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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23874, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569277

ABSTRACT

The worsening progress of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is attributed to the proinflammatory state, leading to increased mortality. Statin works with its anti-inflammatory effects and may attenuate the worsening of COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were retrospectively enrolled from two academic hospitals in Wuhan, China, from 01/26/2020 to 03/26/2020. Adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared between the statin and the non-statin group by CHD status using multivariable Cox regression model after propensity score matching. Our study included 3133 COVID-19 patients (median age: 62y, female: 49.8%), and 404 (12.9%) received statin. Compared with the non-statin group, the statin group was older, more likely to have comorbidities but with a lower level of inflammatory markers. The Statin group also had a lower adjusted mortality risk (6.44% vs. 10.88%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77). Subgroup analysis of CHD patients showed a similar result. Propensity score matching showed an overall 87% (HR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.36) lower risk of in-hospital mortality for statin users than nonusers. Such survival benefit of statin was obvious both among CHD and non-CHD patients (HR = 0.30 [0.09-0.98]; HR = 0.23 [0.1-0.49], respectively). Statin use was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. The benefit of statin was both prominent among CHD and non-CHD patients. These findings may further reemphasize the continuation of statins in patients with CHD during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6304189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553755

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at an increased risk of progression may promote more individualized treatment schemes and optimize the use of medical resources. This study is aimed at investigating the utility of the C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio for early risk stratification of patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 557 patients with COVID-19 with confirmed outcomes (discharged or deceased) admitted to the West Court of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 29, 2020 and April 8, 2020. Patients with severe COVID-19 (n = 465) were divided into stable (n = 409) and progressive (n = 56) groups according to whether they progressed to critical illness or death during hospitalization. To predict disease progression, the CRP/Alb ratio was evaluated on admission. Results: The levels of new biomarkers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, CRP/Alb ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index, were higher in patients with progressive disease than in those with stable disease. Correlation analysis showed that the CRP/Alb ratio had the strongest positive correlation with the sequential organ failure assessment score and length of hospital stay in survivors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2), D-dimer levels, and the CRP/Alb ratio were risk factors for disease progression. To predict clinical progression, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of Alb, CRP, CRP/Alb ratio, SpO2, and D-dimer were 0.769, 0.838, 0.866, 0.107, and 0.748, respectively. Moreover, patients with a high CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) had a markedly higher rate of clinical deterioration (log - rank p < 0.001). A higher CRP/Alb ratio (≥1.843) was also closely associated with higher rates of hospital mortality, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and a longer hospital stay. Conclusion: The CRP/Alb ratio can predict the risk of progression to critical disease or death early, providing a promising prognostic biomarker for risk stratification and clinical management of patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403613

ABSTRACT

The importance of a healthy microbiome cannot be overemphasized. Disturbances in its composition can lead to a variety of symptoms that can extend to other organs. Likewise, acute or chronic conditions in other organs can affect the composition and physiology of the gut microbiome. Here, we discuss interorgan communication along the gut-lung axis, as well as interactions between lung and coronary heart diseases and between cardiovascular disease and the gut microbiome. This triangle of organs, which also affects the clinical outcome of COVID-19 infections, is connected by means of numerous receptors and effectors, including immune cells and immune-modulating factors such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and trimethlamine-N-oxide (TMAO). The gut microbiome plays an important role in each of these, thus affecting the health of the lungs and the heart, and this interplay occurs in both directions. The gut microbiome can be influenced by the oral uptake of probiotics. With an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for interorgan communication, we can start to define what requirements an 'ideal' probiotic should have and its role in this triangle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Lung Diseases , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coronary Disease/microbiology , Coronary Disease/pathology , Humans , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases/pathology
5.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(10): 136, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378989

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the INTERASPIRE scientific protocol-an international survey of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). RECENT FINDINGS: This international survey is being conducted through National Societies of Cardiology in selected countries from each of the six WHO regions and has the following overall aims: (i) describe prevalence of cardiometabolic and renal risk factors together with biomarkers in CHD patients; (ii) describe current risk factor management through lifestyle changes and cardioprotective drug therapies; (iii) provide an objective assessment of clinical implementation of preventive care by comparison with the lifestyle and risk factor targets defined in international and national guidelines; (iv) investigate the reasons for variation in preventive cardiology practice between regions and countries; and (v) promote the principles of best preventive cardiology practice. This international survey will provide a unique picture of CHD patients; their cardiometabolic, renal and biomarker status; lifestyle and therapeutic management; and the quality of preventive care provided in all WHO regions.


