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1.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911654

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are well known as a diverse family of viruses that affect a wide range of hosts. Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, a variety of bat-associated coronaviruses have been identified in many countries. However, they do not represent all the specific geographic locations of their hosts. In this study, full-length genomes representing newly identified bat coronaviruses in South Korea were obtained using an RNA sequencing approach. The analysis, based on genome structure, conserved replicase domains, spike gene, and nucleocapsid genes revealed that bat Alphacoronaviruses are from three different viral species. Among them, the newly identified B20-97 strain may represent a new putative species, closely related to PEDV. In addition, the newly-identified MERS-related coronavirus exhibited shared genomic nucleotide identities of less than 76.4% with other Merbecoviruses. Recombination analysis and multiple alignments of spike and RBD amino acid sequences suggested that this strain underwent recombination events and could possibly use hDPP4 molecules as its receptor. The bat SARS-related CoV B20-50 is unlikely to be able to use hACE2 as its receptor and lack of an open reading frame in ORF8 gene region. Our results illustrate the diversity of coronaviruses in Korean bats and their evolutionary relationships. The evolution of the bat coronaviruses related ORF8 accessory gene is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronaviridae/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics
2.
Virology ; 570: 123-133, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764025

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 poses unparalleled challenges to global public health. SARS-CoV-2 is a Betacoronavirus, one of four genera belonging to the Coronaviridae subfamily Orthocoronavirinae. Coronaviridae, in turn, are members of the order Nidovirales, a group of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. Here we present a systematic phylogenetic and evolutionary study based on protein domain architecture, encompassing the entire proteomes of all Orthocoronavirinae, as well as other Nidovirales. This analysis has revealed that the genomic evolution of Nidovirales is associated with extensive gains and losses of protein domains. In Orthocoronavirinae, the sections of the genomes that show the largest divergence in protein domains are found in the proteins encoded in the amino-terminal end of the polyprotein (PP1ab), the spike protein (S), and many of the accessory proteins. The diversity among the accessory proteins is particularly striking, as each subgenus possesses a set of accessory proteins that is almost entirely specific to that subgenus. The only notable exception to this is ORF3b, which is present and orthologous over all Alphacoronaviruses. In contrast, the membrane protein (M), envelope small membrane protein (E), nucleoprotein (N), as well as proteins encoded in the central and carboxy-terminal end of PP1ab (such as the 3C-like protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and Helicase) show stable domain architectures across all Orthocoronavirinae. This comprehensive analysis of the Coronaviridae domain architecture has important implication for efforts to develop broadly cross-protective coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronaviridae , Nidovirales , Coronaviridae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Nidovirales/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(1): 69-76, 2022 03 15.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus infection COVID-19 is a major public health problem worldwide. Several publications show the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) in addition to respiratory disorders.The aim of this study was the monitoring of RNA of COVID-19 pathogen, coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Coronaviridae: Coronavirinae: Betacoronavirus; Sarbecovirus) in children hospitalized with acute intestinal infection (AII), with following molecular-genetic characterization of detected strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fecal samples of children with AII hospitalized in infectious hospital of Nizhny Novgorod (Russia) in the period from 01.07.2020 to 31.10.2021 were used as material for the study. Viral RNA detection was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequence of S-protein gene fragment was determined by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 genetic material was detected in 45 out of 2476 fecal samples. The maximum number of samples containing RNA of the virus occurred in November 2020 (detection rate of 12.2%). In 20.0% of cases, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in combination with rota-, noro-, and adenoviruses. 28 nucleotide sequences of S-protein gene fragment complementary DNA (cDNA) were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the studied SARS-CoV-2 strains belonged to two variants. Analysis of the S-protein amino acid sequence of the strains studied showed the absence of the N501Y mutation in the 2020 samples, which is a marker for variants with a high epidemic potential, called variants of concern (VOC) according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition (lines Alpha B.1.1.7, Beta B.1.351, Gamma P.1). Delta line variant B.1.617.2 was identified in two samples isolated in September 2021. CONCLUSION: The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the fecal samples of children with AII, suggesting that the fecal-oral mechanism of pathogen transmission may exist, determines the necessity to optimize its monitoring and to develop an algorithm of actions with patients with signs of AII under the conditions of a novel coronavirus infection pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronaviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Coronaviridae/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625960

