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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933356, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute inflammatory vasculitis, which occurs mostly in childhood, predominantly between the ages of 6 months and 5 years. The incidence of coronary artery abnormalities associated with KD has decreased from 25% to 4% as a result of timely diagnosis and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Infants ≤6 months of age are the most likely to develop prolonged fever without the other clinical criteria for KD, and diagnosis can sometimes be challenging or delayed. They are therefore at particularly high risk of developing coronary artery abnormalities. CASE REPORT A 2-month-old male infant with no significant medical history initially presented with a history of nasal congestion, right conjunctivitis, red lips, and 1 loose stool in the pre-COVID-19 era. He was diagnosed with otitis media and was started on oral amoxicillin. By day 7 of fever, he had developed symptoms and signs and laboratory findings consistent with Kawasaki disease, which is rare in this age group. His echocardiogram showed dilated proximal left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. He was successfully treated, and his most recent echocardiogram, performed 17 months after his treatment, showed remarkable improvement in the coronary arteries. CONCLUSIONS Kawasaki disease in children less than 6 months of age is still rare, and the presentation can sometimes make the diagnosis somewhat challenging. Increased clinical suspicion is required for recognition in the youngest patients, as they are more likely to present with few features of KD. Early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent or minimize the risk of significant coronary artery abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(11): 888-890, 2021 Nov.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496710

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old male patient with a history of atypical chest pain ad dyspnea presented to the emergency room during the COVID-19 pandemic. On admission, the ECG showed sinus rhythm with diphasic T waves in lead V2. A high resolution computed tomography revealed signs suggestive of pulmonary infarction and a subsequent nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. An ECG performed in the absence of symptoms showed persistence of diphasic T waves in lead V2. In the suspect of Wellens syndrome, a coronary angiography study was performed and showed a subocclusion of the proximal left anterior descending artery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Electrocardiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480863

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Health anxiety is one of the most common problems in patients with coronary artery disease. The present study tested whether health anxiety severity could be predicted by spiritual well-being and hope in patients with advanced coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients with advanced coronary artery disease were recruited from hospitals and healthcare centers in Iran. Patients completed self-report scales, including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Adult Hope Scale, and Short Health Anxiety Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to empirically explore the relations among variables. Results: Results indicated that patients who reported higher levels of hope (ß = 0.42, p < 0.01) and spiritual well-being (ß = 0.20, p < 0.05) reported lower levels of health anxiety. Agency (ß = 0.58, p < 0.01) scores were a significant negative predictor of health anxiety severity. Additionally, religious spirituality scores (ß = 0.28, p < 0.01) were shown to significantly negatively predict health anxiety level. However, the pathways components of hope and existential spirituality were not significant predictors. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that spiritual well-being and hope could be important factors in determining health anxiety for adults with coronary artery disease, and their role is worthy of further exploration to help improve health anxiety for patients with coronary artery disease.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Spirituality
4.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
5.
Heart Vessels ; 35(10): 1349-1359, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451965

ABSTRACT

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessed during adenosine-induced maximal hyperemia has emerged as a useful tool for the guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, interindividual variability in the response to adenosine has been claimed as a major limitation to the use of adenosine for the measurement of FFR, carrying the risk of underestimating the severity of coronary stenoses, with potential negative prognostic consequences. Genetic variants of the adenosine receptor A2a (ADORA2A gene), located in the coronary circulation, have been involved in the modulation of the hyperemic response to adenosine. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs5751876 of ADORA2A on the measurement of FFR in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention that was, therefore, the aim of our study. We included patients undergoing coronary angiography and FFR assessment for intermediate (40-70%) coronary lesions. FFR measurement was performed by pressure-recording guidewire (Prime Wire, Volcano), after induction of hyperemia with intracoronary boli of adenosine (from 60 to 1440 µg, with dose doubling at each step). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to assess the presence of rs5751876 C>T polymorphism of ADORA2a receptor. We included 204 patients undergoing FFR measurement of 231 coronary lesions. A total of 134 patients carried the polymorphism (T allele), of whom 41 (30.6%) in homozygosis (T/T).Main clinical and angiographic features did not differ according to ADORA2A genotype. The rs5751876 C>T polymorphism did not affect mean FFR values (p = 0.91), the percentage of positive FFR (p = 0.54) and the duration of maximal hyperemia. However, the time to recovery to baseline FFR values was more prolonged among the T-allele carriers as compared to wild-type patients (p = 0.04). Based on these results, in patients with intermediate coronary stenoses undergoing FFR assessment with adenosine, the polymorphism rs5751876 of ADORA2A does not affect the peak hyperemic response to adenosine and the results of FFR. However, a more prolonged effect of adenosine was observed in T-carriers.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Stenosis/genetics , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/genetics , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Aged , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Coronary Stenosis/diagnosis , Coronary Stenosis/physiopathology , Coronary Stenosis/therapy , Female , Humans , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
6.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(11): 818-827, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450783

