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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
3.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2055-2066, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969528

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory data on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Beijing, China, remain extremely limited. In this study, we summarized the clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 from a designated hospital in Beijing. In total, 55 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Beijing 302 Hospital were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory values, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected and retrospectively analyzed. A total of 15 (27.3%) patients had severe symptoms, the mean age was 44.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 34.0-56.0), and the median incubation period was 7.5 days (IQR, 5.0-11.8). A total of 26 (47.3%) patients had exposure history in Wuhan of less than 2 weeks, whereas 20 (36.4%) patients were associated with familial clusters. Also, eighteen (32.7%) patients had underlying comorbidities including hypertension. The most common symptom of illness was fever (45; 81.8%); 51 (92.7%) patients had abnormal findings on chest computed tomography. Laboratory findings showed that neutrophil count, percentage of lymphocyte, percentage of eosinophil, eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin, and serum ferritin are potential risk factors for patients with a poor prognosis. A total of 26 patients (47.3%) were still hospitalized, whereas 29 (52.7%) patients had been discharged. Compared with patients in Wuhan, China, the symptoms of patients in Beijing are relatively mild. Older age, more comorbidities, and more abnormal prominent laboratory markers were associated with a severe condition. On the basis of antiviral drugs, it is observed that antibiotics treatment, appropriate dosage of corticosteroid, and gamma globulin therapy significantly improve patients' outcomes. Early identification and timely medical treatment are important to reduce the severity of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/therapy , Coronary Disease/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Eosinophils/pathology , Eosinophils/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fever/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/therapy , Hypertension/virology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2067-2073, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175870

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study aimed to analysis clinical characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients with novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Medical records, laboratory results and radiologic findings of 52 cancer patients with COVID-19 were collected, clinical characteristics and outcomes were summarized. A total of 52 cancer patients with COVID-19 were included. Median age of 52 cancer patients with COVID-19 was 63 years (34-98). Thirty-three (63.5%) patients were mild and 19 (36.5%) were severe/critical. Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer type (10, 19.2%). The common symptoms were as follows: fever (25%), dry cough (17.3%), chest distress (11.5%), and fatigue (9.6%). There were 33 (63.5%) patients had comorbidities, the most common symptom was hypertension (17, 51.5%). Twenty-six (78.8%) patients developed pneumonia on admission. Lymphocytes (0.6 × 109/L) decreased in both mild and severe/critical patients. Median levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase were 2.8 mg/L, 70.5 mg/L, 0.3 ng/mL, and 318 U/L, respectively, which increased significantly in severe/critical patients compared with the mild patients. Interleukin-6 (12.6 pg/mL) increased in both mild and severe/critical patients, there was a significant difference between them. Complications were observed in 29 (55.8%) patients, such as liver injury (19, 36.5%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (9, 17.3%), sepsis (8, 15.4%), myocardial injury (8, 15.4%), renal insufficiency (4, 7.7%), and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (3, 5.8%). Eleven (21.2%) patients with cancer died. The infection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients with cancer was higher than the general population, cancer patients with COVID-19 showed deteriorating conditions and poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/therapy , Cough/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Fatigue/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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