ABSTRACT

Bats have been recognized as an exceptional viral reservoir, especially for coronaviruses. At least three bat zoonotic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) have been shown to cause severe diseases in humans and it is expected more will emerge. One of the major features of CoVs is that they are all highly prone to recombination. An extreme example is the insertion of the P10 gene from reoviruses in the bat CoV GCCDC1, first discovered in Rousettus leschenaultii bats in China. Here, we report the detection of GCCDC1 in four different bat species (Eonycteris spelaea, Cynopterus sphinx, Rhinolophus shameli and Rousettus sp.) in Cambodia. This finding demonstrates a much broader geographic and bat species range for this virus and indicates common cross-species transmission. Interestingly, one of the bat samples showed a co-infection with an Alpha CoV most closely related to RsYN14, a virus recently discovered in the same genus (Rhinolophus) of bat in Yunnan, China, 2020. Taken together, our latest findings highlight the need to conduct active surveillance in bats to assess the risk of emerging CoVs, especially in Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae Infections/veterinary , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Phylogeography , Recombination, Genetic , Animals , Cambodia/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/classification , Coronaviridae/isolation & purification , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/transmission , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D765-D770, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462428

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has seen unprecedented use of SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing for epidemiological tracking and identification of emerging variants. Understanding the potential impact of these variants on the infectivity of the virus and the efficacy of emerging therapeutics and vaccines has become a cornerstone of the fight against the disease. To support the maximal use of genomic information for SARS-CoV-2 research, we launched the Ensembl COVID-19 browser; the first virus to be encompassed within the Ensembl platform. This resource incorporates a new Ensembl gene set, multiple variant sets, and annotation from several relevant resources aligned to the reference SARS-CoV-2 assembly. Since the first release in May 2020, the content has been regularly updated using our new rapid release workflow, and tools such as the Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor have been integrated. The Ensembl COVID-19 browser is freely available at https://covid-19.ensembl.org.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Databases, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Web Browser , Coronaviridae/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Sequence Annotation
6.
Science ; 374(6567): eabj3624, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440797

ABSTRACT

Inherited genetic factors can influence the severity of COVID-19, but the molecular explanation underpinning a genetic association is often unclear. Intracellular antiviral defenses can inhibit the replication of viruses and reduce disease severity. To better understand the antiviral defenses relevant to COVID-19, we used interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression screening to reveal that 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), through ribonuclease L, potently inhibits severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We show that a common splice-acceptor single-nucleotide polymorphism (Rs10774671) governs whether patients express prenylated OAS1 isoforms that are membrane-associated and sense-specific regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs or if they only express cytosolic, nonprenylated OAS1 that does not efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2. In hospitalized patients, expression of prenylated OAS1 was associated with protection from severe COVID-19, suggesting that this antiviral defense is a major component of a protective antiviral response.


Subject(s)
2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , 5' Untranslated Regions , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/enzymology , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae/physiology , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Prenylation , RNA, Double-Stranded/chemistry , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retroelements , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication
7.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3717-3727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417291

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the coronavirus family. Comparing genomic features of viral genomes of coronavirus family can improve our understanding about SARS-CoV-2. Here we present the first pan-genome analysis of 3,932 whole genomes of 101 species out of 4 genera from the coronavirus family. We found that a total of 181 genes in the pan-genome of coronavirus family, among which only 3 genes, the S gene, M gene and N gene, are highly conserved. We also constructed a pan-genome from 23,539 whole genomes of SARS-CoV-2. There are 13 genes in total in the SARS-CoV-2 pan-genome. All of the 13 genes are core genes for SARS-CoV-2. The pan-genome of coronaviruses shows a lower level of diversity than the pan-genomes of other RNA viruses, which contain no core gene. The three highly conserved genes in coronavirus family, which are also core genes in SARS-CoV-2 pan-genome, could be potential targets in developing nucleic acid diagnostic reagents with a decreased possibility of cross-reaction with other coronavirus species.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae/genetics , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105075, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401708