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Currently, there are few available data regarding a possible role for subclinical atherosclerosis as a risk factor for mortality in Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. We used coronary artery calcium (CAC) score derived from chest computed tomography (CT) scan to assess the in-hospital prognostic role of CAC in patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Electronic medical records of patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) were excluded. A CAC score was calculated for each patient and was used to categorize them into one of four groups: 0, 1-299, 300-999 and at least 1000. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality for any cause. RESULTS: The final population consisted of 282 patients. Fifty-seven patients (20%) died over a follow-up time of 40 days. The presence of CAC was detected in 144 patients (51%). Higher CAC score values were observed in nonsurvivors [median: 87, interquartile range (IQR): 0.0-836] compared with survivors (median: 0, IQR: 0.0-136). The mortality rate in patients with a CAC score of at least 1000 was significantly higher than in patients without coronary calcifications (50 vs. 11%) and CAC score 1-299 (50 vs. 23%), P < 0.05. After adjusting for clinical variables, the presence of any CAC categories was not an independent predictor of mortality; however, a trend for increased risk of mortality was observed in patients with CAC of at least 1000. CONCLUSION: The correlation between CAC score and COVID-19 is fascinating and under-explored. However, in multivariable analysis, the CAC score did not show an additional value over more robust clinical variables in predicting in-hospital mortality. Only patients with the highest atherosclerotic burden (CAC ≥1000) could represent a high-risk population, similarly to patients with known CAD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Hospital Mortality , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021204, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404258

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)  have been the most common cause of death worldwide for decades. Until recently the most affected patients were middle-aged and elderly, predominantly men, with more frequent ST elevation myocardial infarction  (STEMI) caused by obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). However, in the last two decades we have noticed an increased incidence of ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA), which includes myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and non-myocardial infarction syndromes, such as microvascular and vasospastic angina, conditions that have been particularly pronounced in women and young adults - the population we considered low-risky till than. Therefore, it has become apparent that for this group of patients conventional methods of assessing the risk of future cardiovascular (CV) events are no longer specific and sensitive enough. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is another disease, the incidence of which has been rising rapidly during last two decades, and predominantly affects elderly population. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of INOCA and HFpEF are complex and not fully understood, there is no doubt that the underlying cause of both conditions is endothelial dysfunction (ED) which further promotes the development of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Plasma biomarkers of ED, as well as natriuretic peptides (NPs), have been intensively investigated recently, and some of them have great potential for early detection and better assessment of CV risk in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
8.
Sovrem Tekhnologii Med ; 13(4): 16-24, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395480

