achieved for the PCL-Ti0.3-Ag-5kV sample. The coating of PCL nanofibers by a Cu layer was successfully realized by magnetron sputtering. The antiviral activity evaluated by widely used methodology involving the cultivation of VeroE6 cells was the highest for PCL-Cu and PCL-COOH, where the VeroE6 viability was 73.1 and 68.1%, respectively, which is significantly higher compared to SARS-CoV-2 samples without self-sanitizing (42.8%). Interestingly, the samples with implanted silver and TiO2 exhibited no antiviral effect. This difference between Cu and Ag containing nanofibers might be related to the different concentrations of ions released from the samples: 80 µg/L/day for Cu2+ versus 15 µg/L/day for Ag+. The high antiviral activity of PCL-Cu opens up an exciting opportunity to prepare low-cost self-sanitizing surfaces for anti-SARS-CoV-2 protection and can be essential for air filtration application and facemasks. The rough cost estimation for the production of a biodegradable nanohybrid PCL-Cu facemask revealed ~$0.28/piece, and the business case for the production of these facemasks would be highly positive, with an Internal Rate of Return of 34%.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Nanofibers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Chlorocebus aethiops , Copper/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Polyesters/chemistry , Titanium/chemistry , Vero Cells
7.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 458, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577211

ABSTRACT

Bio-inspired Topographically Mediated Surfaces (TMSs) based on high aspect ratio nanostructures have recently been attracting significant attention due to their pronounced antimicrobial properties by mechanically disrupting cellular processes. However, scalability of such surfaces is often greatly limited, as most of them rely on micro/nanoscale fabrication techniques. In this report, a cost-effective, scalable, and versatile approach of utilizing diamond nanotechnology for producing TMSs, and using them for limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases, is introduced. Specifically, diamond-based nanostructured coatings are synthesized in a single-step fabrication process with a densely packed, needle- or spike-like morphology. The antimicrobial proprieties of the diamond nanospike surface are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared to other surfaces including copper, silicon, and even other diamond surfaces without the nanostructuring. This surface is found to have superior biocidal activity, which is confirmed via scanning electron microscopy images showing definite and widespread destruction of E. coli cells on the diamond nanospike surface. Consistent antimicrobial behavior is also observed on a sample prepared seven years prior to testing date.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Diamond/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Copper/pharmacology , Diamond/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Nanostructures/ultrastructure , Nanotechnology , Surface Properties
8.
ChemMedChem ; 16(23): 3553-3558, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437037

ABSTRACT

In the search for a fast contact-killing antimicrobial surface to break the transmission pathway of lethal pathogens, nanostructured copper surfaces were found to exhibit the desired antimicrobial properties. Compared with plain copper, these nanostructured copper surfaces with Cu(OH)2 nano-sword or CuO nano-foam were found to completely eliminate pathogens at a fast rate, including clinically isolated drug resistant species. Additionally these nanostructured copper surfaces demonstrated potential antiviral properties when assessed against bacteriophages, as a viral surrogate, and murine hepatitis virus, a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. The multiple modes of killing, physical killing and copper ion mediated killing contribute to the superior and fast kinetics of antimicrobial action against common microbes, and ESKAPE pathogens. Prototypes for air and water cleaning with current nanostructured copper surface have also been demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Copper/chemistry , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Hydroxides/chemistry , Nanostructures/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Copper/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nanostructures/chemistry , Surface Properties
9.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376915

