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1.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1547-1554, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically altered the delivery of healthcare services, resulting in significant referral pattern changes, delayed presentations, and procedural delays. Our objective was to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on all-cause mortality in patients awaiting commonly performed cardiac procedures. METHODS: Clinical and administrative data sets were linked to identify all adults referred for: (1) percutaneous coronary intervention; (2) coronary artery bypass grafting; (3) valve surgery; and (4) transcatheter aortic valve implantation, from January 2014 to September 2020 in Ontario, Canada. Piece-wise regression models were used to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on referrals and procedural volume. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of the pandemic on waitlist mortality for the 4 procedures. RESULTS: We included 584,341 patients who were first-time referrals for 1 of the 4 procedures, of whom 37,718 (6.4%) were referred during the pandemic. The pandemic period was associated with a significant decline in the number of referrals and procedures completed compared with the prepandemic period. Referral during the pandemic period was a significant predictor for increased all-cause mortality for the percutaneous coronary intervention (hazard ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.27) and coronary artery bypass grafting (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.01), but not for surgical valve or transcatheter aortic valve implantation referrals. Procedural wait times were shorter during the pandemic period compared with the prepandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in referrals and procedures completed for cardiac procedures during the pandemic period. Referral during the pandemic was associated with increased all-cause mortality while awaiting coronary revascularization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Delayed Diagnosis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/statistics & numerical data , Waiting Lists/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , Delayed Diagnosis/psychology , Delayed Diagnosis/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration
2.
Am Heart J ; 241: 14-25, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted routine cardiovascular care, with unclear impact on procedural deferrals and associated outcomes across diverse patient populations. METHODS: Cardiovascular procedures performed at 30 hospitals across 6 Western states in 2 large, non-profit healthcare systems (Providence St. Joseph Health and Stanford Healthcare) from December 2018-June 2020 were analyzed for changes over time. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared across pandemic phases with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 36,125 procedures (69% percutaneous coronary intervention, 13% coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 10% transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and 8% surgical aortic valve replacement), weekly volumes changed in 2 distinct phases after the initial inflection point on February 23, 2020: an initial period of significant deferral (COVID I: March 15-April 11) followed by recovery (COVID II: April 12 onwards). Compared to pre-COVID, COVID I patients were less likely to be female (P = .0003), older (P < .0001), Asian or Black (P = .02), or Medicare insured (P < .0001), and COVID I procedures were higher acuity (P < .0001), but not higher complexity. In COVID II, there was a trend toward more procedural deferral in regions with a higher COVID-19 burden (P = .05). Compared to pre-COVID, there were no differences in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality during both COVID phases. CONCLUSIONS: Significant decreases in cardiovascular procedural volumes occurred early in the COVID-19 pandemic, with disproportionate impacts by race, gender, and age. These findings should inform our approach to future healthcare disruptions.


Subject(s)
Aortic Valve Disease/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Hospital Mortality , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/statistics & numerical data , African Americans , Aged , Asian Americans , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(12): 1419-1424, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695723

ABSTRACT

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed health care delivery worldwide. Although decreases in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been reported during the pandemic, the implication for in-hospital outcomes is not well understood. Objective: To define changes in AMI case rates, patient demographics, cardiovascular comorbidities, treatment approaches, and in-hospital outcomes during the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study retrospectively analyzed AMI hospitalizations that occurred between December 30, 2018, and May 16, 2020, in 1 of the 49 hospitals in the Providence St Joseph Health system located in 6 states (Alaska, Washington, Montana, Oregon, California, and Texas). The cohort included patients aged 18 years or older who had a principal discharge diagnosis of AMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]). Segmented regression analysis was performed to assess changes in weekly case volumes. Cases were grouped into 1 of 3 periods: before COVID-19 (December 30, 2018, to February 22, 2020), early COVID-19 (February 23, 2020, to March 28, 2020), and later COVID-19 (March 29, 2020, to May 16, 2020). In-hospital mortality was risk-adjusted using an observed to expected (O/E) ratio and covariate-adjusted multivariable model. Exposure: Date of hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the weekly rate of AMI (STEMI or NSTEMI) hospitalizations. The secondary outcomes were patient characteristics, treatment approaches, and in-hospital outcomes of this patient population. Results: The cohort included 15 244 AMI hospitalizations (of which 4955 were for STEMI [33%] and 10 289 for NSTEMI [67%]) involving 14 724 patients (mean [SD] age of 68 [13] years and 10 019 men [66%]). Beginning February 23, 2020, AMI-associated hospitalizations decreased at a rate of -19.0 (95% CI, -29.0 to -9.0) cases per week for 5 weeks (early COVID-19 period). Thereafter, AMI-associated hospitalizations increased at a rate of +10.5 (95% CI, +4.6 to +16.5) cases per week (later COVID-19 period). No appreciable differences in patient demographics, cardiovascular comorbidities, and treatment approaches were observed across periods. The O/E mortality ratio for AMI increased during the early period (1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.48), which was disproportionately associated with patients with STEMI (1.96; 95% CI, 1.22-2.70). Although the O/E mortality ratio for AMI was not statistically different during the later period (1.23; 95% CI, 0.98-1.47), increases in the O/E mortality ratio were noted for patients with STEMI (2.40; 95% CI, 1.65-3.16) and after risk adjustment (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.02-2.26). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found important changes in AMI hospitalization rates and worse outcomes during the early and later COVID-19 periods. Future studies are needed to identify contributors to the increased mortality rate among patients with STEMI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
5.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(3): 238-246, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691280

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 might have affected the care and outcomes of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic changed patient response, hospital treatment, and mortality from AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Admission was classified as non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or STEMI at 99 hospitals in England through live feeding from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project between 1 January 2019 and 22 May 2020. Time series plots were estimated using a 7-day simple moving average, adjusted for seasonality. From 23 March 2020 (UK lockdown), median daily hospitalizations decreased more for NSTEMI [69 to 35; incidence risk ratios (IRR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.54] than STEMI (35 to 25; IRR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69-0.80) to a nadir on 19 April 2020. During lockdown, patients were younger (mean age 68.7 vs. 66.9 years), less frequently diabetic (24.6% vs. 28.1%), or had cerebrovascular disease (7.0% vs. 8.6%). ST-elevation myocardial infarction more frequently received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (81.8% vs. 78.8%), thrombolysis was negligible (0.5% vs. 0.3%), median admission-to-coronary angiography duration for NSTEMI decreased (26.2 vs. 64.0 h), median duration of hospitalization decreased (4 to 2 days), secondary prevention pharmacotherapy prescription remained unchanged (each > 94.7%). Mortality at 30 days increased for NSTEMI [from 5.4% to 7.5%; odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.80], but decreased for STEMI (from 10.2% to 7.7%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). CONCLUSION: During COVID-19, there was a substantial decline in admissions with AMI. Those who presented to hospital were younger, less comorbid and, for NSTEMI, had higher 30-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Coronary Artery Bypass/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mortality/trends , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/virology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology , Seasons , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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