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1.
Int Heart J ; 64(3): 344-351, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235285

ABSTRACT

Although there is no sign of reinfection, individuals who have a history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience prolonged chest discomfort and shortness of breath on exertion. This study aimed to examine the relationship between atherosclerotic coronary plaque structure and COVID-19. This retrospective cohort comprised 1269 consecutive patients who had coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) between July 2020 and April 2021. The type of atherosclerotic plaque was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the severity of coronary stenosis as determined via the Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) classification and the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. To reveal the relationship between the history of COVID-19 and the extent and severity of CAD, propensity score analysis and further multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. The median age of the study population was 52 years, with 53.5% being male. COVID-19 was present in 337 individuals. The median duration from COVID-19 diagnosis to CCTA extraction was 245 days. The presence of atherosclerotic soft plaque (OR: 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-3.11, P = 0.001), mixed plaque (OR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.39-4.43, P = 0.001), and high-risk plaque (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.98-3.84, P < 0.001) was shown to be linked with the history of COVID-19 on the conditional multivariate regression analysis of the propensity-matched population. However, no statistically significant association was found between the history of COVID-19 and the severity of coronary stenosis based on CAD-RADS and CAC score. We found that the history of COVID-19 might be associated with coronary atherosclerosis assessed via CCTA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , COVID-19 Testing , Risk Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Stenosis/epidemiology , Coronary Stenosis/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography , Predictive Value of Tests
2.
Echocardiography ; 39(7): 950-953, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257639

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can present with cardiovascular complications like shock, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and coronary artery dilatation. The majority of MIS-C associated coronary artery abnormalities are dilation or small aneurysms which are transient and resolve in a few weeks. We present here a case of a 3-month-old child who was noted to have giant aneurysms of her coronary arteries (LAD and RCA) 26 days after testing positive for COVID-19. She was treated with IVIG, infliximab, and glucocorticoids along with aspirin, clopidogrel, and enoxaparin. She did not show any signs of coronary ischemia or cardiac dysfunction but continued to have persistent giant coronary artery aneurysms involving the LAD (z-score ∼35) and RCA (z-score ∼30). This study emphasizes the importance of early detection and aggressive management of MIS-C to prevent potentially life-threatening consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Aneurysm , Coronary Artery Disease , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnosis , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Female , Humans , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 106, 2023 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with late-onset cardiovascular complications primarily due to a hypercoagulable state. Its association with Wellens' syndrome, which reflects a stenosis in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery, is not well established. We present two cases diagnosed with this syndrome following their COVID-19 acute phase despite taking adequate anticoagulation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present two patients with incidental electrocardiography (ECG) showing the typical Wellens'-related changes, with an underlying severe triple-vessel coronary artery disease a few weeks following a severe COVID-19 infection associated with high inflammatory markers. The stenotic lesions were diagnosed by cardiac catheterization, and both patients underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting successfully. Notably, patients' baseline ECGs were normal, and they were maintained on Rivaroxaban 10 mg following their viral illness. CONCLUSION: Despite advances in the preventive measures for COVID-19 complications, its pathophysiologic impact on vasculature and atherosclerosis is still incompletely understood. Further clinical trials must be conducted to study this association between Wellens' syndrome and this virus to prevent life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Stenosis , Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , COVID-19/complications , Syndrome , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Coronary Stenosis/diagnosis
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 78, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is a frequent complication caused by cardiac and non-cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms, but often it is subclinical. MINS is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, justifying the need to its diagnose and the investigation of their causes for its potential prevention. METHODS: Prospective, observational, pilot study, aiming to detect MINS, its relationship with silent coronary artery disease and its effect on future adverse outcomes in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery and without postoperative signs or symptoms of myocardial ischemia. MINS was defined by a high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration > 14 ng/L at 48-72 h after surgery and exceeding by 50% the preoperative value; controls were the operated patients without MINS. Within 1-month after discharge, cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in MINS and control subjects. Significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined by a CAD-RADS category ≥ 3. The primary outcomes were prevalence of CAD among MINS and controls and incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE) at 1-year after surgery. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of individual MACE components and mortality. RESULTS: We included 52 MINS and 12 controls. The small number of included patients could be attributed to the study design complexity and the dates of later follow-ups (amid COVID-19 waves). Significant CAD by CCTA was equally found in 20 MINS and controls (30% vs 33%, respectively). Ischemic patterns (n = 5) and ischemic segments (n = 2) depicted by cardiac MRI were only observed in patients with MINS. One-year MACE were also only observed in MINS patients (15.4%). CONCLUSION: This study with advanced imaging methods found a similar CAD frequency in MINS and control patients, but that cardiac ischemic findings by MRI and worse prognosis were only observed in MINS patients. Our results, obtained in a pilot study, suggest the need of further, extended studies that screened systematically MINS and evaluated its relationship with cardiac ischemia and poor outcomes. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03438448 (19/02/2018).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Injuries , Myocardial Ischemia , Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Risk Factors
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 191: 8-13, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165046

