Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 27
Filter
1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745767

ABSTRACT

A man in his early 30s, presented with multiple soft tissue swellings over the buttocks, around the knees, ankles and dorsum of both the hands since childhood. His father and paternal uncle had similar lesions, and his father had coronary artery disease. One of his sisters had a history of sudden death due to an unknown cause at 14 years. The patient and his parents had very high serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Based on the above findings, a clinical diagnosis of familial hyperlipidaemia type II was made. Larger lesions were excised in stages, and histopathological evaluation revealed the lesions to be eruptive xanthoma. A cardiac assessment revealed no significant abnormality. Lipid-lowering agents and low-dose aspirin were started, and the patient was advised for regular cardiology and endocrine evaluation. This case emphasises its rare presentation and the importance of early diagnosis and management to prevent any untoward future incidence.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Hyperlipidemias , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Xanthomatosis , Child , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Homozygote , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Male , Xanthomatosis/pathology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259153, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of statins and steroids on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in patients with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis (ILD-PF). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ILD-PF who were using statins (statin cohort, N = 11,567) and not using statins (nonstatin cohort, N = 26,159). Cox proportional regression was performed to analyze the cumulative incidence of CAD and stroke. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAD and stroke were determined after sex, age, and comorbidities, as well as the use of inhaler corticosteroids (ICSs), oral steroids (OSs), and statins, were controlled for. RESULTS: Compared with those of patients without statin use, the aHRs (95% CIs) of patients with statin use for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79) and 0.52 (0.38-0.72), respectively. For patients taking single-use statins but not ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79)/0.69 (0.61-0.79) and 0.54 (0.39-0.74)/0.50 (0.32-0.79), respectively. For patients using ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.71 (0.42-1.18)/0.74 (0.64-0.85) and 0.23 (0.03-1.59)/0.54 (0.35-0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that statin use, either alone or in combination with OS use, plays an auxiliary role in the management of CAD and ischemic stroke in patients with ILD-PF.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Steroids/therapeutic use , Stroke/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Steroids/administration & dosage , Stroke/complications , Stroke/prevention & control
3.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(2): 402-415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662815

ABSTRACT

Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common comorbidities and dangerous factors for infection and serious COVID-19. Polymorphisms in genes associated with comorbidities may help observe susceptibility and disease severity variation. However, specific genetic factors and the extent to which they can explain variation in susceptibility of severity are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated candidate genes associated with COVID-19 and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. In particular, we performed searches against OMIM, NCBI, and other databases, protein-protein interaction network construction, and GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Results showed that the associated overlapping genes were TLR4, NLRP3, MBL2, IL6, IL1RN, IL1B, CX3CR1, CCR5, AGT, ACE, and F2. GO and KEGG analyses yielded 302 GO terms (q < 0.05) and 29 signaling pathways (q < 0.05), respectively, mainly including coronavirus disease-COVID-19 and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. IL6 and AGT were central in the PPI, with 8 and 5 connections, respectively. In this study, we identified 11 genes associated with both COVID-19 and three comorbidities that may contribute to infection and disease severity. The key genes IL6 and AGT are involved in regulating immune response, cytokine activity, and viral infection. Therefore, RAAS inhibitors, AGT antisense nucleotides, cytokine inhibitors, vitamin D, fenofibrate, and vaccines regulating non-immune and immune factors could be potential strategies to prevent and cure COVID-19. The study provides a basis for further investigation of genes and pathways with predictive value for the risk of infection and prognosis and could help guide drug and vaccine development to improve treatment efficacy and the development of personalised treatments, especially for COVID-19 individuals with common comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Mutation , Protein Interaction Maps
4.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488672