ABSTRACT

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are higher-order supramolecular structures, biologically important in the regulation of many key processes. Among all, the recent discoveries relating to RNA-G4s, including their potential involvement as antiviral targets against COVID-19, have triggered the ever-increasing need to develop selective molecules able to interact with parallel G4s. Naphthalene diimides (NDIs) are widely exploited as G4 ligands, being able to induce and strongly stabilize these structures. Sometimes, a reversible NDI-G4 interaction is also associated with an irreversible one, due to the cleavage and/or modification of G4s by functional-NDIs. This is the case of NDI-Cu-DETA, a copper(II) complex able to cleave G4s in the closest proximity to the target binding site. Herein, we present two original Cu(II)-NDI complexes, inspired by NDI-Cu-DETA, differently functionalized with 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol side-chains, to selectively drive redox-catalyzed activity towards parallel G4s. The selective interaction toward parallel G4 topology, controlled by the presence of 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol side chains, was already firmly demonstrated by us using core-extended NDIs. In the present study, the presence of protonable moieties and the copper(II) cavity, increases the binding affinity and specificity of these two NDIs for a telomeric RNA-G4. Once defined the copper coordination relationship and binding constants by competition titrations, ability in G4 stabilization, and ROS-induced cleavage were analyzed. The propensity in the stabilization of parallel topology was highlighted for both of the new compounds HP2Cu and PE2Cu. The results obtained are particularly promising, paving the way for the development of new selective functional ligands for binding and destructuring parallel G4s.


Subject(s)
Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , G-Quadruplexes , Imides/chemistry , Naphthalenes/chemistry , Binding Sites , DEET/chemistry , Ligands , Oxidation-Reduction , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
Biometals ; 34(6): 1217-1235, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358109

ABSTRACT

Copper (Cu) and its alloys are prospective materials in fighting covid-19 virus and several microbial pandemics, due to its excellent antiviral as well as antimicrobial properties. Even though many studies have proved that copper and its alloys exhibit antiviral properties, this research arena requires further research attention. Several studies conducted on copper and its alloys have proven that copper-based alloys possess excellent potential in controlling the spread of infectious diseases. Moreover, recent studies indicate that these alloys can effectively inactivate the covid-19 virus. In view of this, the present article reviews the importance of copper and its alloys in reducing the spread and infection of covid-19, which is a global pandemic. The electronic databases such as ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed were searched for identifying relevant studies in the present review article. The review starts with a brief description on the history of copper usage in medicine followed by the effect of copper content in human body and antiviral mechanisms of copper against covid-19. The subsequent sections describe the distinctive copper based material systems such as alloys, nanomaterials and coating technologies in combating the spread of covid-19. Overall, copper based materials can be propitiously used as part of preventive and therapeutic strategies in the fight against covid-19 virus.


Subject(s)
Alloys/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Copper/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Disinfection , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105265, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356144

ABSTRACT

In spite of possessing a wide range of pharmacological properties the anti-inflammatory activities of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones were rarely known or explored earlier. PDE4 inhibitors on the other hand in addition to their usefulness in treating inflammatory diseases have been suggested to attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19 especially TNF-α. In our effort, a new class of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones derivatives containing an aminosulfonyl moiety were designed and explored as potential inhibitors of PDE4. Accordingly, for the first time a CuCl2-catalyzed inexpensive, faster and ligand/additive free approach has been developed for the synthesis of these predesigned isoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives via the coupling-cyclization strategy. Thus, the CuCl2-catalyzed reaction of 2-iodobenzamides with appropriate terminal alkynes proceeded with high chemo and regioselectivity affording the desired compounds in 77-84% yield within 1-1.5 h. The methodology also afforded simpler isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones devoid of aminosulfonyl moiety showing a broader generality and scope of this approach. Several of the synthesized compounds especially 3c, 3k and 3s showed impressive inhibition (83-90%) of PDE4B when tested at 10 µM in vitro whereas compounds devoid of aminosulfonyl moiety was found to be less active. In spite of high inhibition showed at 10 µM these compounds did not show proper concertation dependent inhibition below 1 µM that was reflected in their IC50 values e.g. 2.43 ± 0.32, 3.26 ± 0.24 and 3.63 ± 0.80 µM for 3k, 3o and 3s respectively. The anti-inflammatory potential of these compounds was indicated by their TNF-α inhibition (60-50% at 10 µM). The in silico docking studies of these molecules suggested good interactions with PDE4B and selective inhibition of PDE4B by 3k over PDE4D that was supported by in vitro assay results. These observations together with the favorable ADME and safety predicted for 3kin silico not only suggested 3k as an interesting hit molecule for further studies but also reveal the first example of isoquinolin-1(2H)-one based inhibitor of PDE4B.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/chemistry , Isoquinolines/chemistry , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Catalysis , Cyclization , Enzyme Assays , Humans , Isoquinolines/chemical synthesis , Mice , Molecular Structure , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , RAW 264.7 Cells , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3753, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275913

