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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009560, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523396

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is of zoonotic origin. Evolutionary analyses assessing whether coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 infected ancestral species of modern-day animal hosts could be useful in identifying additional reservoirs of potentially dangerous coronaviruses. We reasoned that if a clade of species has been repeatedly exposed to a virus, then their proteins relevant for viral entry may exhibit adaptations that affect host susceptibility or response. We perform comparative analyses across the mammalian phylogeny of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in order to uncover evidence for selection acting at its binding interface with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We uncover that in rodents there is evidence for adaptive amino acid substitutions at positions comprising the ACE2-spike interaction interface, whereas the variation within ACE2 proteins in primates and some other mammalian clades is not consistent with evolutionary adaptations. We also analyze aminopeptidase N (APN), the receptor for the human coronavirus 229E, a virus that causes the common cold, and find evidence for adaptation in primates. Altogether, our results suggest that the rodent and primate lineages may have had ancient exposures to viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/physiology , Common Cold/genetics , Common Cold/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/virology , Phylogeny , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19930, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462026

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by aerosols has played a significant role in the rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe. Indoor environments with inadequate ventilation pose a serious infection risk. Whilst vaccines suppress transmission, they are not 100% effective and the risk from variants and new viruses always remains. Consequently, many efforts have focused on ways to disinfect air. One such method involves use of minimally hazardous 222 nm far-UVC light. Whilst a small number of controlled experimental studies have been conducted, determining the efficacy of this approach is difficult because chamber or room geometry, and the air flow within them, influences both far-UVC illumination and aerosol dwell times. Fortunately, computational multiphysics modelling allows the inadequacy of dose-averaged assessment of viral inactivation to be overcome in these complex situations. This article presents the first validation of the WYVERN radiation-CFD code for far-UVC air-disinfection against survival fraction measurements, and the first measurement-informed modelling approach to estimating far-UVC susceptibility of viruses in air. As well as demonstrating the reliability of the code, at circa 70% higher, our findings indicate that aerosolized human coronaviruses are significantly more susceptible to far-UVC than previously thought.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disinfection/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Humans , Models, Biological
3.
Virology ; 564: 33-38, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447220

ABSTRACT

Endemic seasonal coronaviruses cause morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients, but no specific treatment is available. Molnupiravir is a promising pipeline antiviral drug for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially by targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This study aims to evaluate the potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections. Molecular docking revealed that the active form of molnupiravir, ß-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC), has similar binding affinity to RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. In cell culture models, treatment of molnupiravir effectively inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses of the three seasonal coronaviruses. A time-of-drug-addition experiment indicates the specificity of molnupiravir in inhibiting viral components. Furthermore, combining molnupiravir with the protease inhibitor GC376 resulted in enhanced antiviral activity. Our findings highlight that the great potential of repurposing molnupiravir for treating seasonal coronavirus infected patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxylamines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytidine/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Seasons , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/genetics
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5536, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428813

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important human pathogens for which no specific treatment is available. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological reprogramming of ER stress pathways can be exploited to suppress CoV replication. The ER stress inducer thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types including primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, (partially) reverses the virus-induced translational shut-down, improves viability of infected cells and counteracts the CoV-mediated downregulation of IRE1α and the ER chaperone BiP. Proteome-wide analyses revealed specific pathways, protein networks and components that likely mediate the thapsigargin-induced antiviral state, including essential (HERPUD1) or novel (UBA6 and ZNF622) factors of ER quality control, and ER-associated protein degradation complexes. Additionally, thapsigargin blocks the CoV-induced selective autophagic flux involving p62/SQSTM1. The data show that thapsigargin hits several central mechanisms required for CoV replication, suggesting that this compound (or derivatives thereof) may be developed into broad-spectrum anti-CoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Extracts , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 141, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387322