ABSTRACT

Untreated sleep disorders form a risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Access to polysomnography is limited, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, with home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) being a potentially viable alternative. We describe an HSAT protocol in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). In a single-center, observational analysis between 2019 and 2021 in patients with advanced HF and heart transplant (HT), 135 screened positive on the STOP-Bang sleep survey and underwent a validated HSAT (WatchPAT, ZOLL-Itamar). HSAT was successful in 123 patients (97.6%), of whom 112 (91.1%; 84 HF and 28 HT) tested positive for sleep apnea. A total of 91% of sleep apnea cases were obstructive, and 63% were moderate to severe. Multivariable linear regression showed that the apnea hypopnea index was 34% lower in the HT group than in the HF group (p = 0.046) after adjusting for gender, and that this effect persisted in White patients but not among African-Americans. Patient characteristics were similar between groups, with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension as the most prevalent co-morbidities. In conclusion, sleep apnea remains prevalent in patients with HF with a high co-morbidity burden. HSAT is a feasible and effective tool for screening and diagnosis in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/diagnosis , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Sleep , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936886, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also referred to as apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), stress cardiomyopathy, or broken heart syndrome, initially described in Japan, is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the apical segment. Several variants have been described, including reverse type, mid-ventricular type, and the focal type. In the reverse type, there is basal hypokinesis and apical hyperkinesis. Stress cardiomyopathy is most likely to occur in middle-aged women and the underlying etiology is believed to be related to catecholamine release due to intense stress. CASE REPORT We report an extremely rare case of reverse takotsubo cardiomyopathy (rTTC) in a young woman with COVID-19 who was treated with Casirivimab-Imdevimab therapy. Our report is the second to reveal rTTC in a patient with COVID-19 in which obstructive coronary artery disease was definitively ruled out by coronary CT angiography. CONCLUSIONS Cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality rates. Recent reports have suggested the occasional occurrence of TTC and the rare occurrence of reverse takotsubo cardiomyopathy (rTTC) in patients with COVID-19. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, this is only the fifth reported case of rTTC in a patient with COVID-19; importantly, 3 out of the 4 of the previous reported cases lacked definitive ischemic work-up to rule out obstructive coronary artery disease due to the critical condition of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Catecholamines , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
7.
Heart Lung ; 57: 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble vitamin thought to be associated with chronic diseases, mortality and COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and mortality of chronic diseases in subjects aged ≥65 years before and during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study was performed using the hospital database of subjects aged 65 years and older who had undergone vitamin D measurement between 01.01.2019 and 31.12.2021. All patients with vitamin D measurement (N = 2155) were followed as a cohort from the date of serum vitamin D analysis through death date or 01.01.2022. Age, gender, chronic diseases, survival status, date of death of the deceased, laboratory values including complete blood count, liver/renal functions and 25(OH) vitamin D levels were all noted. Subjects were classified into three groups according to their 25(OH) vitamin D levels; severe deficient group (<10 ng/ml), moderate deficient group (10-19.9 ng/ml), and control group (≥20 ng/ml). RESULTS: Data of 1949 subjects were included in this retrospective analysis and 206 of them (10.6%) had at least two vitamin D measurements. Until the time of data collection (01.01.2022), 94 of the cases had died within the last three years, and only five of them had repeated measurements. While the mean vitamin D level was lower, age and frequency of dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), arrhythmia, dementia and severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were higher in subjectswho died (all p<0.05). According to the Cox proportional hazards model; age, presence of CAD, COPD, arrhythmia, dementia, anemia and severe vitamin D deficiency were independently related with mortality (all p<0.05). After adjusted by age, gender, and comorbidities, the probability of death was found to be 1.91 (95% CI=1.12-3.24) times higher in the severe vitamin D deficient group. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study have shown that - after having adjusted for potential factors - severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) seems to be an independent predictor for non-cancer mortality. Although vitamin D measurement/treatment is very easy and cheap where, on the contrary, severe vitamin D deficiency can be quite mortal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Dementia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Aged , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/complications
8.
J Thorac Imaging ; 37(4): 217-224, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909064