ABSTRACT

T-cell-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides in individuals unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 has been previously reported. This pre-existing immunity was suggested to largely derive from prior exposure to 'common cold' endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs). To test this, we characterised the sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2-derived T-cell epitopes reported in the literature across the full proteome of the Coronaviridae family. 54.8% of these epitopes had no homology to any of the HCoVs. Further, the proportion of SARS-CoV-2-derived epitopes with any level of sequence homology to the proteins encoded by any of the coronaviruses tested is well-predicted by their alignment-free phylogenetic distance to SARS-CoV-2 (Pearson's r = -0.958). No coronavirus in our dataset showed a significant excess of T-cell epitope homology relative to the proportion of expected random matches, given their genetic similarity to SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that prior exposure to human or animal-associated coronaviruses cannot completely explain the T-cell repertoire in unexposed individuals that recognise SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive epitopes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronaviridae/immunology , Disease Resistance , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Eutheria/virology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology
9.
Virology ; 563: 20-27, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356482

ABSTRACT

Viruses of the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae can cause mild to severe disease in people, including COVID-19, MERS and SARS. Their most common natural hosts are bat and bird species, which are mostly split across four virus genera. Molecular clock analyses of orthocoronaviruses suggested the most recent common ancestor of these viruses might have emerged either around 10,000 years ago or, using models accounting for selection, many millions of years. Here, we reassess the evolutionary history of these viruses. We present time-aware phylogenetic analyses of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase locus from 123 orthocoronaviruses isolated from birds and bats, including those in New Zealand, which were geographically isolated from other bats around 35 million years ago. We used this age, as well as the age of the avian-mammals split, to calibrate the molecular clocks, under the assumption that these ages are applicable to the analyzed viruses. We found that the time to the most recent ancestor common for all orthocoronaviruses is likely 150 or more million years, supporting clock analyses that account for selection.


Subject(s)
Birds/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Coronaviridae , Genome, Viral , Animals , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , New Zealand/epidemiology
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16145, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349686

ABSTRACT

The genetic element s2m has been acquired through horizontal transfer by many distantly related viruses, including the SARS-related coronaviruses. Here we show that s2m is evolutionarily conserved in these viruses. Though several lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) devoid of the element can be found, these variants seem to have been short lived, indicating that they were less evolutionary fit than their s2m-containing counterparts. On a species-level, however, there do not appear to be any losses and this pattern strongly suggests that the s2m element is essential to virus replication in SARS-CoV-2 and related viruses. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the function of s2m.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae/genetics , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Species Specificity
11.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234835

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had devastating health and socio-economic impacts. Human activities, especially at the wildlife interphase, are at the core of forces driving the emergence of new viral agents. Global surveillance activities have identified bats as the natural hosts of diverse coronaviruses, with other domestic and wildlife animal species possibly acting as intermediate or spillover hosts. The African continent is confronted by several factors that challenge prevention and response to novel disease emergences, such as high species diversity, inadequate health systems, and drastic social and ecosystem changes. We reviewed published animal coronavirus surveillance studies conducted in Africa, specifically summarizing surveillance approaches, species numbers tested, and findings. Far more surveillance has been initiated among bat populations than other wildlife and domestic animals, with nearly 26,000 bat individuals tested. Though coronaviruses have been identified from approximately 7% of the total bats tested, surveillance among other animals identified coronaviruses in less than 1%. In addition to a large undescribed diversity, sequences related to four of the seven human coronaviruses have been reported from African bats. The review highlights research gaps and the disparity in surveillance efforts between different animal groups (particularly potential spillover hosts) and concludes with proposed strategies for improved future biosurveillance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Africa/epidemiology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Ecosystem , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025054