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to assess the gender-related specifics of the COVID-19 course in patients under 55 years of age. Materials and Methods: This pilot single-center continuous retrospective non-randomized study was carried out in the repurposed infectious diseases hospital of the Privolzhsky Research Medical University (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). The study inclusion criterion was the age of patients (up to 55 years) and confirmed coronavirus infection. In the groups based on gender differences (25 men, average age 44.0±7.8 years and 32 women, average age 41.9±9.1 years), we monitored complications of COVID-19 such as the transfer of patients to the ICU and the volume of lung damage (determined with CT scans). Results: The course of COVID-19 in male patients younger than 55 was aggravated by concomitant diseases (γ=0.36; p=0.043), among which IHD (γ=1.00; p=0.003) and liver disease (γ=0.58; p=0.007) dominated. Frequency analysis confirmed the high prevalence of coronary artery disease in men (p=0.044). Significant differences between the gender-related groups were noted in the volume of lung lesions: at admission (p=0.050), during hospital treatment (p=0.019), and at discharge (p=0.044). Using the logistic regression method, a relationship was found between the transfer of male patients to ICU and the Krebs index [y= -2.033 + 1.154 male gender + 1.539 Krebs index (χ2=5.68; p=0.059)] and comorbidity [y= -2.836 + 1.081 male gender + 2.052 comorbidity (χ2=7.03; p=0.030)]. The influence of the Krebs index and the male gender on the excess volume of lung lesions was shown [y= -1.962 + 0.575 male gender + 1.915 Krebs index (χ2=7.78; p=0.021)]. Conclusion: In individuals under the age of 55 diagnosed with COVID-19, gender is of significant importance: in men, there is a more pronounced lesion of the lung parenchyma and a more significant change in laboratory parameters. Risk factors for a severe course of COVID-19 in men are coronary artery disease and hepatobiliary disorder. Calculating the Krebs index can be used to assess the risk of disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Russia/epidemiology
9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 224-239, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387842

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To elucidate the prognostic role of monocytes in the immune response of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at risk for life-threatening heart and lung injury as major complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: From February to April 2020, we prospectively studied a cohort of 96 participants comprising 47 consecutive patients with CAD and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (CAD + SARS-CoV-2), 19 CAD patients without infections, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical assessment included blood sampling, echocardiography, and electrocardiography within 12 h of admission. Respiratory failure was stratified by the Horovitz Index (HI) as moderately/severely impaired when HI ≤200 mmHg. The clinical endpoint (EP) was defined as HI ≤200 mmHg with subsequent mechanical ventilation within a follow-up of 30 days. The numbers of CD14dimCD16+ non-classical monocytes in peripheral blood were remarkably low in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 compared with CAD patients without infection and healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Moreover, these CD14dimCD16 monocytes showed decreased expression of established markers of adhesion, migration, and T-cell activation (CD54, CD62L, CX3CR1, CD80, and HLA-DR). Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes were associated with the occurrence of EP. Kaplan-Meier curves illustrate that CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients with numbers below the median of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes (median 1443 cells/mL) reached EP significantly more often compared to patients with numbers above the median (log-rank 5.03, P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes are associated with rapidly progressive respiratory failure in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients. Intensified risk assessments comprising monocyte sub- and phenotypes may help to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Monocytes/physiology , Receptors, IgG/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/analysis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
10.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(5): 438-446, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377964