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses spike (S) glycoproteins mediate viral entry into host cells by binding to host receptors. However, how the S1 subunit undergoes conformational changes for receptor recognition has not been elucidated in Alphacoronavirus. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of the HCoV-229E S trimer in prefusion state with two conformations. The activated conformation may pose the potential exposure of the S1-RBDs by decreasing of the interaction area between the S1-RBDs and the surrounding S1-NTDs and S1-RBDs compared to the closed conformation. Furthermore, structural comparison of our structures with the previously reported HCoV-229E S structure showed that the S trimers trended to open the S2 subunit from the closed conformation to open conformation, which could promote the transition from pre- to postfusion. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms involved in S glycoprotein-mediated Alphacoronavirus entry and have implications for vaccine and therapeutic antibody design.


Subject(s)
CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Multimerization/physiology , Protein Structure, Quaternary , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
6.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367925

ABSTRACT

An escalating pandemic of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is impacting global health, and effective antivirals are needed. Umifenovir (Arbidol) is an indole-derivative molecule, licensed in Russia and China for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza and other respiratory viral infections. It has been shown that umifenovir has broad spectrum activity against different viruses. We evaluated the sensitivity of different coronaviruses, including the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, to umifenovir using in vitro assays. Using a plaque assay, we revealed an antiviral effect of umifenovir against seasonal HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 coronaviruses in Vero E6 cells, with estimated 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 10.0 ± 0.5 µM and 9.0 ± 0.4 µM, respectively. Umifenovir at 90 µM significantly suppressed plaque formation in CMK-AH-1 cells infected with SARS-CoV. Umifenovir also inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus, with EC50 values ranging from 15.37 ± 3.6 to 28.0 ± 1.0 µM. In addition, 21-36 µM of umifenovir significantly suppressed SARS-CoV-2 virus titers (≥2 log TCID50/mL) in the first 24 h after infection. Repurposing of antiviral drugs is very helpful in fighting COVID-19. A safe, pan-antiviral drug such as umifenovir could be extremely beneficial in combating the early stages of a viral pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Indoles/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348697

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh identified human coronavirus. Understanding the extent of pre-existing immunity induced by seropositivity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the impact of cross-reactivity on COVID-19 disease progression remains a key research question in immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and the immunopathology of COVID-2019 disease. This paper describes a panel of lentiviral pseudotypes bearing the spike (S) proteins for each of the seven human coronaviruses (HCoVs), generated under similar conditions optimized for high titre production allowing a high-throughput investigation of antibody neutralization breadth. Optimal production conditions and most readily available permissive target cell lines were determined for spike-mediated entry by each HCoV pseudotype: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 best transduced HEK293T/17 cells transfected with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, HCoV-229E and MERS-CoV preferentially entered HUH7 cells, and CHO cells were most permissive for the seasonal betacoronavirus HCoV-HKU1. Entry of ACE2 using pseudotypes was enhanced by ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in target cells, whilst TMPRSS2 transfection rendered HEK293T/17 cells permissive for HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 entry. Additionally, pseudotype viruses were produced bearing additional coronavirus surface proteins, including the SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (E) and Membrane (M) proteins and HCoV-OC43/HCoV-HKU1 Haemagglutinin-Esterase (HE) proteins. This panel of lentiviral pseudotypes provides a safe, rapidly quantifiable and high-throughput tool for serological comparison of pan-coronavirus neutralizing responses; this can be used to elucidate antibody dynamics against individual coronaviruses and the effects of antibody cross-reactivity on clinical outcome following natural infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Neutralization Tests , Plasmids , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transfection , Virus Internalization
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112282, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347724