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is regarded as a multisystemic disease. Patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease have an increased risk for a more severe disease course. This study aimed to investigate if a higher degree of coronary artery calcifications (CAC) on a standard chest computed tomography (CT) scan in mechanically ventilated patients was associated with a more severe multiorgan failure over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest CT were prospectively included. CT was used to establish the extent of CAC using a semiquantitative grading system. We categorized patients into 3 sex-specific tertiles of CAC: lowest, intermediate, and highest CAC score. Daily, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were collected to evaluate organ failure over time. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to investigate differences in SOFA scores between tertiles. The models were adjusted for age, sex, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, cardiovascular risk factors, and chronic liver, lung, and renal disease. RESULTS: In all, 71 patients were included. Patients in the highest CAC tertile had, on average, over time, 1.8 (0.5-3.1) points higher SOFA score, compared with the lowest CAC tertile ( P =0.005). This association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, and APACHE II score (1.4 [0.1-2.7], P =0.042) and clinically relevant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (1.3 [0.0-2.7], P =0.06) and chronic diseases (1.3 [-0.2 to 2.7], P =0.085). CONCLUSION: A greater extent of CAC is associated with a more severe multiorgan failure in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055123, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868733

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Identifying and excluding coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with atypical angina pectoris (AP) and non-specific thoracic complaints is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs). A diagnostic and prognostic tool could help GPs in determining the likelihood of CAD and guide patient management. Studies in outpatient settings have shown that the CT-based coronary calcium score (CCS) has high accuracy for diagnosis and exclusion of CAD. However, the CT CCS test has not been tested in a primary care setting. In the COroNary Calcium scoring as fiRst-linE Test to dEtect and exclude coronary artery disease in GPs patients with stable chest pain (CONCRETE) study, the impact of direct access of GPs to CT CCS will be investigated. We hypothesise that this will allow for early diagnosis of CAD and treatment, more efficient referral to the cardiologist and a reduction of healthcare-related costs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: CONCRETE is a pragmatic multicentre trial with a cluster randomised design, in which direct GP access to the CT CCS test is compared with standard of care. In both arms, at least 40 GP offices, and circa 800 patients with atypical AP and non-specific thoracic complaints will be included. To determine the increase in detection and treatment rate of CAD in GP offices, the CVRM registration rate is derived from the GPs electronic registration system. Individual patients' data regarding cardiovascular risk factors, expressed chest pain complaints, quality of life, downstream testing and CAD diagnosis will be collected through questionnaires and the electronic GP dossier. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: CONCRETE has been approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the University Medical Center of Groningen. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NTR 7475; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , General Practitioners , Angina Pectoris/complications , Angina Pectoris/diagnosis , Calcium , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/etiology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Predictive Value of Tests , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745767