ABSTRACT

Viruses belonging to the Coronaviridae family have a single-stranded positive-sense RNA with a poly-A tail. The genome has a length of ~29.9 kbps, which encodes for genes that are essential for cell survival and replication. Different evolutionary constraints constantly influence the codon usage bias (CUB) of different genes. A virus optimizes its codon usage to fit the host environment on which it savors. This study is a comprehensive analysis of the CUB for the different genes encoded by viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Different methods including relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), an Effective number of codons (ENc), parity plot 2, and Neutrality plot, were adopted to analyze the factors responsible for the genetic evolution of the Coronaviridae family. Base composition and RSCU analyses demonstrated the presence of A-ended and U-ended codons being preferred in the 3rd codon position and are suggestive of mutational selection. The lesser ENc value for the spike 'S' gene suggests a higher bias in the codon usage of this gene compared to the other structural genes. Parity plot 2 and neutrality plot analyses demonstrate the role and the extent of mutational and natural selection towards the codon usage pattern. It was observed that the structural genes of the Coronaviridae family analyzed in this study were at the least under 84% influence of natural selection, implying a major role of natural selection in shaping the codon usage.


Subject(s)
Codon Usage , Codon , Coronaviridae/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , Algorithms , Base Composition , Biological Evolution , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Models, Genetic , Mutation
13.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 68(6): 35, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983490

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic developing rapidly in 2020 is triggered by the emergence of a new human virus-SARS-CoV-2. The emergence of a new virus is not an unexpected phenomenon and has been predicted for many years. Since the virus has spread all over the world, it will be very difficult or even impossible to eradicate it. A necessary condition for complete or partial elimination of the virus is to have an effective vaccine. It is possible that SARS-CoV-2 will become milder in the next few years and COVID-19 will then only threaten individuals from risk groups.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Evolution , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Eradication , Disease Susceptibility , Forecasting , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Selection, Genetic , Virulence , Zoonoses
14.
Virus Res ; 290: 198175, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811767

ABSTRACT

The outbreak and spread of new strains of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) remain a global threat with increasing cases in affected countries. The evolutionary tree of SARS-CoV-2 revealed that Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus 2, which belongs to the Beta arterivirus genus from the Arteriviridae family is possibly the most ancient ancestral origin of SARS-CoV-2 and other Coronaviridae. This review focuses on phylogenomic distribution and evolutionary lineage of zoonotic viral cross-species transmission of the Coronaviridae family and the implications of bat microbiome in zoonotic viral transmission and infection. The review also casts light on the role of the human microbiome in predicting and controlling viral infections. The significance of microbiome-mediated interventions in the treatment of viral infections is also discussed. Finally, the importance of synthetic viruses in the study of viral evolution and transmission is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Coronaviridae Infections/transmission , Coronaviridae/genetics , Microbiota , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/physiology , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Zoonoses/virology
15.
Chem Biol Interact ; 331: 109226, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778555

ABSTRACT

Presence of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), both in genic and intergenic regions, have been widely studied in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses. In the current study, we undertook a survey to analyze the frequency and distribution of microsatellites or SSRs in multiple genomes of Coronaviridae members. We successfully identified 919 SSRs with length ≥12 bp across 55 reference genomes majority of which (838 SSRs) were found abundant in genic regions. The in-silico analysis further identified the preferential abundance of hexameric SSRs than any other size-based motif class. Our analysis shows that the genome size and GC content of the genome had a weak influence on SSR frequency and density. However, we find a positive correlation of SSRs GC content with genomic GC content. We also report relatively low abundances of all theoretically possible 501 repeat motif classes in all the genomes of Coronaviridae. The majority of SSRs were AT-rich. Overall, we see an underrepresentation of SSRs across the genomes of Coronaviridae. Besides, our integrative study highlights the presence of SSRs in ORF1ab (nsp3, nsp4, nsp5A_3CLpro and nsp5B_3CLpro, nsp6, nsp10, nsp12, nsp13, & nsp15 domains), S, ORF3a, ORF7a, N & 3' UTR regions of SARS-CoV-2 and harbours multiple mutations (3'UTR and ORF1ab SSRs serving as major mutational hotspots). This indicates the genic SSRs are under selection pressure against mutations that might alter the reading frame and at the same time responsible for rapid protein evolution. Our preliminary results indicate the significance of the limited repertoire of SSRs in the genomes of Coronaviridae.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , 3' Untranslated Regions , Base Composition , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , Polyproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 398, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733023