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that blue light has the potential to inactivate viruses. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 405 nm, 410 nm, 425 nm and 450 nm pulsed blue light (PBL) on human alpha coronavirus HCoV-229 E and human beta coronavirus HCoV-OC43, using Qubit fluorometry and RT-LAMP to quantitate the amount of nucleic acid in irradiated and control samples. Like SARS-CoV-2, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 are single stranded RNA viruses transmitted by air and direct contact; they have similar genomic sizes as SARS-CoV-2, and are used as surrogates for SARS-CoV-2. Irradiation was carried out either at 32.4 J cm-2 using 3 mW cm-2 irradiance or at 130 J cm-2 using 12 mW cm-2 irradiance. Results: (1) At each wavelength tested, PBL was antiviral against both coronaviruses. (2) 405 nm light gave the best result, yielding 52.3% (2.37 log10) inactivation against HCoV-OC43 (p < .0001), and a significant 1.46 log 10 (44%) inactivation of HCoV-229E (p < .01). HCoV-OC43, which like SARS-CoV-2 is a beta coronavirus, was more susceptible to PBL irradiation than alpha coronavirus HCoV-229E. The latter finding suggests that PBL is potentially antiviral against multiple coronavirus strains, and that, while its potency may vary from one virus to another, it seems more antiviral against beta coronaviruses, such as HCoV-OC43. (3) Further, the antiviral effect of PBL was better at a higher irradiance than a lower irradiance, and this indicates that with further refinement, a protocol capable of yielding 100% inactivation of viruses is attainable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 687449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332119

ABSTRACT

Despite RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19, specific antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike are undetectable in serum in approximately 10% of convalescent patients after mild disease course. This raises the question of induction and persistence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in these convalescent individuals. Using flow cytometry, we assessed specific SARS-CoV-2 and human endemic coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, -OC43) reactive T cells after stimulation with spike and nucleocapsid peptide pools and analyzed cytokine polyfunctionality (IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2) in seropositive and seronegative convalescent COVID-19 patients as well as in unexposed healthy controls. Stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid (NCAP) as well as HCoV spike peptide pools elicited a similar T cell response in seropositive and seronegative post COVID-19 patients. Significantly higher frequencies of polyfunctional cytokine nucleocapsid reactive CD4+ T cells (triple positive for IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-2) were observed in both, seropositive (p = 0.008) and seronegative (p = 0.04), COVID-19 convalescent compared to healthy controls and were detectable up to day 162 post RT-PCR positivity in seronegative convalescents. Our data indicate an important role of NCAP-specific T cells for viral control.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cells, Cultured , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325599

ABSTRACT

Cell-based assays are a valuable tool for examination of virus-host cell interactions and drug discovery processes, allowing for a more physiological setting compared to biochemical assays. Despite the fact that cell-based SPR assays are label-free and thus provide all the associated benefits, they have never been used to study viral growth kinetics and to predict drug antiviral response in cells. In this study, we prove the concept that the cell-based SPR assay can be applied in the kinetic analysis of the early stages of viral infection of cells and the antiviral drug activity in the infected cells. For this purpose, cells immobilized on the SPR slides were infected with human coronavirus HCov-229E and treated with hydroxychloroquine. The SPR response was measured at different time intervals within the early stages of infection. Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to provide the reference data. We found that the results of the SPR and MTT assays were consistent, and SPR is a reliable tool in investigating virus-host cell interaction and the mechanism of action of viral inhibitors. SPR assay was more sensitive and accurate in the first hours of infection within the first replication cycle, whereas the MTT assay was not so effective. After the second replication cycle, noise was generated by the destruction of the cell layer and by the remnants of dead cells, and masks useful SPR signals.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Kinetics , Severity of Illness Index , Vero Cells
11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102382

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause mild to severe respiratory infection. Most of the common cold illnesses are caused by one of four HCoVs, namely HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43. Several studies have applied global transcriptomic methods to understand host responses to HCoV infection, with most studies focusing on the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) and the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing was used to gain new insights into cellular transcriptomic changes elicited by alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E. HCoV-229E-infected MRC-5 cells showed marked downregulation of superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis and eIF2 signaling pathways. Moreover, upregulation of cyclins, cell cycle control of chromosomal replication, and the role of BRCA1 in DNA damage response, alongside downregulation of the cell cycle G1/S checkpoint, suggest that HCoV-229E may favors S phase for viral infection. Intriguingly, a significant portion of key factors of cell innate immunity, interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and other transcripts of early antiviral response genes were downregulated early in HCoV-229E infection. On the other hand, early upregulation of the antiviral response factor Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) was observed. APOBEC3B cytidine deaminase signature (C-to-T) was previously observed in genomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 but not HCoV-229E. Higher levels of C-to-T mutations were found in countries with high mortality rates caused by SARS-CoV-2. APOBEC activity could be a marker for new emerging CoVs. This study will enhance our understanding of commonly circulating HCoVs and hopefully provide critical information about still-emerging coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Transcriptome , Cell Line , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans
12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100154

