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1.
Cell ; 185(13): 2279-2291.e17, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866951

ABSTRACT

The isolation of CCoV-HuPn-2018 from a child respiratory swab indicates that more coronaviruses are spilling over to humans than previously appreciated. We determined the structures of the CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike glycoprotein trimer in two distinct conformational states and showed that its domain 0 recognizes sialosides. We identified that the CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike binds canine, feline, and porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) orthologs, which serve as entry receptors, and determined the structure of the receptor-binding B domain in complex with canine APN. The introduction of an oligosaccharide at position N739 of human APN renders cells susceptible to CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike-mediated entry, suggesting that single-nucleotide polymorphisms might account for viral detection in some individuals. Human polyclonal plasma antibodies elicited by HCoV-229E infection and a porcine coronavirus monoclonal antibody inhibit CCoV-HuPn-2018 spike-mediated entry, underscoring the cross-neutralizing activity among ɑ-coronaviruses. These data pave the way for vaccine and therapeutic development targeting this zoonotic pathogen representing the eighth human-infecting coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , CD13 Antigens/chemistry , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Cats , Cell Line , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Dogs , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Swine
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6703, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526075

ABSTRACT

Determination of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in the context of pre-existing immunity to circulating human coronavirus (HCoV) is critical for understanding protective immunity. Here we perform a multifactorial analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV antibody responses in pre-pandemic (N = 825) and SARS-CoV-2-infected donors (N = 389) using a custom-designed multiplex ABCORA assay. ABCORA seroprofiling, when combined with computational modeling, enables accurate definition of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion and prediction of neutralization activity, and reveals intriguing interrelations with HCoV immunity. Specifically, higher HCoV antibody levels in SARS-CoV-2-negative donors suggest that pre-existing HCoV immunity may provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. In those infected, higher HCoV activity is associated with elevated SARS-CoV-2 responses, indicating cross-stimulation. Most importantly, HCoV immunity may impact disease severity, as patients with high HCoV reactivity are less likely to require hospitalization. Collectively, our results suggest that HCoV immunity may promote rapid development of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity, thereby underscoring the importance of exploring cross-protective responses for comprehensive coronavirus prevention.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389390

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of α-fluorinated methyl ketones has always been challenging. New methods based on the homologation chemistry via nucleophilic halocarbenoid transfer, carried out recently in our labs, allowed us to design and synthesize a target-directed dipeptidyl α,α-difluoromethyl ketone (DFMK) 8 as a potential antiviral agent with activity against human coronaviruses. The ability of the newly synthesized compound to inhibit viral replication was evaluated by a viral cytopathic effect (CPE)-based assay performed on MCR5 cells infected with one of the four human coronaviruses associated with respiratory distress, i.e., hCoV-229E, showing antiproliferative activity in the micromolar range (EC50 = 12.9 ± 1.22 µM), with a very low cytotoxicity profile (CC50 = 170 ± 3.79 µM, 307 ± 11.63 µM, and 174 ± 7.6 µM for A549, human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs), and MRC5 cells, respectively). Docking and molecular dynamics simulations studies indicated that 8 efficaciously binds to the intended target hCoV-229E main protease (Mpro). Moreover, due to the high similarity between hCoV-229E Mpro and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, we also performed the in silico analysis towards the second target, which showed results comparable to those obtained for hCoV-229E Mpro and promising in terms of energy of binding and docking pose.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Dipeptides/chemistry , Ketones/chemistry , A549 Cells , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 20: 100120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284342

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses have become an increasing threat to global health; three highly pathogenic strains have emerged since the early 2000s, including most recently SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of coronavirus pathogenesis is needed, including how these highly virulent strains differ from those that cause milder, common-cold-like disease. While significant progress has been made in understanding how SARS-CoV-2 proteins interact with the host cell, nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has largely been omitted from the analyses. Nsp3 is a viral protease with important roles in viral protein biogenesis, replication complex formation, and modulation of host ubiquitinylation and ISGylation. Herein, we use affinity purification-mass spectrometry to study the host-viral protein-protein interactome of nsp3 from five coronavirus strains: pathogenic strains SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV; and endemic common-cold strains hCoV-229E and hCoV-OC43. We divide each nsp3 into three fragments and use tandem mass tag technology to directly compare the interactors across the five strains for each fragment. We find that few interactors are common across all variants for a particular fragment, but we identify shared patterns between select variants, such as ribosomal proteins enriched in the N-terminal fragment (nsp3.1) data set for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We also identify unique biological processes enriched for individual homologs, for instance, nuclear protein import for the middle fragment of hCoV-229E, as well as ribosome biogenesis of the MERS nsp3.2 homolog. Lastly, we further investigate the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 nsp3 N-terminal fragment with ATF6, a regulator of the unfolded protein response. We show that SARS-CoV-2 nsp3.1 directly binds to ATF6 and can suppress the ATF6 stress response. Characterizing the host interactions of nsp3 widens our understanding of how coronaviruses co-opt cellular pathways and presents new avenues for host-targeted antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Activating Transcription Factor 6/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Protein Interaction Maps , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Unfolded Protein Response , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009500, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197396