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In December 2019 a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that is causing the current COVID-19 pandemic was identified in Wuhan, China. Many questions have been raised about its origin and adaptation to humans. In the present work we performed a genetic analysis of the Spike glycoprotein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 and other related coronaviruses (CoVs) isolated from different hosts in order to trace the evolutionary history of this protein and the adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 to humans. RESULTS: Based on the sequence analysis of the S gene, we suggest that the origin of SARS-CoV-2 is the result of recombination events between bat and pangolin CoVs. The hybrid SARS-CoV-2 ancestor jumped to humans and has been maintained by natural selection. Although the S protein of RaTG13 bat CoV has a high nucleotide identity with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, the phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network suggest a non-direct parental relationship between these CoVs. Moreover, it is likely that the basic function of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S protein was acquired by the SARS-CoV-2 from the MP789 pangolin CoV by recombination and it has been highly conserved.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronaviridae/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Binding Sites/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Furin/metabolism , Host Specificity , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(3): 987-992, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722280

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has attracted attention due to the high number of human cases around the world. It has been proposed that this virus originated in bats, possibly transmitted to humans by an intermediate host, making bats a group of great interest during this outbreak. Almost 10% of the world's bat species inhabit Mexico, and 14 previous novel CoVs have been recorded in Mexican bats. However, the phylogenetic relationships between these viruses and the novel coronavirus are unknown. The aim of this communication was therefore to describe the phylogenetic relationships between Mexican bat-CoVs and SARS-CoV-2. We showed that Mexican bat-CoVs sequences are grouped into two genera, Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus, and the new coronavirus is an independent clade within Betacoronavirus. Due to the diversity of CoVs in Mexican bats, the propensity of CoVs to shift hosts, the invasion mechanisms described for this new virus, and previous reports of animals infected by SARS-CoV-2, the risk of possible infection from humans to Mexican bats should not be discarded and warrants further analyses. To avoid future zoonotic infectious diseases and to limit persecution of bats, we urge researchers and the general population to take extreme precautions and avoid manipulation of bats during the current and future similar outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Zoonoses/epidemiology
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008718, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717612

ABSTRACT

APOBEC3 enzymes are innate immune effectors that introduce mutations into viral genomes. These enzymes are cytidine deaminases which transform cytosine into uracil. They preferentially mutate cytidine preceded by thymidine making the 5'TC motif their favored target. Viruses have evolved different strategies to evade APOBEC3 restriction. Certain viruses actively encode viral proteins antagonizing the APOBEC3s, others passively face the APOBEC3 selection pressure thanks to a depleted genome for APOBEC3-targeted motifs. Hence, the APOBEC3s left on the genome of certain viruses an evolutionary footprint. The aim of our study is the identification of these viruses having a genome shaped by the APOBEC3s. We analyzed the genome of 33,400 human viruses for the depletion of APOBEC3-favored motifs. We demonstrate that the APOBEC3 selection pressure impacts at least 22% of all currently annotated human viral species. The papillomaviridae and polyomaviridae are the most intensively footprinted families; evidencing a selection pressure acting genome-wide and on both strands. Members of the parvoviridae family are differentially targeted in term of both magnitude and localization of the footprint. Interestingly, a massive APOBEC3 footprint is present on both strands of the B19 erythroparvovirus; making this viral genome one of the most cleaned sequences for APOBEC3-favored motifs. We also identified the endemic coronaviridae as significantly footprinted. Interestingly, no such footprint has been detected on the zoonotic MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses. In addition to viruses that are footprinted genome-wide, certain viruses are footprinted only on very short sections of their genome. That is the case for the gamma-herpesviridae and adenoviridae where the footprint is localized on the lytic origins of replication. A mild footprint can also be detected on the negative strand of the reverse transcribing HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HBV viruses. Together, our data illustrate the extent of the APOBEC3 selection pressure on the human viruses and identify new putatively APOBEC3-targeted viruses.