Subject(s)
Cardiology , Coronary Disease , Coronary Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(5): 363-375, 2021 May.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219383

ABSTRACT

In over a year, the COVID-19 pandemic caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Social isolation and distancing measures have been the only prevention available for months. Scientific research has done a great deal of work, developing in a few months safe and effective vaccines against COVID-19. In the European Union, nowadays, four vaccines have been authorized for use: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca/Oxford), Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), and three others are currently under rolling review.Vaccine allocation policy is crucial to optimize the advantage of treatment preferring people with the highest risk of contagion. These days the priority in the vaccination program is of particular importance since it has become clear that the number of vaccines is not sufficient for the entire Italian population in the short term. Cardiovascular diseases are frequently associated with severe COVID-19 infections, leading to the worst prognosis. The elderly population suffering from cardiovascular diseases is, therefore, to be considered a particularly vulnerable population. However, age cannot be considered the only discriminating factor because in the young-adult population suffering from severe forms of heart disease, the prognosis, if affected by COVID-19, is particularly ominous and these patients should have priority access to the vaccination program. The aim of this position paper is to establish a consensus on a priority in the vaccination of COVID-19 among subjects suffering from different cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Consensus , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiology , Coronary Disease/complications , Disease Vectors , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Transplantation , Heart Valve Diseases/complications , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Italy/epidemiology , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Medical , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
8.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 234, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 8-28% of patients infected with COVID-19 have evidence of cardiac injury, and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. The cardiovascular mechanisms of injury are poorly understood and speculative. We aim to use multimodality cardiac imaging including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) to identify the cardiac pathophysiological mechanisms related to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: This is a single-centre exploratory observational study aiming to recruit 50 patients with COVID-19 infection who will undergo cardiac biomarker sampling. Of these, 30 patients will undergo combined CTCA and 18F-FDG-PET/CT, followed by CMR. Prevalence of obstructive and non-obstructive atherosclerotic coronary disease will be assessed using CTCA. CMR will be used to identify and characterise myocardial disease including presence of cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, myocardial oedema and myocardial infarction. 18F-FDG-PET/CT will identify vascular and cardiac inflammation. Primary endpoint will be the presence of cardiovascular pathology and the association with troponin levels. DISCUSSION: The results of the study will identify the presence and modality of cardiac injury associated COVID-19 infection, and the utility of multi-modality imaging in diagnosing such injury. This will further inform clinical decision making during the pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study has been retrospectively registered at the ISRCTN registry (ID ISRCTN12154994) on 14th August 2020. Accessible at https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN12154994.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathies/virology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/virology , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multimodal Imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241993, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218366

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically collate and appraise the available evidence regarding the associations between small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), focusing on cholesterol concentration (sdLDL-C) and sdLDL particle characteristics (presence, density, and size). BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) has been hypothesized to induce atherosclerosis and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the etiological relevance of lipoprotein particle size (sdLDL) versus cholesterol content (sdLDL-C) remains unclear. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE were systematically searched for studies published before February 2020. CHD associations were based on quartile comparisons in eight studies of sdLDL-C and were based on binary categorization in fourteen studies of sdLDL particle size. Reported hazards ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were standardized and pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Data were collated from 21 studies with a total of 30,628 subjects and 5,693 incident CHD events. The average age was 67 years, and 53% were men. Higher sdLDL and sdLDL-C levels were both significantly associated with higher risk of CHD. The pooled estimate for the high vs. low categorization of sdLDL was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.52) and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.12) for comparing the top quartiles versus the bottom of sdLDL-C. Several studies suggested a dose response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a positive association between sdLDL or sdLDL-C levels and CHD, which is supported by an increasing body of genetic evidence in favor of its causality as an etiological risk factor. Thus, the results support sdLDL and sdLDL-C as a risk marker, but further research is required to establish sdLDL or sdLDL-C as a potential therapeutic marker for incident CHD risk reduction.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronary Disease/blood , Lipoproteins/blood , Atherosclerosis/blood , Atherosclerosis/complications , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/analysis , Coronary Disease/etiology , Humans , Lipoproteins/analysis , Particle Size , Risk Factors
10.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 14, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143732