ABSTRACT

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a decisive risk factor for severe illness in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). India is home to a large number of people with DM, and many of them were infected with COVID-19. It is critical to understand the impact of DM on mortality and other clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection from this region. Aims The primary objective of our study was to analyze the mortality rate in people with DM infected with COVID-19. The secondary objectives were to assess the effect of various comorbidities on mortality and study the impact of DM on other clinical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study of COVID-19 infected patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north India in the early phase of the pandemic. Results Of the 1211 cases admitted, 19 were excluded because of incomplete data, and 1192 cases were finally considered for analysis. DM constituted 26.8% of total patients. The overall mortality rate was 6.1%, and the rate was 10.7% in the presence of diabetes (p < 0.01, OR 2.55). In univariate analysis, increased age, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and cancer were associated with mortality. On multiple logistic regression, the independent predictors of mortality were CAD, CKD, and cancer. Breathlessness and low SpO2 at presentation, extensive involvement in CXR, and elevated ANC/ALC ratio were also significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions The presence of comorbidities such as DM, hypertension, CAD, CKD, and cancer strongly predict the risk of mortality in COVID-19 infection. Early triaging and aggressive therapy of patients with these comorbidities can optimize clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies
5.
J Fam Pract ; 70(8): 403-407, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485519

ABSTRACT

A meta-analysis found oral anticoagulant (OAC) monotherapy provided efficacy comparable to OAC plus single antiplatelet therapy-with lower bleeding risk.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/standards , Humans , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(3): 471-480, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434399

ABSTRACT

Symptoms related with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) were previously shown to be linked with increased risk for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aim to interrogate the possibility of a shared genetic basis between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes. Using published GWAS data for GERD (78 707 cases; 288 734 controls) and COVID-19 susceptibility (up to 32 494 cases; 1.5 million controls), we examined the genetic relationship between GERD and three COVID-19 outcomes: risk of developing severe COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization and overall COVID-19 risk. We estimated the genetic correlation between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess genetic causality. Conditional analyses were conducted to examine whether known COVID-19 risk factors (obesity, smoking, type-II diabetes, coronary artery disease) can explain the relationship between GERD and COVID-19. We found small to moderate genetic correlations between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes (rg between 0.06 and 0.24). MR analyses revealed a OR of 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96-1.39) for severe COVID-19; 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for risk of COVID-19 hospitalization; 1.05 (0.97-1.13) for overall risk of COVID-19 per doubling of odds in developing GERD. The genetic correlation/associations between GERD and COVID-19 showed mild attenuation towards the null when obesity and smoking was adjusted for. Susceptibility for GERD and risk of COVID-19 hospitalization were genetically correlated, with MR findings supporting a potential causal role between the two. The genetic association between GERD and COVID-19 was partially attenuated when obesity is accounted for, consistent with obesity being a major risk factor for both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gastroesophageal Reflux/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/virology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/adverse effects
7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 224-239, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387842

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To elucidate the prognostic role of monocytes in the immune response of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at risk for life-threatening heart and lung injury as major complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: From February to April 2020, we prospectively studied a cohort of 96 participants comprising 47 consecutive patients with CAD and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (CAD + SARS-CoV-2), 19 CAD patients without infections, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical assessment included blood sampling, echocardiography, and electrocardiography within 12 h of admission. Respiratory failure was stratified by the Horovitz Index (HI) as moderately/severely impaired when HI ≤200 mmHg. The clinical endpoint (EP) was defined as HI ≤200 mmHg with subsequent mechanical ventilation within a follow-up of 30 days. The numbers of CD14dimCD16+ non-classical monocytes in peripheral blood were remarkably low in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 compared with CAD patients without infection and healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Moreover, these CD14dimCD16 monocytes showed decreased expression of established markers of adhesion, migration, and T-cell activation (CD54, CD62L, CX3CR1, CD80, and HLA-DR). Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes were associated with the occurrence of EP. Kaplan-Meier curves illustrate that CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients with numbers below the median of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes (median 1443 cells/mL) reached EP significantly more often compared to patients with numbers above the median (log-rank 5.03, P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes are associated with rapidly progressive respiratory failure in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients. Intensified risk assessments comprising monocyte sub- and phenotypes may help to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Monocytes/physiology , Receptors, IgG/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/analysis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular comorbidity anticipates severe progression of COVID-19 and becomes evident by coronary artery calcification (CAC) on low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT). The purpose of this study was to predict a patient's obligation of intensive care treatment by evaluating the coronary calcium burden on the initial diagnostic LDCT. METHODS: Eighty-nine consecutive patients with parallel LDCT and positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were included from three centers. The primary endpoint was admission to ICU, tracheal intubation, or death in the 22-day follow-up period. CAC burden was represented by the Agatston score. Multivariate logistic regression was modeled for prediction of the primary endpoint by the independent variables "Agatston score > 0", as well as the CT lung involvement score, patient sex, age, clinical predictors of severe COVID-19 progression (history of hypertension, diabetes, prior cardiovascular event, active smoking, or hyperlipidemia), and laboratory parameters (creatinine, C-reactive protein, leucocyte, as well as thrombocyte counts, relative lymphocyte count, d-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase levels). RESULTS: After excluding multicollinearity, "Agatston score >0" was an independent regressor within multivariate analysis for prediction of the primary endpoint (p<0.01). Further independent regressors were creatinine (p = 0.02) and leucocyte count (p = 0.04). The Agatston score was significantly higher for COVID-19 cases which completed the primary endpoint (64.2 [interquartile range 1.7-409.4] vs. 0 [interquartile range 0-0]). CONCLUSION: CAC scoring on LDCT might help to predict future obligation of intensive care treatment at the day of patient admission to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Calcinosis/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Radiography, Thoracic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Radiation Dosage
10.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 557-560, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312937