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China at the end of 2019 causing a large global outbreak. As treatments are of the utmost importance, drug repurposing embodies a rich and rapid drug discovery landscape, where candidate drug compounds could be identified and optimized. To this end, we tested seven compounds for their ability to reduce replication of human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, another member of the coronavirus family. Among these seven drugs tested, four of them, namely rapamycin, disulfiram, loperamide and valproic acid, were highly cytotoxic and did not warrant further testing. In contrast, we observed a reduction of the viral titer by 80% with resveratrol (50% effective concentration (EC50) = 4.6 µM) and lopinavir/ritonavir (EC50 = 8.8 µM) and by 60% with chloroquine (EC50 = 5 µM) with very limited cytotoxicity. Among these three drugs, resveratrol was less cytotoxic (cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) = 210 µM) than lopinavir/ritonavir (CC50 = 102 µM) and chloroquine (CC50 = 67 µM). Thus, among the seven drugs tested against HCoV-229E, resveratrol demonstrated the optimal antiviral response with low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index (SI) of 45.65. Similarly, among the three drugs with an anti-HCoV-229E activity, namely lopinavir/ritonavir, chloroquine and resveratrol, only the latter showed a reduction of the viral titer on SARS-CoV-2 with reduced cytotoxicity. This opens the door to further evaluation to fight Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Cell Line , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 547: 23-28, 2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077785

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic results in record high deaths in many countries. Although a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 is now available, effective antiviral drugs to treat coronavirus diseases are not available yet. Recently, EGCG, a green tea polyphenol, was reported to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CL-protease, however the effect of EGCG on coronavirus replication is unknown. In this report, human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 (beta coronavirus) and HCoV-229E (alpha coronavirus) were used to examine the effect of EGCG on coronavirus. EGCG treatment decreases 3CL-protease activity of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. Moreover, EGCG treatment decreased HCoV-OC43-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, we found that EGCG treatment decreased the levels of coronavirus RNA and protein in infected cell media. These results indicate that EGCG inhibits coronavirus replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Cell ; 184(1): 120-132.e14, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064914

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed the lives of over one million people worldwide. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a member of the Coronaviridae family of viruses that can cause respiratory infections of varying severity. The cellular host factors and pathways co-opted during SARS-CoV-2 and related coronavirus life cycles remain ill defined. To address this gap, we performed genome-scale CRISPR knockout screens during infection by SARS-CoV-2 and three seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E). These screens uncovered host factors and pathways with pan-coronavirus and virus-specific functional roles, including major dependency on glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) signaling, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis, as well as a requirement for several poorly characterized proteins. We identified an absolute requirement for the VMP1, TMEM41, and TMEM64 (VTT) domain-containing protein transmembrane protein 41B (TMEM41B) for infection by SARS-CoV-2 and three seasonal coronaviruses. This human coronavirus host factor compendium represents a rich resource to develop new therapeutic strategies for acute COVID-19 and potential future coronavirus pandemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Gene Knockout Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Protein Interaction Mapping
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039676