Subject(s)
Cytidine Deaminase/metabolism , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases , Coronaviridae/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Parvoviridae/genetics , Polyomaviridae/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
19.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 797-802, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703389

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, which emerged in China at the end of 2019, is responsible for a global health crisis resulting in the confinement of more than 3 billion people worldwide and the sharp decline of the world economy. In this context, a race against the clock is launched in order to develop a treatment to stop the pandemic as soon as possible. A study published in Nature by the Volker Thiel team reports the development of reverse genetics for SARS-CoV-2 allowing them to recreate the virus in just a few weeks. The perspectives of this work are very interesting since it will allow the genetic manipulation of the virus and thus the development of precious tools which will be useful to fight the infection. Even though this approach represents a technological leap that will improve our knowledge of the virus, it also carries the germ of possible misuse and the creation of the virus for malicious purposes. The advantages and disadvantages of recreating SARS-CoV-2 in this pandemic period are discussed in this mini-synthesis.


TITLE: Une course contre la montre - Création du SARS-CoV-2 en laboratoire, un mois après son émergence ! ABSTRACT: Le SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2), qui a émergé à la fin de l'année 2019 en République populaire de Chine, est responsable d'une crise sanitaire mondiale qui a entraîné le confinement de plus de 3 milliards d'individus et l'arrêt brutal de l'économie planétaire. Dans ce contexte, une course contre la montre est lancée afin de développer, dans les plus brefs délais, un traitement permettant d'enrayer la pandémie. Une étude de l'équipe de Volker Thiel, parue dans le journal Nature, rapporte la mise au point d'une technique de génétique inverse pour le SARS-CoV-2, leur ayant permis de recréer le virus en seulement quelques semaines. Les perspectives de ces travaux sont très intéressantes puisqu'elles permettent d'envisager la manipulation génétique du virus et ainsi le développement d'outils précieux qui seront utiles pour combattre l'infection. Si la technique représente également un saut technologique qui permettra d'améliorer nos connaissances sur le virus, elle porte aussi en elle le germe d'un possible mésusage et la création d'un virus à des fins malveillantes. Les avantages et inconvénients de recréer le SARS-CoV-2 dans cette période de pandémie sont discutés dans cet article.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Organisms, Genetically Modified , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Genetics/methods , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biohazard Release , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast , Cloning, Molecular/methods , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Organisms, Genetically Modified/genetics , Organisms, Genetically Modified/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines
20.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2341-2348, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690501

ABSTRACT

Much remains unknown concerning the origin of the novel pandemic coronavirus that has raged across the globe since emerging in Wuhan of Hubei province, near the center of the People's Republic of China, in December of 2019. All current members of the family Coronaviridae have arisen by a combination of incremental adaptive mutations, against the backdrop of many recombinational events throughout the past, rendering each a unique mosaic of RNA sequences from diverse sources. The consensus among virologists is that the base sequence of the novel coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, was derived from a common ancestor of a bat coronavirus, represented by the strain RaTG13, isolated in Yunnan province in 2013. Into that ancestral genetic background, several recombination events have since occurred from other divergent bat-derived coronaviruses, resulting in localized discordance between the two. One such event left SARS-CoV-2 with a receptor binding domain (RBD) capable of binding the human ACE-2 receptor lacking in RaTG13, and a second event uniquely added to SARS-CoV-2 a site specific for furin, capable of efficient endoproteolytic cleavage and activation of the spike glycoprotein responsible for virus entry and cell fusion. This paper demonstrates by bioinformatic analysis that such recombinational events are facilitated by short oligonucleotide "breakpoint sequences", similar to CAGAC, that direct recombination naturally to certain positions in the genome at the boundaries between blocks of RNA code and potentially RNA structure. This "breakpoint sequence hypothesis" provides a natural explanation for the biogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 over time and in the wild.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Inverted Repeat Sequences , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment
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