ABSTRACT

Aneurysms and occlusive pathologies of the aorta are frequently associated with atherosclerosis; however, thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome is an extremely rare condition with challenging treatment strategy and without established surgical treatment protocols. In this report, we present our treatment strategy in a 64-year-old male patient with ischemic heart disease and type 5 thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Leriche Syndrome/surgery , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leriche Syndrome/complications , Leriche Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Treatment Outcome
11.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 286-292, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hypertension and pre-existing use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonias. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and pre-existing use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 103 COVID-19 and 91 non-COVID-19 hospitalized viral pneumonia patients were enrolled. Hypertension and CAD were more common in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than in patients with COVID-19 (39.6% vs 22.3%, respectively, p=0.012 and 24.2% vs 4.9%, respectively, p<0.001). In our study, 2.9% and 6.8% of patients with COVID-19 were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively, whereas 13.2% and 19.8% of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively (p=0.009 and p=0.013). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001) was prominent in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia compared with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study results indicate that hypertension and CAD are more common among patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of ACEIs and ARBs use was not higher in patients with COVID-19. Our results support that the use of ACEIs and ARBs do not play a specific role in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
13.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256664

ABSTRACT

Patients with underlying cardiovascular conditions are particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19. In this project, we aimed to characterize similarities in dysregulated immune pathways between COVID-19 patients and patients with cardiomyopathy, venous thromboembolism (VTE), or coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that these similarly dysregulated pathways may be critical to how cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) exacerbate COVID-19. To evaluate immune dysregulation in different diseases, we used four separate datasets, including RNA-sequencing data from human left ventricular cardiac muscle samples of patients with dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy and healthy controls; RNA-sequencing data of whole blood samples from patients with single or recurrent event VTE and healthy controls; RNA-sequencing data of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with and without obstructive CAD; and RNA-sequencing data of platelets from COVID-19 subjects and healthy controls. We found similar immune dysregulation profiles between patients with CVDs and COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, cardiomyopathy patients display the most similar immune landscape to COVID-19 patients. Additionally, COVID-19 patients experience greater upregulation of cytokine- and inflammasome-related genes than patients with CVDs. In all, patients with CVDs have a significant overlap of cytokine- and inflammasome-related gene expression profiles with that of COVID-19 patients, possibly explaining their greater vulnerability to severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Venous Thromboembolism/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/genetics , Inflammasomes/genetics , Lymphocyte Count , Patient Acuity , RNA-Seq , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206845

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 738-745, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107857