ABSTRACT

A man in his early 30s, presented with multiple soft tissue swellings over the buttocks, around the knees, ankles and dorsum of both the hands since childhood. His father and paternal uncle had similar lesions, and his father had coronary artery disease. One of his sisters had a history of sudden death due to an unknown cause at 14 years. The patient and his parents had very high serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Based on the above findings, a clinical diagnosis of familial hyperlipidaemia type II was made. Larger lesions were excised in stages, and histopathological evaluation revealed the lesions to be eruptive xanthoma. A cardiac assessment revealed no significant abnormality. Lipid-lowering agents and low-dose aspirin were started, and the patient was advised for regular cardiology and endocrine evaluation. This case emphasises its rare presentation and the importance of early diagnosis and management to prevent any untoward future incidence.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Hyperlipidemias , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Xanthomatosis , Child , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Homozygote , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/complications , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/diagnosis , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/genetics , Male , Xanthomatosis/pathology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259153, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699423

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of statins and steroids on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke in patients with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary fibrosis (ILD-PF). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ILD-PF who were using statins (statin cohort, N = 11,567) and not using statins (nonstatin cohort, N = 26,159). Cox proportional regression was performed to analyze the cumulative incidence of CAD and stroke. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CAD and stroke were determined after sex, age, and comorbidities, as well as the use of inhaler corticosteroids (ICSs), oral steroids (OSs), and statins, were controlled for. RESULTS: Compared with those of patients without statin use, the aHRs (95% CIs) of patients with statin use for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79) and 0.52 (0.38-0.72), respectively. For patients taking single-use statins but not ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.72 (0.65-0.79)/0.69 (0.61-0.79) and 0.54 (0.39-0.74)/0.50 (0.32-0.79), respectively. For patients using ICSs/OSs, the aHRs (95% CIs) for CAD and ischemic stroke were 0.71 (0.42-1.18)/0.74 (0.64-0.85) and 0.23 (0.03-1.59)/0.54 (0.35-0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that statin use, either alone or in combination with OS use, plays an auxiliary role in the management of CAD and ischemic stroke in patients with ILD-PF.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Steroids/therapeutic use , Stroke/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Steroids/administration & dosage , Stroke/complications , Stroke/prevention & control
12.
Int J Med Sci ; 19(2): 402-415, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662815

ABSTRACT

Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common comorbidities and dangerous factors for infection and serious COVID-19. Polymorphisms in genes associated with comorbidities may help observe susceptibility and disease severity variation. However, specific genetic factors and the extent to which they can explain variation in susceptibility of severity are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated candidate genes associated with COVID-19 and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. In particular, we performed searches against OMIM, NCBI, and other databases, protein-protein interaction network construction, and GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Results showed that the associated overlapping genes were TLR4, NLRP3, MBL2, IL6, IL1RN, IL1B, CX3CR1, CCR5, AGT, ACE, and F2. GO and KEGG analyses yielded 302 GO terms (q < 0.05) and 29 signaling pathways (q < 0.05), respectively, mainly including coronavirus disease-COVID-19 and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. IL6 and AGT were central in the PPI, with 8 and 5 connections, respectively. In this study, we identified 11 genes associated with both COVID-19 and three comorbidities that may contribute to infection and disease severity. The key genes IL6 and AGT are involved in regulating immune response, cytokine activity, and viral infection. Therefore, RAAS inhibitors, AGT antisense nucleotides, cytokine inhibitors, vitamin D, fenofibrate, and vaccines regulating non-immune and immune factors could be potential strategies to prevent and cure COVID-19. The study provides a basis for further investigation of genes and pathways with predictive value for the risk of infection and prognosis and could help guide drug and vaccine development to improve treatment efficacy and the development of personalised treatments, especially for COVID-19 individuals with common comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/genetics , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/genetics , Mutation , Protein Interaction Maps
13.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488672