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the acute and chronic patterns of myocardial injury among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their mid-term outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had a hospital encounter within the Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) between 27 February 2020 and 15 October 2020 were evaluated for inclusion. Troponin levels assessed between 72 h before and 48 h after the COVID-19 diagnosis were used to stratify the study population by the presence of acute and chronic myocardial injury, as defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Among 4695 patients, those with chronic myocardial injury (n = 319, 6.8%) had more comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease and heart failure, while acute myocardial injury (n = 1168, 24.9%) was more associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Both types of myocardial injury were strongly associated with impaired survival at 6 months [chronic: hazard ratio (HR) 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.44-5.06; acute: HR 4.72, 95% CI 4.14-5.36], even after excluding events occurring in the first 30 days (chronic: HR 3.97, 95% CI 2.15-7.33; acute: HR 4.13, 95% CI 2.75-6.21). The mortality risk was not significantly different in patients with acute as compared with chronic myocardial injury (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36), except for a worse prognostic impact of acute myocardial injury in patients <65 years of age (P-interaction = 0.043) and in those without coronary artery disease (P-interaction = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute myocardial injury represent two distinctive patterns of cardiac involvement among COVID-19 patients. While both types of myocardial injury are associated with impaired survival at 6 months, mortality rates peak in the early phase of the infection but remain elevated even beyond 30 days during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Troponin/analysis , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Acute Disease/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Indian Heart J ; 73(5): 549-554, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Robotically assisted PCI offers a great alternative to S-PCI. This has gained even more relevance during the COVID-19 pandemic era however safety of R-PCI compared to S-PCI has not been studied well. This study explores the safety and efficacy of robotically assisted PCI (R-PCI) compared to standard PCI (S-PCI) for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, and Google scholar databases were searched for studies comparing R-PCI to S-PCI. Outcomes included clinical success, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, contrast use and radiation exposure. RESULTS: Theauthors included 5 studies comprising 1555 patients in this meta-analysis. Clinical success was comparable in both arms (p = 0.91). Procedure time was significantly longer in R-PCI group (risk ratio: 5.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.85 to 9.91, p = 0.003). Compared to S-PCI, patients in R-PCI group had lower contrast use (meandifference: -19.88, 95% confidence interval: -21.43 to -18.33, p < 0.001), fluoroscopy time (mean difference:-1.82, 95% confidence interval: -3.64 to -0.00, p = 0.05) and radiation exposure (mean difference:-457.8, 95% confidence interval: -707.14 to -208.14, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: R-PCI can achieve similar success as S-PCI at the expense of longer procedural times. However, radiation exposure and contrast exposure were lower in the R-PCI arm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047464, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367437

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death and disease burden in India affecting all age groups. To reduce the deaths and tackle the burden of existing IHD, the government approach has been mostly through the National Health Policy (2017) and National Programme for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke. This paper offers a protocol for the systematic review of studies exploring the factors influencing service readiness of the public health system of India to tackle the burden of IHD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Electronic databases of Embase (Ovid), AMED (Ovid), HMIC (Ovid), BNI (ProQuest), CINAHL (EBSCO), EMCARE (Ovid), PsycINFO (ProQuest), MEDLINE/PubMed and Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) will be searched till 2020 for primary studies. Grey literature will be accessed through OpenGrey, TRIP Medical, WHO database, MoHFW website, Open Government Data (OGD) Platform of India and Google Scholar (between 2010 and 2020). Primary studies meeting the eligibility criteria and grey literature published in English between 2010 and 2020 will be included. Data will be analysed through a conceptual framework, and the primary outcome will constitute both quantitative and qualitative data. The quality of included studies will be assessed based on study design. Data will be managed on the COVIDENCE platform. All authors will be involved in data extraction, quality appraisal, data synthesis and formulation of the final draft. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study, being a systematic review, does not involve any clinical trial, primary data collection or empirical study involving humans or animals. Therefore, no ethical permissions were sought by reviewers. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020219490.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Ischemia , Health Policy , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Public Health , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
15.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 23(9): 49, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The syndrome of myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA) is not uncommon and has multiple potential coronary etiologies. With the use of more sensitive cardiac biomarkers and advanced cardiovascular imaging, MINOCA presentations have gain increasing attention among researchers and cardiologists. Despite the presence of a myocardial infarction and elevated future risk, many patients are sent home with little or no cardio-protective treatment and no explanation for their symptoms. In this review, we emphasized the importance of MINOCA treatment based on the underlying etiology. RECENT FINDINGS: As there are multiple pathophysiological mechanisms potentially involved in MINOCA, it should be considered a working diagnosis until there is a better understanding regarding the underlying cause. It is critical to use multimodality imaging when treating patients with MINOCA to help determine the underlying etiology and rule out mimics of MINOCA, so that therapies appropriate to the etiology can be provided. A more systematic approach to managing patients with MINOCA should result in better treatment and an improved prognosis for these patients.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Risk Factors
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320437