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and STEMI-mimickers (such as myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, among others). We performed a systematic review to summarize the clinical features, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who had ST-segment elevation. We searched electronic databases from inception to September 30, 2020 for studies that reported clinical data about COVID-19 patients with ST-segment elevation. Differences between patients with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on coronary angiography were evaluated. Forty-two studies (35 case reports and seven case series) involving 161 patients were included. The mean age was 62.7 ± 13.6 years and 75% were men. The most frequent symptom was chest pain (78%). Eighty-three percent of patients had obstructive CAD. Patients with non-obstructive CAD had more diffuse ST-segment elevation (13% versus 1%, p = 0.03) and diffuse left ventricular wall-motion abnormality (23% versus 3%, p = 0.02) compared to obstructive CAD. In patients with previous coronary stent (n = 17), the 76% presented with stent thrombosis. In the majority of cases, the main reperfusion strategy was primary percutaneous coronary intervention instead of fibrinolysis. The in-hospital mortality was 30% without difference between patients with (30%) or without (31%) obstructive CAD. Our data suggest that a relatively high proportion of COVID-19 patients with ST-segment elevation had non-obstructive CAD. The prognosis was poor across groups. However, our findings are based on case reports and case series that should be confirmed in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/instrumentation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e930125, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There are increasing reports of cardiovascular complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Wellens syndrome, or left anterior descending T-wave syndrome, is diagnosed by a pattern of electrocardiographic (ECG) changes that include inverted or biphasic T waves in leads V2-V3. CASE REPORT A 75-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of fatigue and progressive shortness of breath who acutely decompensated, necessitating mechanical ventilator support. Initial lab workup revealed COVID-19 positivity, which was confirmed by repeat testing. A routine ECG obtained during her hospitalization and compared with her baseline revealed diffuse T-wave inversions of her precordial leads, which was highly suggestive of Wellens syndrome. Cardiac enzymes obtained were slightly elevated and an echocardiogram did not demonstrate wall motion abnormalities. The patient was initiated on non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction protocol with heparin infusion for 48 hours and dual antiplatelet therapy, in addition to beta blockade. Repeat ECGs showed complete resolution of Wellens syndrome shortly after therapy. CONCLUSIONS Although rare, Wellens syndrome is a significant indicator of left anterior descending artery stenosis and is commonly associated with acute medical illness. COVID-19 pneumonia has been associated with many adverse cardiovascular outcomes, with ischemia and arrhythmia becoming increasingly more common. Diagnosis of Wellens often includes coronary angiography; however, during the current pandemic, many authorities have recommended medical management alone during the acute phase of care, depending on the severity of concomitant illness.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Female , Humans
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1679-1684, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-983853

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the prevalence of smoking rates and comorbidities and evaluate the relationship between them and disease severity and mortality in inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were divided into the following groups: clinic group, intensive care unit (ICU) group, survivors, and non-survivors. Non-COVID-19 patients were included as a control group. The groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Current smoking (OR, 5.101; 95% CI: 2.382-10.927; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 3.789; 95% CI: 1.845-7.780; p<0.0001) were risk factors for ICU admission. Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. Current smoking (OR, 13.014; 95% CI: 5.058-33.480; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 6.507; 95% CI 2.731-15.501; p<0.0001) were also risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19. CHF was not a risk factor for ICU admission; however, it was a risk factor for mortality.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Buscamos explorar as taxas de prevalência de tabagismo e de comorbidades e avaliar a relação entre elas e a severidade e mortalidade da doença em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com COVID-19 foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: grupo clínico, grupo da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), grupo de sobreviventes e não-sobreviventes. Pacientes sem COVID-19 foram incluídos em um grupo de controle. Os grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com e sem COVID-19 em termos de tabagismo, asma, diabetes, demência, doença arterial coronariana (DAC), hipertensão arterial, insuficiência renal crônica e arritmia (p>0,05). Idade mais avançada (odds ratio (OR), 1,061; 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC): 1,041-1,082; p< 0,0001), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) (OR, 2,775; 95% IC: 1,128-6,829; p=0,026) e DAC (OR, 2,696; 95% IC: 1,216-5,974; p=0,015) estavam significativamente associados com a admissão na UTI. O tabagismo atual (OR, 5,101; 95% IC: 2,382-10,927; p < 0,0001) e tabagismo prévio (OR, 3,789; 95% IC: 1,845-7,780; p< 0,0001) foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI. Idade mais avançada (OR; 1,082; 95% IC: 1,056-1,109;< 0,0001), DPOC (OR, 3,213; 95% IC: 1,224-8,431; p=0,018), DAC (OR, 6,252; 95% IC: 2,171-18,004; p=0,001) e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) (OR, 5,917; 95% IC 1,069-32,258; p=0,042) estavam significativamente associados com mortalidade. O tabagismo atual (OR, 13,014; 95% IC: 5,058-33,480; p<0,0001) e o tabagismo prévio (OR, 6,507; 95% IC 2,731-15,501; p<0,0001) também foram fatores de risco para mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo, a idade avançada, DPOC e DAC foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. ICC não foi um fator de risco para admissão na UTI; no entanto, foi um fator de risco para mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 120, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962489