ABSTRACT

Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a decisive risk factor for severe illness in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). India is home to a large number of people with DM, and many of them were infected with COVID-19. It is critical to understand the impact of DM on mortality and other clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection from this region. Aims The primary objective of our study was to analyze the mortality rate in people with DM infected with COVID-19. The secondary objectives were to assess the effect of various comorbidities on mortality and study the impact of DM on other clinical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study of COVID-19 infected patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north India in the early phase of the pandemic. Results Of the 1211 cases admitted, 19 were excluded because of incomplete data, and 1192 cases were finally considered for analysis. DM constituted 26.8% of total patients. The overall mortality rate was 6.1%, and the rate was 10.7% in the presence of diabetes (p < 0.01, OR 2.55). In univariate analysis, increased age, chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, and cancer were associated with mortality. On multiple logistic regression, the independent predictors of mortality were CAD, CKD, and cancer. Breathlessness and low SpO2 at presentation, extensive involvement in CXR, and elevated ANC/ALC ratio were also significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions The presence of comorbidities such as DM, hypertension, CAD, CKD, and cancer strongly predict the risk of mortality in COVID-19 infection. Early triaging and aggressive therapy of patients with these comorbidities can optimize clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Fam Pract ; 70(8): 403-407, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485519

ABSTRACT

A meta-analysis found oral anticoagulant (OAC) monotherapy provided efficacy comparable to OAC plus single antiplatelet therapy-with lower bleeding risk.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/standards , Humans , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(3): 471-480, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434399

ABSTRACT

Symptoms related with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) were previously shown to be linked with increased risk for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aim to interrogate the possibility of a shared genetic basis between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes. Using published GWAS data for GERD (78 707 cases; 288 734 controls) and COVID-19 susceptibility (up to 32 494 cases; 1.5 million controls), we examined the genetic relationship between GERD and three COVID-19 outcomes: risk of developing severe COVID-19, COVID-19 hospitalization and overall COVID-19 risk. We estimated the genetic correlation between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess genetic causality. Conditional analyses were conducted to examine whether known COVID-19 risk factors (obesity, smoking, type-II diabetes, coronary artery disease) can explain the relationship between GERD and COVID-19. We found small to moderate genetic correlations between GERD and COVID-19 outcomes (rg between 0.06 and 0.24). MR analyses revealed a OR of 1.15 (95% CI: 0.96-1.39) for severe COVID-19; 1.16 (1.01-1.34) for risk of COVID-19 hospitalization; 1.05 (0.97-1.13) for overall risk of COVID-19 per doubling of odds in developing GERD. The genetic correlation/associations between GERD and COVID-19 showed mild attenuation towards the null when obesity and smoking was adjusted for. Susceptibility for GERD and risk of COVID-19 hospitalization were genetically correlated, with MR findings supporting a potential causal role between the two. The genetic association between GERD and COVID-19 was partially attenuated when obesity is accounted for, consistent with obesity being a major risk factor for both diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Gastroesophageal Reflux/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/virology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Obesity/complications , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/adverse effects
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 224-239, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387842

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To elucidate the prognostic role of monocytes in the immune response of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at risk for life-threatening heart and lung injury as major complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: From February to April 2020, we prospectively studied a cohort of 96 participants comprising 47 consecutive patients with CAD and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (CAD + SARS-CoV-2), 19 CAD patients without infections, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical assessment included blood sampling, echocardiography, and electrocardiography within 12 h of admission. Respiratory failure was stratified by the Horovitz Index (HI) as moderately/severely impaired when HI ≤200 mmHg. The clinical endpoint (EP) was defined as HI ≤200 mmHg with subsequent mechanical ventilation within a follow-up of 30 days. The numbers of CD14dimCD16+ non-classical monocytes in peripheral blood were remarkably low in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 compared with CAD patients without infection and healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Moreover, these CD14dimCD16 monocytes showed decreased expression of established markers of adhesion, migration, and T-cell activation (CD54, CD62L, CX3CR1, CD80, and HLA-DR). Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes were associated with the occurrence of EP. Kaplan-Meier curves illustrate that CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients with numbers below the median of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes (median 1443 cells/mL) reached EP significantly more often compared to patients with numbers above the median (log-rank 5.03, P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes are associated with rapidly progressive respiratory failure in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients. Intensified risk assessments comprising monocyte sub- and phenotypes may help to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Monocytes/physiology , Receptors, IgG/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/analysis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5390-5395, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363677

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and thrombosis caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are related to the higher mortality rate. Because of limited data on the antiplatelet effect, we aimed to evaluate the impact of aspirin add-on therapy on the outcome of the patients hospitalized due to severe COVID-19. In this cohort study, patients with a confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19 admitted to Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2019 to July 2020 were included. Demographics and related clinical data during their hospitalization were recorded. The mortality rate of the patients was considered as the primary outcome and its association with aspirin use was assessed. Nine hundred and ninety-one patients were included, of that 336 patients (34%) received aspirin during their hospitalization and 655 ones (66%) did not. Comorbidities were more prevalent in the patients who were receiving aspirin. Results from the multivariate COX proportional model demonstrated a significant independent association between aspirin use and reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality (0.746 [0.560-0.994], p = 0.046). Aspirin use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is associated with a significant decrease in mortality rate. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of aspirin administration in this population.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Iran , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular comorbidity anticipates severe progression of COVID-19 and becomes evident by coronary artery calcification (CAC) on low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT). The purpose of this study was to predict a patient's obligation of intensive care treatment by evaluating the coronary calcium burden on the initial diagnostic LDCT. METHODS: Eighty-nine consecutive patients with parallel LDCT and positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were included from three centers. The primary endpoint was admission to ICU, tracheal intubation, or death in the 22-day follow-up period. CAC burden was represented by the Agatston score. Multivariate logistic regression was modeled for prediction of the primary endpoint by the independent variables "Agatston score > 0", as well as the CT lung involvement score, patient sex, age, clinical predictors of severe COVID-19 progression (history of hypertension, diabetes, prior cardiovascular event, active smoking, or hyperlipidemia), and laboratory parameters (creatinine, C-reactive protein, leucocyte, as well as thrombocyte counts, relative lymphocyte count, d-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase levels). RESULTS: After excluding multicollinearity, "Agatston score >0" was an independent regressor within multivariate analysis for prediction of the primary endpoint (p<0.01). Further independent regressors were creatinine (p = 0.02) and leucocyte count (p = 0.04). The Agatston score was significantly higher for COVID-19 cases which completed the primary endpoint (64.2 [interquartile range 1.7-409.4] vs. 0 [interquartile range 0-0]). CONCLUSION: CAC scoring on LDCT might help to predict future obligation of intensive care treatment at the day of patient admission to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Calcinosis/complications , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Radiography, Thoracic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Radiation Dosage
19.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 557-560, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312937

ABSTRACT

Aneurysms and occlusive pathologies of the aorta are frequently associated with atherosclerosis; however, thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome is an extremely rare condition with challenging treatment strategy and without established surgical treatment protocols. In this report, we present our treatment strategy in a 64-year-old male patient with ischemic heart disease and type 5 thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Leriche Syndrome/surgery , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leriche Syndrome/complications , Leriche Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Treatment Outcome
20.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 286-292, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hypertension and pre-existing use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonias. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and pre-existing use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 103 COVID-19 and 91 non-COVID-19 hospitalized viral pneumonia patients were enrolled. Hypertension and CAD were more common in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than in patients with COVID-19 (39.6% vs 22.3%, respectively, p=0.012 and 24.2% vs 4.9%, respectively, p<0.001). In our study, 2.9% and 6.8% of patients with COVID-19 were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively, whereas 13.2% and 19.8% of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively (p=0.009 and p=0.013). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001) was prominent in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia compared with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study results indicate that hypertension and CAD are more common among patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of ACEIs and ARBs use was not higher in patients with COVID-19. Our results support that the use of ACEIs and ARBs do not play a specific role in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
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