ABSTRACT

Climate change will increase the frequency and severity of supply chain disruptions and large-scale economic crises, also prompting environmentally protective local policies. Here we use econometric time series analysis, inventory-driven price formation, dynamic material flow analysis, and life cycle assessment to model each copper supply chain actor's response to China's solid waste import ban and the COVID-19 pandemic. We demonstrate that the economic changes associated with China's solid waste import ban increase primary refining within China, offsetting the environmental benefits of decreased copper scrap refining and generating a cumulative increase in CO2-equivalent emissions of up to 13 Mt by 2040. Increasing China's refined copper imports reverses this trend, decreasing CO2e emissions in China (up to 180 Mt by 2040) and globally (up to 20 Mt). We test sensitivity to supply chain disruptions using GDP, mining, and refining shocks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, showing the results translate onto disruption effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Carbon Dioxide/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Environmental Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Solid Waste/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Industry/economics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Solid Waste/statistics & numerical data
13.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(3): 105, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152017

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic starting in 2020. Accordingly, testing is crucial for mitigating the economic and public health effects. In order to facilitate point-of-care diagnosis, this study aims at presenting a label-free electrochemical biosensor as a powerful nanobiodevice for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein detection. Utilizing the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody onto the electrode surface as a specific platform in an ordered orientation through staphylococcal protein A (ProtA) is highly significant in fabricating the designed nanobiodevice. In this sense, the screen-printed carbon electrode modified with Cu2O nanocubes (Cu2O NCs), which provide a large surface area in a very small space, was applied in order to increase the ProtA loading on the electrode surface. Accordingly, the sensitivity and stability of the sensing platform significantly increased. The electrochemical evaluations proved that there is a very good linear relationship between the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and spike protein contents via a specific binding reaction in the range 0.25 fg mL-1 to 1 µg mL-1. Moreover, the assay when tested with influenza viruses 1 and 2 was performed in 20 min with a low detection limit of 0.04 fg mL-1 for spike protein without any cross-reactivity. The designed nanobiodevice exhibited an average satisfactory recovery rate of ~ 97-103% in different artificial sample matrices, i.e., saliva, artificial nasal, and universal transport medium (UTM), illustrating its high detection performance and practicability. The nanobiodevice was also tested using real patients and healthy samples, where the results had been already obtained using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure, and showed satisfactory results. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Copper/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Electrodes , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Staphylococcal Protein A/chemistry , Surface Properties
14.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(3): 105, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111278

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic starting in 2020. Accordingly, testing is crucial for mitigating the economic and public health effects. In order to facilitate point-of-care diagnosis, this study aims at presenting a label-free electrochemical biosensor as a powerful nanobiodevice for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein detection. Utilizing the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody onto the electrode surface as a specific platform in an ordered orientation through staphylococcal protein A (ProtA) is highly significant in fabricating the designed nanobiodevice. In this sense, the screen-printed carbon electrode modified with Cu2O nanocubes (Cu2O NCs), which provide a large surface area in a very small space, was applied in order to increase the ProtA loading on the electrode surface. Accordingly, the sensitivity and stability of the sensing platform significantly increased. The electrochemical evaluations proved that there is a very good linear relationship between the charge transfer resistance (Rct) and spike protein contents via a specific binding reaction in the range 0.25 fg mL-1 to 1 µg mL-1. Moreover, the assay when tested with influenza viruses 1 and 2 was performed in 20 min with a low detection limit of 0.04 fg mL-1 for spike protein without any cross-reactivity. The designed nanobiodevice exhibited an average satisfactory recovery rate of ~ 97-103% in different artificial sample matrices, i.e., saliva, artificial nasal, and universal transport medium (UTM), illustrating its high detection performance and practicability. The nanobiodevice was also tested using real patients and healthy samples, where the results had been already obtained using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure, and showed satisfactory results. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Copper/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Electrodes , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity , Staphylococcal Protein A/chemistry , Surface Properties
15.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104772, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095884

ABSTRACT

The pandemic by COVID-19 is hampering everything on the earth including physical and mental health, daily life and global economy. At the moment, there are no defined drugs, while few vaccines are available in the market to combat SARS-CoV-2. Several organic molecules were designed and tested against the virus but they did not show promising activity. In this work we designed two copper complexes from the ligands analogues with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Both the ligands and complexes were well characterized by using various spectroscopic, thermal and X-ray diffraction techniques. Both the complexes as well as ligands were screened through in silico method with the chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine which essentially proved pivotal for successful understanding towards the target protein and their mechanism of action. The results indicated that the balanced hydrophobic and polar groups in the complexes favor their binding in the active site of the viral ADP-ribose-1 monophosphatase enzyme over the parent organic molecules.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Drug Design , Oxyquinoline/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents , Computer Simulation , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure
16.
Nano Lett ; 21(1): 337-343, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065789

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, the increasing demand and disposal of surgical masks has resulted in significant economic costs and environmental impacts. Here, we applied a dual-channel spray-assisted nanocoating hybrid of shellac/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) to a nonwoven surgical mask, thereby increasing the hydrophobicity of the surface and repelling aqueous droplets. The resulting surface showed outstanding photoactivity (combined photocatalytic and photothermal properties) for antimicrobial action, conferring reusability and self-sterilizing ability to the masks. Under solar illumination, the temperature of this photoactive antiviral mask (PAM) rapidly increased to >70 °C, generating a high level of free radicals that disrupted the membrane of nanosized (∼100 nm) virus-like particles and made the masks self-cleaning and reusable. This PAM design can provide significant protection against the transmission of viral aerosols in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Copper/chemistry , Masks/virology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Sterilization/methods , Catalysis , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Photochemical Processes , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Temperature
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112753, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885210

ABSTRACT

A polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted copper in-situ growth (CISG) strategy was proposed as a controlled signal amplification strategy to enhance the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow sensors (AuNP-LFS). The controlled signal amplification is achieved by introducing PEI as a structure-directing agent to regulate the thermodynamics of anisotropic Cu nanoshell growth on the AuNP surface, thus controlling shape and size of the resultant AuNP@Cu core-shell nanostructures and confining free reduction and self-nucleation of Cu2+ for improved reproducibility and decreased false positives. The PEI-CISG-enhanced AuNP-LFS showed ultrahigh sensitivities with the detection limits of 50 fg mL-1 for HIV-1 capsid p24 antigen and 6 CFU mL-1 for Escherichia coli O157:H7. We further demonstrated its clinical diagnostic efficacy by configuring PEI-CISG into a commercial AuNP-LFS detection kit for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Altogether, this work provides a reliable signal amplification platform to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of AuNP-LFS for rapid and accurate diagnostics of various infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Copper/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Equipment Design , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , HIV Core Protein p24/analysis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Oxidation-Reduction , Pandemics , Polyethyleneimine/chemistry , Reagent Strips/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(31): 34723-34727, 2020 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-644208

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the disease COVID-19, remains viable on solids for periods of up to 1 week, so one potential route for human infection is via exposure to an infectious dose from a solid. We have fabricated and tested a coating that is designed to reduce the longevity of SARS-CoV-2 on solids. The coating consists of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) particles bound with polyurethane. After 1 h on coated glass or stainless steel, the viral titer was reduced by about 99.9% on average compared to the uncoated sample. An advantage of a polyurethane-based coating is that polyurethane is already used to coat a large number of everyday objects. Our coating adheres well to glass and stainless steel as well as everyday items that people may fear to touch during a pandemic, such as a doorknob, a pen, and a credit card keypad button. The coating performs well in the cross-hatch durability test and remains intact and active after 13 days of being immersed in water or after exposure to multiple cycles of exposure to the virus and disinfection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Copper/chemistry , Copper/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Polyurethanes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties
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