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in Kenya on March 13, 2020, is spreading rapidly. As of 30th June 2020, over 6,190 cases had been reported with a case fatality of 3.2%. Previous Coronavirus outbreaks have been associated with a significant burden of Cardiovascular disease. For COVID-19, however, there has been no direct reference to potential long-term cardiovascular effects, especially in Africa where atherosclerotic diseases are an emerging challenge. This article, therefore, aims at describing possible long-term effects on the burden of atherosclerotic disease among Kenyans. Available data indicate that COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease share pathomechanisms and risk factors which include ACE2 receptor invasion and renin-angiotensin system signaling, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Further, SAR-COV-2 infection causes dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, kidney, and liver disease. These mechanisms and diseases constitute risk factors for the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerosis. In Kenya, the common risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and COVID-19 comprising Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, Cigarette Smoking, Respiratory Tract Infections, Pulmonary Thromboembolism, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, and Renal disease are not uncommon and continue to increase. In essence, the prevalence of the common risk factors/comorbidities, between COVID-19 and CVD occurrence of ACE2 receptors on the endothelium, and hence pathomechanisms of SARS-COV-2 infection imply that COVID-19 may increase the burden of atherosclerotic disease in Kenya. All due care should be taken, to prevent and effectively manage the disease, to avert an imminent epidemic of atherosclerotic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Delivery of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Cost of Illness , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology
20.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(6): 887-894, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Left main coronary arterial (LMCA) atresia is a rare coronary arterial anomaly with extremely limited data on the optimal management. We aimed to report our single-surgeon experience of the ostioplasty in patients with LMCA atresia. METHODS: From July 2018 to December 2019, pediatric patients who presented with LMCA atresia and subsequently underwent surgical coronary ostioplasty were recruited into this retrospective study. Concomitant mitral repair was applied when the regurgitation was moderate or more severe. RESULTS: A total of 9 patients diagnosed with LMCA atresia were included. Mitral regurgitation was found in all of them, including 6 (66.7%) severe, 1 (11.1%) moderate, and 2 (22.2%) mild. In addition to ischemic lesions, which were found in 7 (77.8%) patients, structural mitral problems were also common (presented in 7 [77.8%] patients). All the patients underwent coronary ostioplasty with autologous pulmonary arterial patch augmenting the anterior wall of the neo-ostium. Mean aortic cross clamp time and cardiopulmonary bypass time was 88.1 ± 18.9 and 124.6 ± 23.6 minutes, respectively. During a median of 10.9 (range: 3.3 to 17.2) months' follow-up, there was only 1 death at 5 months after surgery. All survivors were recovered uneventfully with normal left-ventricular function; however, with 4 (50.0%) having significant recurrence of mitral regurgitation. CONCLUSIONS: With favourable surgical outcomes, coronary ostioplasty for LMCA atresia may be an option of revascularization. Structural mitral problems presented in majority patients, resulting in the requirement of concomitant mitral repair. However, the optimal technique of mitral repair remains unclear.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty/methods , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Pulmonary Artery/transplantation , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Child, Preschool , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/congenital , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/complications , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/diagnosis , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty/adverse effects , Mitral Valve Annuloplasty/methods , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/complications , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/diagnosis , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Operative Time , Recurrence , Transplantation, Autologous/methods , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL