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1.
Virology ; 571: 21-33, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783830

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the deadly novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the current COVID-19 pandemic. To date, vaccines are available in the developed countries to prevent the infection of this virus; however, medicines are necessary to help control COVID-19. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) causes the common cold. The main protease (Mpro) is an essential enzyme required for the multiplication of these two viruses in the host cells, and thus is an appropriate candidate to screen potential medicinal compounds. Flavonols and dihydroflavonols are two groups of plant flavonoids. In this study, we report docking simulation with two Mpro enzymes and five flavonols and three dihydroflavonols, in vitro inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, and in vitro inhibition of the HCoV 229E replication. The docking simulation results predicted that (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)- dihydroquercetin, (+)-dihydromyricetin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricentin, isoquercitrin, and rutin could bind to at least two subsites (S1, S1', S2, and S4) in the binding pocket and inhibit the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Their affinity scores ranged from -8.8 to -7.4 (kcal/mol). Likewise, these compounds were predicted to bind and inhibit the HCoV-229E Mpro activity with affinity scores ranging from -7.1 to -7.8 (kcal/mol). In vitro inhibition assays showed that seven available compounds effectively inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro activity and their IC50 values ranged from 0.125 to 12.9 µM. Five compounds inhibited the replication of HCoV-229E in Huh-7 cells. These findings indicate that these antioxidative flavonols and dihydroflavonols are promising candidates for curbing the two viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Flavonols , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonols/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
Food Microbiol ; 106: 104036, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773312

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily transmitted from human to human via droplets and aerosols. While transmission via contaminated surfaces is also considered possible, the overall risk of this transmission route is assumed to be low. Nevertheless, transmission through contaminated drinking glasses may pose an increased risk as the glass is in direct contact with the mouth and oral cavity. Using human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) as surrogate for SARS-CoV-2, this study examined coronavirus stability on glass, inactivation by dishwashing detergents, and virus elimination by a manual glass scrubbing device. Infectious HCoV-229E was recovered from glass for 7 and 21 days of storage under daylight and dark conditions, respectively. Near complete inactivation of HCoV-229E (>4 log10 reduction) was observed after incubation with two common dishwashing detergents at room temperature for 15 s, whereas incubation at 43 °C for 60 s was necessary for a third detergent to achieve a similar titer reduction. The virus was efficiently removed from contaminated drinking glasses using a manual glass scrubbing device in accordance with German standard DIN 6653-3. The results confirm that coronaviruses are relatively stable on glass, but indicate that common manual dishwashing procedures can efficiently eliminate coronaviruses from drinking glasses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , COVID-19/prevention & control , Detergents , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 121-126, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756480

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are distributed globally and they cause a range of respiratory symptoms. Since HCoV infection usually causes mild upper respiratory tract disease and currently has no specific therapy, there are limited reports on its features, especially in adults. We aimed to evaluate the features of HCoV infections in clinical settings. Adult patients with respiratory symptoms from October 2014 to September 2019 at Nagasaki Genbaku Isahaya Hospital were enrolled. Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as performed for 15 viruses, including HCoVs, and eight bacterial species on the patients' respiratory specimens. A total of 121 cases were recruited with HKU1, OC43, 229E, and NL63 strains in 80, 21, 12, and 11 cases, respectively. The percentage of HCoV-infected patients peaked in winter (47.5%). Symptoms of fever (69.4%), cough (47.9%), and comorbidities of asthma/cough variant asthma (34.7%) were frequently observed. Lymphocytopenia and increased C-reactive protein levels were observed in laboratory tests. Co-infection with other viruses was identified in 38.8% of the cases. In the repeat-positive cases, 42% were repeat positive within 100 days. HCoV-infected patients showed winter seasonality with a high frequency of comorbidity with asthma and co-infections. Re-infection within an early period was suspected, but further consideration is required.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Coronavirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Humans
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5247, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764199

ABSTRACT

The clothes laundering process affords numerous opportunities for dissemination of infectious virus from contaminated clothing to appliance surfaces and other household surfaces and eventually to launderer's hands. We have explored the efficacy of laundry sanitizers for inactivating coronaviruses and influenza viruses. Virucidal efficacy was tested using standardized suspension inactivation methods (EN 14476) or hard-surface inactivation methods (ASTM E1053-20) against SARS-CoV-2, human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E), influenza A virus (2009-H1N1 A/Mexico), or influenza B virus (B/Hong Kong). Efficacy was measured in terms of log10 reduction in infectious virus titer, after 15 min contact time (suspension studies) or 5 min contact time (hard surface studies) at 20 ± 1 °C. In liquid suspension studies, laundry sanitizers containing p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) or quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) caused complete inactivation (≥ 4 log10) of HCoV 229E and SARS-CoV-2 within 15 min contact time at 20 ± 1 °C. In hard surface studies, complete inactivation (≥ 4 log10) of each coronavirus or influenza virus, including SARS-CoV-2, was observed following a 5-min contact time at 20 ± 1 °C. Respiratory viruses may remain infectious on clothing/fabrics and environmental surfaces for hours to days. The use of a laundry sanitizer containing microbicidal actives may afford mitigation of the risk of contamination of surfaces during handling of the laundry and washing appliances (i.e., washer/dryer or basin), adjacent surfaces, the waste water stream, and the hands of individuals handling clothes contaminated with SARS-CoV-2, influenza viruses, or other emerging enveloped viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1467, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751714

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can experimentally infect a variety of animals. Human infection by PDCoV has also been reported. Consistently, PDCoV can use aminopeptidase N (APN) from different host species as receptors to enter cells. To understand this broad receptor usage and interspecies transmission of PDCoV, we determined the crystal structures of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of PDCoV spike protein bound to human APN (hAPN) and porcine APN (pAPN), respectively. The structures of the two complexes exhibit high similarity. PDCoV RBD binds to common regions on hAPN and pAPN, which are different from the sites engaged by two alphacoronaviruses: HCoV-229E and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV). Based on structure guided mutagenesis, we identified conserved residues on hAPN and pAPN that are essential for PDCoV binding and infection. We report the detailed mechanism for how a deltacoronavirus recognizes homologous receptors and provide insights into the cross-species transmission of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
6.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726022

ABSTRACT

There is currently debate about human coronavirus (HCoV) seasonality and pathogenicity, as epidemiological data are scarce. Here, we provide epidemiological and clinical features of HCoV patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI) examined in primary care general practice. We also describe HCoV seasonality over six influenza surveillance seasons (week 40 to 15 of each season) from the period 2014/2015 to 2019/2020 in Corsica (France). A sample of patients of all ages presenting for consultation for influenza-like illness (ILI) or ARI was included by physicians of the French Sentinelles Network during this period. Nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of 21 respiratory pathogens by real-time RT-PCR. Among the 1389 ILI/ARI patients, 105 were positive for at least one HCoV (7.5%). On an annual basis, HCoVs circulated from week 48 (November) to weeks 14-15 (May) and peaked in week 6 (February). Overall, among the HCoV-positive patients detected in this study, HCoV-OC43 was the most commonly detected virus, followed by HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. The HCoV detection rates varied significantly with age (p = 0.00005), with the age group 0-14 years accounting for 28.6% (n = 30) of HCoV-positive patients. Fever and malaise were less frequent in HCoV patients than in influenza patients, while sore throat, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis were more associated with HCoV positivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HCoV subtypes appear in ARI/ILI patients seen in general practice, with characteristic outbreak patterns primarily in winter. This study also identified symptoms associated with HCoVs in patients with ARI/ILI. Further studies with representative samples should be conducted to provide additional insights into the epidemiology and clinical features of HCoVs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Primary Health Care , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult
7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 18-22, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719333

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have detrimental impacts on neurological functions, and even to cause severe neurological damage. Very recently, coronaviruses (CoV), especially severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibit neurotropic properties and may also cause neurological diseases. It is reported that CoV can be found in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid. The pathobiology of these neuroinvasive viruses is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of CoV infections on the nervous system. Here, we review the research into neurological complications in CoV infections and the possible mechanisms of damage to the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/physiopathology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(9): 11068-11077, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713108

ABSTRACT

Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, it is evident that viral spread is mediated through several different transmission pathways. Reduction of these transmission pathways is urgently needed to control the spread of viruses between infected and susceptible individuals. Herein, we report the use of pathogen-repellent plastic wraps (RepelWrap) with engineered surface structures at multiple length scales (nanoscale to microscale) as a means of reducing the indirect contact transmission of viruses through fomites. To quantify viral repellency, we developed a touch-based viral quantification assay to mimic the interaction of a contaminated human touch with a surface through the modification of traditional viral quantification methods (viral plaque and TCID50 assays). These studies demonstrate that RepelWrap reduced contamination with an enveloped DNA virus as well as the human coronavirus 229E (HuCoV-229E) by more than 4 log 10 (>99.99%) compared to a standard commercially available polyethylene plastic wrap. In addition, RepelWrap maintained its repellent properties after repeated 300 touches and did not show an accumulation in viral titer after multiple contacts with contaminated surfaces, while increases were seen on other commonly used surfaces. These findings show the potential use of repellent surfaces in reducing viral contamination on surfaces, which could, in turn, reduce the surface-based spread and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus 229E, Human/growth & development , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Infection Control/instrumentation , Plastics/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Surface Properties
9.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0195521, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701123

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the coronavirus spike protein (S) has been verified to be the main target for potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in most coronaviruses, and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of some betacoronaviruses has also been indicated to induce nAbs. For alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E, its RBD has been shown to have neutralizing epitopes, and these epitopes could change over time. However, whether neutralizing epitopes exist on the NTD and whether these epitopes change like those of the RBD are still unknown. Here, we verified that neutralizing epitopes exist on the NTD of HCoV-229E. Furthermore, we characterized an NTD targeting nAb 5H10, which could neutralize both pseudotyped and authentic HCoV-229E VR740 in vitro. Epitope mapping indicated that 5H10 targeted motif E1 (147-167 aa) and identified F159 as critical for 5H10 binding. More importantly, our results revealed that motif E1 was highly conserved among clinical isolates except for F159. Further data proved that mutations at position 159 gradually appeared over time and could completely abolish the neutralizing ability of 5H10, supporting the notion that position 159 may be under selective pressure during the human epidemic. In addition, we also found that contemporary clinical serum has a stronger binding capacity for the NTD of contemporary strains than historic strains, proving that the epitope on the NTD could change over time. In summary, these findings define a novel neutralizing epitope on the NTD of HCoV-229E S and provide a theoretical basis for the design of vaccines against HCoV-229E or related coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE Characterization of the neutralizing epitope of the spike (S) protein, the major invasion protein of coronaviruses, can help us better understand the evolutionary characteristics of these viruses and promote vaccine development. To date, the neutralizing epitope distribution of alphacoronaviruses is not well known. Here, we identified a neutralizing antibody that targeted the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E S protein. Epitope mapping revealed a novel epitope that was not previously discovered in HCoV-229E. Further studies identified an important residue, F159. Mutations that gradually appeared over time at this site abolished the neutralizing ability of 5H10, indicating that selective pressure occurred at this position in the spread of HCoV-229E. Furthermore, we found that the epitopes within the NTD also changed over time. Taken together, our findings defined a novel neutralizing epitope and highlighted the role of the NTD in the future prevention and control of HCoV-229E or related coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Epitopes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Virol J ; 19(1): 29, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690906

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) light has previously been established as useful method of disinfection, with demonstrated efficacy to inactivate a broad range of microorganisms. The advent of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes provides advantages in ease of disinfection, in that there can be delivery of germicidal UV with the same light unit that delivers standard white light to illuminate a room. Herein we demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes as a means of decontamination by inactivating two distinct virus models, human coronavirus 229E and human immunodeficiency virus. Importantly, the same dose of ultraviolet light that inactivated human viruses also elicited complete inactivation of ultraviolet-resistant bacterial spores (Bacillus pumilus), a gold standard for demonstrating ultraviolet-mediated disinfection. This work demonstrates that seconds of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LED) exposure can inactivate viruses and bacteria, highlighting that UV-LED could be a useful and practical tool for broad sanitization of public spaces.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Disinfection , HIV-1 , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , HIV-1/radiation effects , Humans
11.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(12): e666-e675, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the most consequential unknowns of the devastating COVID-19 pandemic are the durability of immunity and time to likely reinfection. There are limited direct data on SARS-CoV-2 long-term immune responses and reinfection. The aim of this study is to use data on the durability of immunity among evolutionarily close coronavirus relatives of SARS-CoV-2 to estimate times to reinfection by a comparative evolutionary analysis of related viruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63. METHODS: We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the S, M, and ORF1b genes to reconstruct a maximum-likelihood molecular phylogeny of human-infecting coronaviruses. This phylogeny enabled comparative analyses of peak-normalised nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and whole-virus lysate IgG antibody optical density levels, in conjunction with reinfection data on endemic human-infecting coronaviruses. We performed ancestral and descendent states analyses to estimate the expected declines in antibody levels over time, the probabilities of reinfection based on antibody level, and the anticipated times to reinfection after recovery under conditions of endemic transmission for SARS-CoV-2, as well as the other human-infecting coronaviruses. FINDINGS: We obtained antibody optical density data for six human-infecting coronaviruses, extending from 128 days to 28 years after infection between 1984 and 2020. These data provided a means to estimate profiles of the typical antibody decline and probabilities of reinfection over time under endemic conditions. Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 under endemic conditions would likely occur between 3 months and 5·1 years after peak antibody response, with a median of 16 months. This protection is less than half the duration revealed for the endemic coronaviruses circulating among humans (5-95% quantiles 15 months to 10 years for HCoV-OC43, 31 months to 12 years for HCoV-NL63, and 16 months to 12 years for HCoV-229E). For SARS-CoV, the 5-95% quantiles were 4 months to 6 years, whereas the 95% quantiles for MERS-CoV were inconsistent by dataset. INTERPRETATION: The timeframe for reinfection is fundamental to numerous aspects of public health decision making. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, reinfection is likely to become increasingly common. Maintaining public health measures that curb transmission-including among individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2-coupled with persistent efforts to accelerate vaccination worldwide is critical to the prevention of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: US National Science Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649980

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread around the world and caused serious public health and social problems. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, new effective antiviral drugs are still needed. Some repurposed drugs including Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir were immediately used to treat COVID-19 after the pandemic. However, the therapeutic effects of these drugs have not been fully demonstrated in clinical studies. In this paper, we found an antimalarial drug, Naphthoquine, showed good broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus activity. Naphthoquineinhibited HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, with IC50 = 2.05 ± 1.44 µM, 5.83 ± 0.74 µM, and 2.01 ± 0.38 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition assay was also performed to explore at which stage Naphthoquine functions during SARS-CoV-2 replication. The results suggested that Naphthoquine may influence virus entry and post-entry replication. Considering the safety of Naphthoquine was even better than that of Chloroquine, we think Naphthoquine has the potential to be used as a broad-spectrum drug for coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
1-Naphthylamine/analogs & derivatives , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 1-Naphthylamine/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2188-2200, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648458

ABSTRACT

Brilacidin, a mimetic of host defense peptides (HDPs), is currently in Phase 2 clinical trial as an antibiotic drug candidate. A recent study reported that brilacidin has antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by inactivating the virus. In this study, we discovered an additional mechanism of action of brilacidin by targeting heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the host cell surface. Brilacidin, but not acetyl brilacidin, inhibits the entry of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into multiple cell lines, and heparin, an HSPG mimetic, abolishes the inhibitory activity of brilacidin on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus cell entry. In addition, we found that brilacidin has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63. Mechanistic studies revealed that brilacidin has a dual antiviral mechanism of action including virucidal activity and binding to coronavirus attachment factor HSPGs on the host cell surface. Brilacidin partially loses its antiviral activity when heparin was included in the cell cultures, supporting the host-targeting mechanism. Drug combination therapy showed that brilacidin has a strong synergistic effect with remdesivir against HCoV-OC43 in cell culture. Taken together, this study provides appealing findings for the translational potential of brilacidin as a broad-spectrum antiviral for coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guanidines , Humans , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 68-73, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin products (for intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration) prepared from geographically diverse plasma pools were tested for activity against common human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Products from plasma obtained from Germany, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, USA and Spain were tested for antibodies to common HCoVs: 229E, OC43, NL63 and HKU1. As these products are manufactured from pooled plasma from thousands of donors, the antibodies therein are representative of HCoV exposure in the population at large. METHODS: Immunoglobulin products were tested for antibodies to four common HCoVs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Neutralization assays were conducted using HCoV-229E cultured on to MRC5 cells. RESULTS: ELISAs showed that when expressed as specific activity (anti-HCoV activity/mg immunoglobulin), similar activity against the four common HCoVs was seen across the immunoglobulin products regardless of concentration or geographic origin. Highest anti-HCoV activity was seen against HCoV-229E, followed by HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1. The neutralization assays showed similar potency for two immunoglobulin products prepared by different processes. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of antibodies to common HCoVs in immunoglobulin products. These results may explain the cross-reactivity seen with pre-pandemic immunoglobulin products and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, and contribute to differences in severity of illness between patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 214-218, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638018

ABSTRACT

Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity, although mechanistic studies are lacking. We tested whether airway surface liquid (ASL) from primary human airway epithelial cells is antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and human alphacoronavirus 229E (CoV-229E) (responsible for common colds), and whether PM (urban, indoor air pollution [IAP], volcanic ash) affected ASL antiviral activity. ASL inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E. Independently, urban PM also decreased SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E infection, and IAP PM decreased CoV-229E infection. However, in combination, urban PM impaired ASL's antiviral activity against both viruses, and the same effect occurred for IAP PM and ash against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that PM may enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Immunity, Innate , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Urban Population , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 287: 114965, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587284

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Coronavirus and influenza virus infection seriously threaten human health. Cangma Huadu Granules (CMHD) is an in-hospital preparation composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), which has been clinically used against COVID-19 in China and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of influenza. However, the role of its treatment urgently needs to be studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of CMHD on pneumonia induced by coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and influenza A virus (H1N1/FM1) in mice and explore its mechanism of anti-infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were infected with HCoV-229E or H1N1/FM1 virus through the nasal cavity. CMHD (12.1, 6.05 and 3.03 g/kg/d) or the positive control drugs were administered intragastrically. The lung index and histopathological changes were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CMHD. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-4 in Serum and the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were detected to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and immune regulation effects of CMHD, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of p-NF-κBp65/ NF-κB p65, which was the key targets of the NF-κB pathway was analyzed. RESULTS: In HCoV-229E-induced pneumonia, the lung index was markedly reduced, and lung pathology was improved in mice that treated with CMHD (12.1, 6.05 g/kg/d). Meanwhile, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 were obviously inhibited, but the expression of IL-4 was significantly increased in CMHD groups. Compared with the model group, CMHD could also markedly upregulate the level of CD4+ and CD8+. Furthermore, CMHD has a markedly effect on inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 in the lung. In H1N1-induced pneumonia, the lung index of mice in the CMHD (12.1 g/kg/d) treatment group was lower than that in the model group, and less inflammatory infiltration could be seen in the lung pathological. Moreover, CMHD could also obviously decrease the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, but significantly increase the expression of IL-4. Except for that, CMHD could also markedly downregulate the level of CD4+ and upregulate the level of CD8+ compared with the model group. In addition, CMHD has a markedly effect on inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 in the lung. CONCLUSION: CMHD can significantly combats viral infections caused by HCoV-229E and H1N1, and the mechanism may be related to its multiple functions of anti-inflammatory, immunity regulating and inhibiting NF-κB signal transduction pathway.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity/drug effects , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
17.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 40-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585824

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is generally mild or asymptomatic in children but a biological basis for this outcome is unclear. Here we compare antibody and cellular immunity in children (aged 3-11 years) and adults. Antibody responses against spike protein were high in children and seroconversion boosted responses against seasonal Beta-coronaviruses through cross-recognition of the S2 domain. Neutralization of viral variants was comparable between children and adults. Spike-specific T cell responses were more than twice as high in children and were also detected in many seronegative children, indicating pre-existing cross-reactive responses to seasonal coronaviruses. Importantly, children retained antibody and cellular responses 6 months after infection, whereas relative waning occurred in adults. Spike-specific responses were also broadly stable beyond 12 months. Therefore, children generate robust, cross-reactive and sustained immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 with focused specificity for the spike protein. These findings provide insight into the relative clinical protection that occurs in most children and might help to guide the design of pediatric vaccination regimens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans
19.
Sleep Med ; 91: 282-288, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562176

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have been known to infect humans for several decades and there are four endemic subtypes: HCoV (human coronavirus) -229E, -NL63, -OC43 and -HKU1. These mainly cause a mild upper respiratory illness, but occasionally in vulnerable individuals they can result in more severe respiratory disease and, rarely, CNS involvement. Prior exposure to these viruses has also been associated with an increased odds of having a major psychiatric illness. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused by SARS-CoV, started in 2002 and, as well as causing a more severe respiratory phenotype, was also associated with delirium and affective symptoms acutely. Psychosis occurred in about 1% of individuals and was generally thought to be due to corticosteroid administration. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), caused by MERS-CoV, revealed similar findings. Survivors of both SARS and MERS reported persistent physical and psychological symptoms at least several months after the acute illness. The reported neuropsychiatric symptoms of COVID-19 range from the common symptoms of systemic and upper respiratory infections to severe and disabling conditions. Delirium has been described using varying terminology; as well as being a possible presenting feature of COVID-19, it has also been shown to be a marker of severe disease. Stroke, both ischaemic and haemorrhagic, have been reported to be more common in COVID-19 than in other medical illnesses. Mood and anxiety disorders are likely to be common at follow-up, while psychosis remains rare and controversial. 'Long Covid' is likely to represent a highly clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Delirium , SARS Virus , COVID-19/complications , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153874, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) pose a huge threat to human public health, no specific treatment is available. Jinzhen granule (JZ) is a traditional eight ingredients-Chinese medicine with prominent efficacy for treating viral-induced diseases. However, little is known about the antiviral effect and mechanism of JZ against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E. PURPOSE: This study aimed to reveal the antiviral effects of JZ against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, and to further explore the underlying mechanisms regulating the host immune response. METHODS: The chromatographic separation of JZ was performed using a Shimadzu analytical high-performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection and Alltech ELSD 2000ES. We conducted cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assays to evaluate the antiviral effect of JZ. A lethal human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) transgenic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 was established to determine the protective effect of JZ on mortality and lung virus titers. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were used to analyze the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting was further performed to determine the activities on regulating the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/MAPK pathway. Finally, mitochondrial membrane potential assays, flow cytometry analysis and western blotting were used to assess the anti-apoptotic potency toward HCoV-229E infection. RESULTS: The results showed that 13 chemical components were identified and five peaks were determined and quantitated (gallic acid 1.97 mg/g, baicalin 20.69 mg/g, glycyrrhizic acid 4.92 mg/g, hyodeoxycholic acid 4.86 mg/g, cholic acid 4.07 mg/g). We found that JZ exerted inhibitory potency against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E in vitro by using CPE and plaque reduction assays, and it was further found that JZ protected mice infected by SARS-CoV-2 from death and inhibited lung virus titers. JZ also significantly decreased the induction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, CCL-5 and MIP-1ß), similar to the observed in vitro effect. Moreover, JZ suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines in vitro and it decreased the protein expression of p-p38 MAPK, p-JNK, p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα induced by HCoV-229E and increased the expression of IκBα. Notably, JZ significantly protected HCoV-229E-infected Huh-7 cells from mitochondrial damage and decreased apoptotic cells. The activation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway was inhibited by JZ, as shown by the reduced expression of cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and p-PARP. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, JZ (gallic acid 1.97 mg/g, baicalin 20.69 mg/g, glycyrrhizic acid 4.92 mg/g, hyodeoxycholic acid 4.86 mg/g, cholic acid 4.07 mg/g) exhibited antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the NF-κB/MAPK pathway and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. These findings demonstrated the efficacy of JZ against CoVs and suggested JZ treatment as a novel clinical therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , NF-kappa B
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