ABSTRACT

Background: Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) exhibits a strong infectivity but less virulence compared to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In terms of cardiovascular morbidity, susceptible population include elderly and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions. This infection has been associated with cardiac injury, cardiovascular complications and higher mortality. Objectives: The main objective of the CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry is to determine the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities and cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 infected patients that required in-hospital treatment in different Latin American institutions. Methods: The CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry is an observational, multicenter, ambispective, and hospital-based registry of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who required in-hospital treatment in Latin America. Enrollment of patients started on May 01, 2020 and was initially planned to last three months; based on the progression of pandemic in Latin America, enrollment was extended until December 2020, and could be extended once again based on the pandemic course in our continent at that moment. Conclusions: The CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry will characterize the in-hospital population diagnosed with COVID-19 in Latin America in order to identify risk factors for worsening of cardiovascular comorbidities or for the appearance of cardiovascular complications during hospitalization and during the 30-day follow up period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Registries , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/etiology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Latin America , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
11.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(1): 40-46, 2021 03 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Analysis of the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection caused SARS-CoV-2 indicates a significant impact of hemorheological disorders on its course and outcomes. It is known that chronic cardiovascular diseases are associated with the risk of severe course and lethal outcomes both in COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Therefore, in each case it is necessary to study the interaction and mutual influence of different components of the treatment program prescribed to such patients.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of coagulation activity on the course of a novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) and to justify the management of comorbid patients having been received novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in previously selected doses according to indications in concomitant somatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total 76 cases of confirmed coronavirus infection in patients who had been received initial therapy on an outpatient basis were analyzed. 26 patients who received NOACs (rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran) made up the main group and 50 - the comparison (control) group in which patients had not been administered any drugs that affect blood clotting until the episode of COVID-19. All patients have been prescribed therapy following the Provisional guidelines «Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of coronavirus infection (COVID-19)¼ (https://static-0.minzdrav.gov.ru/system/attachments/attaches/). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The number of hospitalizations was significantly fewer in the group of patients who had been received NOACs (19 vs. 66% in the control group). No deaths or cases of severe respiratory and/or renal failure were observed in the main group, while adverse outcomes were noted in 14% of patients who had not been administered these drugs. CONCLUSION: Taking NOACs reduces the probability of severe course and adverse outcomes in the development of coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, which indicates a significant contribution of coagulation mechanisms to the pathogenesis in COVID-19. There were no indications for drug replacement and correction of anticoagulant therapy regimens in patients who received adequate therapy with oral anticoagulants for treating a non-severe form of coronavirus infection in ambulatory patient settings.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/drug therapy , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , Atrial Fibrillation/virology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/virology , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/mortality , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferon alpha-2/therapeutic use , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/diagnosis , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/mortality , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 73, 2021 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 have been reported to be at higher risk for death than the general population. Several prognostic factors have been identified in the studies from Asian, European or American countries. This is the first national Lebanese study assessing the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 mortality in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This is an observational study that included all chronic hemodialysis patients in Lebanon who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 31st March to 1st November 2020. Data on demographics, comorbidities, admission to hospital and outcome were collected retrospectively from the patients' medical records. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 231 patients were included. Mean age was 61.46 ± 13.99 years with a sex ratio of 128 males to 103 females. Around half of the patients were diabetics, 79.2% presented with fever. A total of 115 patients were admitted to the hospital, 59% of them within the first day of diagnosis. Hypoxia was the major reason for hospitalization. Death rate was 23.8% after a median duration of 6 (IQR, 2 to 10) days. Adjusted regression analysis showed a higher risk for death among older patients (odds ratio = 1.038; 95% confidence interval: 1.013, 1.065), patients with heart failure (odds ratio = 4.42; 95% confidence interval: 2.06, 9.49), coronary artery disease (odds ratio = 3.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 6.30), multimorbidities (odds ratio = 1.593; 95% confidence interval: 1.247, 2.036), fever (odds ratio = 6.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.94, 27.81), CRP above 100 mg/L (odds ratio = 4.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.48, 15.30), and pneumonia (odds ratio = 19.18; 95% confidence interval: 6.47, 56.83). CONCLUSIONS: This national study identified older age, coronary artery disease, heart failure, multimorbidities, fever and pneumonia as risk factors for death in patients with COVID-19 on chronic hemodialysis. The death rate was comparable to other countries and estimated at 23.8%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Multimorbidity , Renal Dialysis , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Disease/complications , Critical Care , Dementia/complications , Female , Fever/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100125

ABSTRACT

This study investigated an alternative home-based cardiac telerehabilitation model in consideration of the recommendations for the COVID-19 quarantine of people diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). We hypothesized that using a 200 m fast walking test (200 mFWT) and telerehabilitation would create an effective alternative cardiac rehabilitation (CR) intervention that could improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Participants (n = 19, mean age 60.4 ± 9.6) of the 8-week intervention performed regular physical exercise at the target heart rate zone determined by calculations based on the 200 mFWT results. In our study, the participants were supervised using telerehabilitation. A total of 84% of participants completed the 8-week intervention. No adverse events were reported during telerehabilitation. The study participants noted a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in cardiorespiratory fitness expressed by an 8% reduction in the walking test time (Δ 8.8 ± 5.9 s). Home-based telerehabilitation based on 200 mFWT effectively increased the cardiorespiratory fitness in people with CHD with a low to moderate cardiovascular risk. This was a novel approach in CR during the COVID-19 pandemic. As research in this area is justified, this paper may serve as an alternative method of providing healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic and as a basis for further upcoming randomized controlled trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Coronary Disease/rehabilitation , Telerehabilitation , Aged , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Walk Test
14.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 69-76, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083894

ABSTRACT

The infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world and been persistently evolving so far. The number of deaths in the whole world has been rising rapidly. However, the early warning factors for mortality have not been well ascertained. In this retrospective, single-centre cohort study, we included some adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University who had been discharged or had died by Apr. 8, 2020. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data at admission were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable analysis, Cox proportional hazard model analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to explore the early warning factors associated with in-hospital death. A total of 159 patients were included in this study, of whom 86 were discharged and 73 died in hospital. Hypertension (52.1% vs. 29.1%, P=0.003) and coronary heart disease (28.8% vs. 12.8%, P=0.012) were more frequent among non-survived patients than among survived patients. The proportions of patients with dyspnoea (67.1% vs. 25.6%, P<0.001), chest distress (58.9% vs. 26.7%, P<0.001) and fatigue (64.4% vs. 25.6%, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the non-survived group than in the survived group. Regression analysis with the Cox proportional hazards mode revealed that increasing odds of in-hospital death were associated with higher IL-6 (odds ratio 10.87, 95% CI 1.41-83.59; P=0.022), lactate (3.59, 1.71-7.54; P=0.001), older age (1.86, 1.03-3.38; P=0.041) and lower lymphopenia (5.44, 2.71-10.93; P<0.001) at admission. The areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) of IL-6, lymphocyte, age and lactate were 0.933, 0.928, 0.786 and 0.753 respectively. The AUC of IL-6 was significantly higher than that of age (z=3.332, P=0.0009) and lactate (z=4.441, P<0.0001) for outcome prediction. There was no significant difference between the AUCs of IL-6 and lymphocyte for outcome prediction (z=0.372, P=0.7101). It was concluded that the potential risk factors of higher IL-6, lactate, older age and lower lymphopenia at admission could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(1): 14-26, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the demographic characteristics and comorbidities of patients with COVID-19 who died in Spanish hospitals during the 2020 pandemic based on whether they were or were not admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) prior to death. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization included by 62 Spanish emergency departments in the SIESTA cohort. We collected the demographic characteristics and comorbidities, determined both individually and estimated globally by the Charlson index (ChI). Independent factors related to ICU admission were identified and different analyses of sensitivity were performed to contrast the consistency of the findings of the principal analysis. RESULTS: We included the 338 patients from the SIESTA cohort that died during hospitalization. Of these, 77 (22.8%) were admitted to an ICU before dying. After multivariate adjustment, 3 out of the 20 basal characteristics analyzed in the present study were independently associated with ICU admission: dementia (no patients with dementia who died were admitted to the ICU: OR = 0, 95%CI = not calculable), active cancer (OR = 0.07; 95%CI = 0.02-0.21) and age (< 70 years: OR = 1, reference; 70-74 years: OR = 0.21; 95%CI = 0.08-0.54; 75-79 years: OR = 0.21; 95%CI = 0.08-0.54; ≥ 80 years: OR = 0.02; 95%CI = 0.01-0.05). The probability of ICU admission significantly increased in parallel to the ChI, even after adjustment for age (ChI 0 points: OR = 0, reference; ChI 1 point: OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.16-0.83; ChI 2 points: OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.16-0.83; ChI >2 points: OR = 0.09; 95%CI = 0.04-0.23). The sensitivity analyses showed no gross differences compared to the principal analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of COVID-19 patients who died without ICU admission is similar to that observed in the usual medical practice before the pandemic. The basal characteristics limiting their admission were age and global burden due to comorbidity, especially dementia and active cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analysis of Variance , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Confidence Intervals , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Sex Distribution , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors
17.
Stroke ; 52(2): 735-747, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060987

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents a severe, life-changing event for people across the world. Life changes may involve job loss, income reduction due to furlough, death of a beloved one, or social stress due to life habit changes. Many people suffer from social isolation due to lockdown or physical distancing, especially those living alone and without family. This article reviews the association of life events and social isolation with cardiovascular disease, assembling the current state of knowledge for stroke and coronary heart disease. Possible mechanisms underlying the links between life events, social isolation, and cardiovascular disease are outlined. Furthermore, groups with increased vulnerability for cardiovascular disease following life events and social isolation are identified, and clinical implications of results are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Coronary Disease/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Isolation/psychology , Stroke/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronary Disease/virology , Humans
18.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(11): 547-554, 2021 06 11.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a global pandemic on March 11, 2020, the number of infections has been increasing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with coronary heart disease. METHOD: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect the literature concerning coronary heart disease and COVID-19. The retrieval time was from inception to Nov 20, 2020, using Stata version 14.0 for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22,148 patients from 40 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed that coronary heart disease was associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (OR=3.42, 95%CI [2.83, 4.13], P<0.001). After subgroup analysis, coronary heart disease was found to be related to mortality (OR=3.75, 95%CI [2.91, 4.82], P<0.001), severe/critical COVID-19 (OR=3.23, 95%CI [2.19, 4.77], P<0.001), ICU admission (OR=2.25, 95%CI [1.34, 3.79], P=0.002), disease progression (OR=3.01, 95%CI [1.46, 6.22], P=0.003); Meta-regression showed that the association between coronary heart disease and poor prognosis of COVID-19 was affected by hypertension (P=0.004), and subgroup analysis showed that compared with the proportion of hypertension >30% (OR=2.85, 95%CI [2.33, 3.49]), the proportion of hypertension <30% (OR=4.78, 95%CI [3.50, 6.51]) had a higher risk of poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Coronary heart disease is a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(10): 4530-4537, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better define the clinical distinctions between the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). METHODS: We compared three groups of patients: group 1, cases from our national historic KD database (KD-HIS), before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; group 2, patients with KD admitted to an intensive care unit (KD-ICU) from both our original cohort and the literature, before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; and group 3, patients with PIMS from the literature. RESULTS: KD-HIS included 425 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 2.8 years (s.d. 2.4)], KD-ICU 176 patients [male:female ratio 1.3, mean age 3.5 years (s.d. 3.1)] and PIMS 404 patients [male:female ratio 1.4, mean age 8.8 years (s.d. 3.7)]. As compared with KD-HIS patients, KD-ICU and PIMS patients had a higher proportion of cardiac failure, digestive and neurological signs. KD-ICU and PIMS patients also had a lower frequency of typical KD-mucocutaneous signs, lower platelet count, higher CRP and lower sodium level. As compared with KD-HIS and KD-ICU patients, PIMS patients were older and more frequently had myocarditis; they also had fewer coronary abnormalities and lower sodium levels. Unresponsiveness to IVIG was more frequent in KD-ICU than KD-HIS and PIMS patients. CONCLUSION: On clinical grounds, KD-HIS, KD-ICU and PIMS might belong to a common spectrum of non-specific pathogen-triggered hyperinflammatory states. The causes of increasing inflammation severity within the three entities and the different effects on the heart remain to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Digestive System Diseases/physiopathology , Female , France , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Myocarditis/blood , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Phenotype , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Count , Sodium/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
20.
Public Health ; 192: 33-36, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multimorbidity, defined as the co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases, is a common occurrence with ageing and a recognised public health concern, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The multimorbidity population is more susceptible to the virus, its complications, and death. The study aimed to explore the multimorbidity characteristics and their associations at a population level for the first time in Malta. Such data enables adequate priority and policy planning due to COVID-19's predilection for this population. STUDY AND METHODS: Baseline data was collected from 3,947 adults recruited between 2014-2016 through a cross-sectional study. A single-stage sampling strategy was implemented and stratified by age (18 -70 years), sex and locality. Participants were invited to attend a health examination survey consisting of a questionnaire, anthropometric and biological measurements. Descriptive (chi-square) and analytic (regression modelling) statistics were used to determine the characteristics and associations of the multimorbidity population. The chronic diseases considered for multimorbidity were type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, myocardial infraction, coronary heart disease and dyslipidaemia. RESULTS: Multimorbidity was present in 33% (95% confidence interval 31.54-34.47) of the study population, with a male predominance. Hypertension and myocardial infarction were the commonest multimorbidity combination from a young age group (20-30 years). Low socio-economic status and residing on the island of Gozo were positively associated with multimorbidity. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity in Malta was evident from a young age, with the highest occurrence among the low socio-economic status and residents of Gozo, bringing forward the need for preventive action. An adaptive healthcare system and policies are recommended to prevent, support, and manage multimorbidity non-communicable diseases while bracing for the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Malta/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Health , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Class , Young Adult
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