ABSTRACT

The high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 is related to abundant replication in the upper airways, which is not observed for the other highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We here reveal features of the coronavirus spike (S) protein, which optimize the virus towards the human respiratory tract. First, the S proteins exhibit an intrinsic temperature preference, corresponding with the temperature of the upper or lower airways. Pseudoviruses bearing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (SARS-2-S) were more infectious when produced at 33°C instead of 37°C, a property shared with the S protein of HCoV-229E, a common cold coronavirus. In contrast, the S proteins of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV favored 37°C, in accordance with virus preference for the lower airways. Next, SARS-2-S-driven entry was efficiently activated by not only TMPRSS2, but also the TMPRSS13 protease, thus broadening the cell tropism of SARS-CoV-2. Both proteases proved relevant in the context of authentic virus replication. TMPRSS13 appeared an effective spike activator for the virulent coronaviruses but not the low pathogenic HCoV-229E virus. Activation of SARS-2-S by these surface proteases requires processing of the S1/S2 cleavage loop, in which both the furin recognition motif and extended loop length proved critical. Conversely, entry of loop deletion mutants is significantly increased in cathepsin-rich cells. Finally, we demonstrate that the D614G mutation increases SARS-CoV-2 stability, particularly at 37°C, and, enhances its use of the cathepsin L pathway. This indicates a link between S protein stability and usage of this alternative route for virus entry. Since these spike properties may promote virus spread, they potentially explain why the spike-G614 variant has replaced the early D614 variant to become globally predominant. Collectively, our findings reveal adaptive mechanisms whereby the coronavirus spike protein is adjusted to match the temperature and protease conditions of the airways, to enhance virus transmission and pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Temperature , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(4)2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159599

ABSTRACT

The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is global and unprecedented. Although remdesivir has recently been approved by the FDA to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, no oral antiviral is available for outpatient treatment. AT-527, an orally administered double prodrug of a guanosine nucleotide analog, was previously shown to be highly efficacious and well tolerated in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects. Here, we report the potent in vitro activity of AT-511, the free base of AT-527, against several coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. In normal human airway epithelial cells, the concentration of AT-511 required to inhibit replication of SARS-CoV-2 by 90% (EC90) was 0.47 µM, very similar to its EC90 against human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, and SARS-CoV in Huh-7 cells. Little to no cytotoxicity was observed for AT-511 at concentrations up to 100 µM. Substantial levels of the active triphosphate metabolite AT-9010 were formed in normal human bronchial and nasal epithelial cells incubated with 10 µM AT-511 (698 ± 15 and 236 ± 14 µM, respectively), with a half-life of at least 38 h. Results from steady-state pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of nonhuman primates administered oral doses of AT-527, as well as pharmacokinetic data from subjects given daily oral doses of AT-527, predict that twice daily oral doses of 550 mg AT-527 will produce AT-9010 trough concentrations in human lung that exceed the EC90 observed for the prodrug against SARS-CoV-2 replication. This suggests that AT-527 may be an effective treatment option for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guanosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Guanosine/pharmacology , Phosphoramides/pharmacology , Prodrugs/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Cricetinae , Epithelial Cells/virology , Guanosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Humans , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preexisting immunity to SARS-CoV-2 could be related to cross-reactive antibodies to common human-coronaviruses (HCoVs). This study aimed to evaluate whether human milk antibodies against to S1 and S2 subunits SARS-CoV-2 are cross-reactive to S1 and S2 subunits HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E in mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, in mothers with previous viral symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic, and in unexposed mothers; Methods: The levels of secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA, secretory IgM (SIgM)/IgM, and IgG specific to S1 and S2 SARS-CoV-2, and reactive to S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E were measured in milk from 7 mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR test, 20 mothers with viral symptoms, and unexposed mothers (6 Ctl1-2018 and 16 Ctl2-2018) using ELISA; Results: The S2 SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were higher in the COVID-19 PCR (p = 0.014) and viral symptom (p = 0.040) groups than in the Ctl1-2018 group. We detected a higher number of positive correlations between the antigens and secretory antibodies in the COVID-19 PCR group than in the viral symptom and Ctl-2018 groups. S1 + S2 HCoV-OC43-reactive IgG was higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group (p = 0.002) but did not differ for the other antibodies; Conclusions: Mothers with a confirmed COVID-19 PCR and mothers with previous viral symptoms had preexisting human milk antibodies against S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2. Human milk IgG were more specific to S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2 than other antibodies, whereas SIgA and SIgM were polyreactive and cross-reactive to S1 or S2 subunit SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Milk, Human/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Mothers , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081098

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of α-fluorinated methyl ketones has always been challenging. New methods based on the homologation chemistry via nucleophilic halocarbenoid transfer, carried out recently in our labs, allowed us to design and synthesize a target-directed dipeptidyl α,α-difluoromethyl ketone (DFMK) 8 as a potential antiviral agent with activity against human coronaviruses. The ability of the newly synthesized compound to inhibit viral replication was evaluated by a viral cytopathic effect (CPE)-based assay performed on MCR5 cells infected with one of the four human coronaviruses associated with respiratory distress, i.e., hCoV-229E, showing antiproliferative activity in the micromolar range (EC50 = 12.9 ± 1.22 µM), with a very low cytotoxicity profile (CC50 = 170 ± 3.79 µM, 307 ± 11.63 µM, and 174 ± 7.6 µM for A549, human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs), and MRC5 cells, respectively). Docking and molecular dynamics simulations studies indicated that 8 efficaciously binds to the intended target hCoV-229E main protease (Mpro). Moreover, due to the high similarity between hCoV-229E Mpro and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, we also performed the in silico analysis towards the second target, which showed results comparable to those obtained for hCoV-229E Mpro and promising in terms of energy of binding and docking pose.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Dipeptides/chemistry , Ketones/chemistry , A549 Cells , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus M Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thermodynamics , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 267-280.e5, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978239

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has devastated the global economy and claimed more than 1.7 million lives, presenting an urgent global health crisis. To identify host factors required for infection by SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal coronaviruses, we designed a focused high-coverage CRISPR-Cas9 library targeting 332 members of a recently published SARS-CoV-2 protein interactome. We leveraged the compact nature of this library to systematically screen SARS-CoV-2 at two physiologically relevant temperatures along with three related coronaviruses (human coronavirus 229E [HCoV-229E], HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43), allowing us to probe this interactome at a much higher resolution than genome-scale studies. This approach yielded several insights, including potential virus-specific differences in Rab GTPase requirements and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis, as well as identification of multiple pan-coronavirus factors involved in cholesterol homeostasis. This coronavirus essentiality catalog could inform ongoing drug development efforts aimed at intercepting and treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and help prepare for future coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Genes, Viral , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
10.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 30(10): 1495-1499, 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914599

ABSTRACT

The study of climate and respiratory viral infections using big data may enable the recognition and interpretation of relationships between disease occurrence and climatic variables. In this study, realtime reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods were used to identify Human respiratory coronaviruses (HCoV). infections in patients below 10 years of age with respiratory infections who visited Dankook University Hospital in Cheonan, South Korea, from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2018. Out of the 9010 patients who underwent respiratory virus real-time reverse transcription qPCR test, 364 tested positive for HCoV infections. Among these 364 patients, 72.8% (n = 265) were below 10 years of age. Data regarding the frequency of infections was used to uncover the seasonal pattern of the two viral strains, which was then compared with local meteorological data for the same time period. HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 showed high infection rates in patients below 10 years of age. There was a negative relationship between HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 infections with air temperature and wind-chill temperatures. Both HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 rates of infection were positively related to atmospheric pressure, while HCoV-229E was also positively associated with particulate matter concentrations. Our results suggest that climatic variables affect the rate in which children below 10 years of age are infected with HCoV. These findings may help to predict when prevention strategies may be most effective.


Subject(s)
Climate , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104440, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621792

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus strain responsible for COVID-19, has emerged in Wuhan City, China, and continuing its global pandemic nature. The availability of the complete gene sequences of the virus helps to know about the origin and molecular characteristics of this virus. In the present study, we performed bioinformatic analysis of the available gene sequence data of SARS-CoV-2 for the understanding of evolution and molecular characteristics and immunogenic resemblance of the circulating viruses. Phylogenetic analysis was performed for four types of representative viral proteins (spike, membrane, envelope and nucleoprotein) of SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV, HCoV-NL63, HKU1, MERS-CoV, HKU4, HKU5 and BufCoV-HKU26. The findings demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 exhibited convergent evolutionary relation with previously reported SARS-CoV. It was also depicted that SARS-CoV-2 proteins were highly similar and identical to SARS-CoV proteins, though proteins from other coronaviruses showed a lower level of resemblance. The cross-checked conservancy analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antigenic epitopes showed significant conservancy with antigenic epitopes derived from SARS-CoV. Descriptive epidemiological analysis on several epidemiological indices was performed on available epidemiological outbreak information from several open databases on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Satellite-derived imaging data have been employed to understand the role of temperature in the environmental persistence of the virus. Findings of the descriptive analysis were used to describe the global impact of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, and the risk of an epidemic in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/genetics , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/classification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/classification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Nucleoproteins/chemistry , Nucleoproteins/genetics , Nucleoproteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS Virus/classification , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
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