ABSTRACT

Rheumatic heart disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries, and is the leading cause of triple valve replacement. Myocardial infarction (MI) in such cases can be due to the coronary embolism from the prosthetic valves or due to atherosclerotic vascular disease. Intravascular imaging helps in delineating the cause. We present a case of a 34-year-old premenopausal woman with no conventional cardiovascular risk factors and had triple valve replacement 4 years ago and anterior wall MI with cardiogenic shock and left ventricular failure. She was managed with mechanical ventilation, thrombolysis, diuretics, double antiplatelets and anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin. Intravascular ultrasound showed a lipid-rich plaque with associated plaque rupture and thrombosis. Intravascular imaging helps in delineating the cause of MI and further management. Atherosclerotic MI in a patient with no conventional risk factors is rare and needs to be considered.


Subject(s)
Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Infarction , Thrombosis , Adult , Female , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic
17.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular comorbidity anticipates severe progression of COVID-19 and becomes evident by coronary artery calcification (CAC) on low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT). The purpose of this study was to predict a patient's obligation of intensive care treatment by evaluating the coronary calcium burden on the initial diagnostic LDCT. METHODS: Eighty-nine consecutive patients with parallel LDCT and positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were included from three centers. The primary endpoint was admission to ICU, tracheal intubation, or death in the 22-day follow-up period. CAC burden was represented by the Agatston score. Multivariate logistic regression was modeled for prediction of the primary endpoint by the independent variables "Agatston score > 0", as well as the CT lung involvement score, patient sex, age, clinical predictors of severe COVID-19 progression (history of hypertension, diabetes, prior cardiovascular event, active smoking, or hyperlipidemia), and laboratory parameters (creatinine, C-reactive protein, leucocyte, as well as thrombocyte counts, relative lymphocyte count, d-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase levels). RESULTS: After excluding multicollinearity, "Agatston score >0" was an independent regressor within multivariate analysis for prediction of the primary endpoint (p<0.01). Further independent regressors were creatinine (p = 0.02) and leucocyte count (p = 0.04). The Agatston score was significantly higher for COVID-19 cases which completed the primary endpoint (64.2 [interquartile range 1.7-409.4] vs. 0 [interquartile range 0-0]). CONCLUSION: CAC scoring on LDCT might help to predict future obligation of intensive care treatment at the day of patient admission to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Calcinosis/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Radiography, Thoracic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Radiation Dosage
18.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have reported an association between atherosclerosis-related diseases and COVID-19, the relationship between COVID-19 severity and atherosclerosis progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) prognostic value in patients with COVID-19 using indices such as deterioration in oxygenation and CT images of the chest. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of 53 consecutive patients with COVID-19 in Narita who were admitted to our hospital between March 2020 and August 2020. CACS was calculated based on non-gated CT scans of the chest performed on admission day. The patients were divided into the following two groups based on CACS: group 1 (CACS ≥180, n=11) and group 2 (CACS <180, n=42). Following univariate analysis of the main variables, multivariate analysis of variables that may be associated with COVID-19 progression was performed. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis of age, sex, smoking history, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, number of days from symptom onset to hospitalisation and CACS of ≥180 was performed. It revealed that unlike CACS of <180, CACS of ≥180 is associated with exacerbation of oxygenation or CT images of the chest during hospitalisation (OR: 12.879, 95% CI: 1.399 to 380.401). Furthermore, this model of eight variables showed good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.119). CONCLUSION: CACS may be a prognosis marker of COVID-19 severity. Although coronary artery calcification is not typically assessed in pneumonia cases, it may provide a valuable clinical indicator for predicting severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
19.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 557-560, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312937

ABSTRACT

Aneurysms and occlusive pathologies of the aorta are frequently associated with atherosclerosis; however, thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome is an extremely rare condition with challenging treatment strategy and without established surgical treatment protocols. In this report, we present our treatment strategy in a 64-year-old male patient with ischemic heart disease and type 5 thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Leriche Syndrome/surgery , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leriche Syndrome/complications , Leriche Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Treatment Outcome
20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Mortality/trends , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
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