ABSTRACT

RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) of the Nidovirales (Coronaviridae, Arteriviridae, and 12 other families) are linked to an amino-terminal (N-terminal) domain, called NiRAN, in a nonstructural protein (nsp) that is released from polyprotein 1ab by the viral main protease (Mpro). Previously, self-GMPylation/UMPylation activities were reported for an arterivirus NiRAN-RdRp nsp and suggested to generate a transient state primed for transferring nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) to (currently unknown) viral and/or cellular biopolymers. Here, we show that the coronavirus (human coronavirus [HCoV]-229E and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) nsp12 (NiRAN-RdRp) has Mn2+-dependent NMPylation activity that catalyzes the transfer of a single NMP to the cognate nsp9 by forming a phosphoramidate bond with the primary amine at the nsp9 N terminus (N3825) following Mpro-mediated proteolytic release of nsp9 from N-terminally flanking nsps. Uridine triphosphate was the preferred nucleotide in this reaction, but also adenosine triphosphate, guanosine triphosphate, and cytidine triphosphate were suitable cosubstrates. Mutational studies using recombinant coronavirus nsp9 and nsp12 proteins and genetically engineered HCoV-229E mutants identified residues essential for NiRAN-mediated nsp9 NMPylation and virus replication in cell culture. The data corroborate predictions on NiRAN active-site residues and establish an essential role for the nsp9 N3826 residue in both nsp9 NMPylation in vitro and virus replication. This residue is part of a conserved N-terminal NNE tripeptide sequence and shown to be the only invariant residue in nsp9 and its homologs in viruses of the family Coronaviridae The study provides a solid basis for functional studies of other nidovirus NMPylation activities and suggests a possible target for antiviral drug development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Asparagine/genetics , Cell Line , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Humans , Manganese/metabolism , Protein Domains , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
16.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031148

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 human coronavirus (HCoV), has brought the international scientific community before a state of emergency that needs to be addressed with intensive research for the discovery of pharmacological agents with antiviral activity. Potential antiviral natural products (NPs) have been discovered from plants of the global biodiversity, including extracts, compounds and categories of compounds with activity against several viruses of the respiratory tract such as HCoVs. However, the scarcity of natural products (NPs) and small-molecules (SMs) used as antiviral agents, especially for HCoVs, is notable. This is a review of 203 publications, which were selected using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar, evaluates the available literature since the discovery of the first human coronavirus in the 1960s; it summarizes important aspects of structure, function, and therapeutic targeting of HCoVs as well as NPs (19 total plant extracts and 204 isolated or semi-synthesized pure compounds) with anti-HCoV activity targeting viral and non-viral proteins, while focusing on the advances on the discovery of NPs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, and providing a critical perspective.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
17.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 251(1): 27-30, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326880

ABSTRACT

The number of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly increased, although the WHO declared a pandemic. However, drugs that function against SARS-CoV-2 have not been established. SARS-CoV-2 has been suggested to bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the receptor of the SARS coronavirus. SARS coronavirus and coronavirus 229E, the cause of the common cold, replicate through cell-surface and endosomal pathways using a protease, the type II transmembrane protease. To examine the effects of protease inhibitors on the replication of coronavirus 229E, we pretreated primary cultures of human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells with camostat or nafamostat, each of which has been used for the treatment of pancreatitis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation. HNE cells were then infected with coronavirus 229E, and viral titers in the airway surface liquid of the cells were examined. Pretreatment with camostat (0.1-10 µg/mL) or nafamostat (0.01-1 µg/mL) reduced the titers of coronavirus 229E. Furthermore, a significant amount of type II transmembrane protease protein was detected in the airway surface liquid of HNE cells. Additionally, interferons have been reported to have antiviral effects against SARS coronavirus. The additive effects of interferons on the inhibitory effects of other candidate drugs to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as lopinavir, ritonavir and favipiravir, have also been studied. These findings suggest that protease inhibitors of this type may inhibit coronavirus 229E replication in human airway epithelial cells at clinical concentrations. Protease inhibitors, interferons or the combination of these drugs may become candidate drugs to inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Gabexate/analogs & derivatives , Guanidines/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Benzamidines , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus 229E, Human/enzymology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Culture Media, Conditioned , Epithelial Cells/virology , Esters , Gabexate/pharmacology , Humans , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Pandemics , Primary Cell Culture , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Load
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