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1.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 32(11): 863-888, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606722

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV-2) was introduced as an epidemic in 2019 and had millions of deaths worldwide. Given the importance of this disease, the recommendation and design of new active compounds are crucial. 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3 CLpro) inhibitors have been identified as potent compounds for treating SARS-CoV-2 disease. So, the design of new 3 CLpro inhibitors was proposed using a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. In this context, a powerful adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (ALASSO) penalized variable selection method with inherent advantages coupled with a nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) modelling method were used to provide a QSAR model with high interpretability and predictability. After evaluating the accuracy and validity of the developed ALASSO-ANN model, new compounds were proposed using effective descriptors, and the biological activity of the new compounds was predicted. Ligand-receptor (LR) interactions were also performed to confirm the interaction strength of the compounds using molecular docking (MD) study. The pharmacokinetics properties and calculated Lipinski's rule of five were applied to all proposed compounds. Due to the ease of synthesis of these suggested new compounds, it is expected that they have acceptable pharmacological properties.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neural Networks, Computer , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
2.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 4991-5000, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574766

ABSTRACT

The main protease (3CL Mpro) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, is an essential enzyme for viral replication with no human counterpart, making it an attractive drug target. To date, no small-molecule clinical drugs are available that specifically inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. To aid rational drug design, we determined a neutron structure of Mpro in complex with the α-ketoamide inhibitor telaprevir at near-physiological (22 °C) temperature. We directly observed protonation states in the inhibitor complex and compared them with those in the ligand-free Mpro, revealing modulation of the active-site protonation states upon telaprevir binding. We suggest that binding of other α-ketoamide covalent inhibitors can lead to the same protonation state changes in the Mpro active site. Thus, by studying the protonation state changes induced by inhibitors, we provide crucial insights to help guide rational drug design, allowing precise tailoring of inhibitors to manipulate the electrostatic environment of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography/methods , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Neutrons , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protons
3.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572566

ABSTRACT

This study demonstrates the inhibitory effect of 42 pyrimidonic pharmaceuticals (PPs) on the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 (3CLpro) through molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and free binding energies by means of molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) and molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA). Of these tested PPs, 11 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration showed an excellent binding affinity to the catalytic residues of 3CLpro of His41 and Cys145: uracil mustard, cytarabine, floxuridine, trifluridine, stavudine, lamivudine, zalcitabine, telbivudine, tipiracil, citicoline, and uridine triacetate. Their percentage of residues involved in binding at the active sites ranged from 56 to 100, and their binding affinities were in the range from -4.6 ± 0.14 to -7.0 ± 0.19 kcal/mol. The molecular dynamics as determined by a 200 ns simulation run of solvated docked complexes confirmed the stability of PP conformations that bound to the catalytic dyad and the active sites of 3CLpro. The free energy of binding also demonstrates the stability of the PP-3CLpro complexes. Citicoline and uridine triacetate showed free binding energies of -25.53 and -7.07 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, I recommend that they be repurposed for the fight against COVID-19, following proper experimental and clinical validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Repositioning/methods , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Acetates/chemistry , Acetates/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/chemistry , Cytidine Diphosphate Choline/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Uridine/analogs & derivatives , Uridine/chemistry , Uridine/pharmacology
4.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 22(15): 2054-2070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of a pneumonia-like illness, Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating from Wuhan, China, was linked to novel coronavirus, now termed SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, no effective drugs or vaccines have been reported yet. The main protease (MPRO) remains the most validated pharmacological target for the design and discovery of inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to find a prospective natural scaffold as an inhibitor for MPRO main protease in SARS-CoV-2 and compare it with repurposed antiviral drugs lopinavir and nelfinavir. METHODS: Natural compound libraries were screened for potential scaffold against MPRO main protease. Molecular dynamics simulation, MM-GBSA and principal component analyses of enzyme- ligand complexes were carried out with the top-ranking hits and compared with the repurposed antiviral drugs lopinavir and nelfinavir. RESULTS: The structure-based virtual screening indicated phenylbenzopyrone of flavonoids as one of the top-ranking scaffolds that have the potential to inhibit the main protease with the Oglycosidic form, performing better than the corresponding aglyconic form. Simulation studies indicated that glycosidic form of flavonoid is a more suitable inhibitor with compounds rutin, procyanidin B6, baicalin and galloylquercetin, demonstrating high affinity and stability, and rutin, emerging as one of the best candidate compounds. Interestingly, rutin was reported to have inhibitory activity against similar protease (3Cprotease of enterovirus A71) and implicated in lung fibrosis. CONCLUSION: The present study on flavonoids, possessing a potential scaffold for inhibiting main protease activity for all betacoronavirus is an attempt to provide new and safe drug leads within a reasonably short period.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids , Protease Inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Prospective Studies , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524167

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread despite the global efforts taken to control it. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro), the major protease of SARS-CoV-2, is one of the most interesting targets for antiviral drug development because it is highly conserved among SARS-CoVs and plays an important role in viral replication. Herein, we developed high throughput screening for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor based on AlphaScreen. We screened 91 natural product compounds and found that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), an FDA-approved drug, inhibited 3CLpro activity. The 3CLpro inhibitory effect of ATRA was confirmed in vitro by both immunoblotting and AlphaScreen with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of 24.7 ± 1.65 µM. ATRA inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3 cells, with IC50 = 2.69 ± 0.09 µM in the former and 0.82 ± 0.01 µM in the latter. Further, we showed the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect of ATRA on the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC); alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. These results suggest that ATRA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
J Mol Model ; 27(11): 341, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499466

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of pandemic, more than 240 million people have been infected with a death rate higher than 2%. Indeed, the current exit strategy involving the spreading of vaccines must be combined with progress in effective treatment development. This scenario is sadly supported by the vaccine's immune activation time and the inequalities in the global immunization schedule. Bringing the crises under control means providing the world population with accessible and impactful new therapeutics. We screened a natural product library that contains a unique collection of 2370 natural products into the binding site of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro). According to the docking score and to the interaction at the active site, three phenylethanoid glycosides (forsythiaside A, isoacteoside, and verbascoside) were selected. In order to provide better insight into the atomistic interaction and test the impact of the three selected compounds at the binding site, we resorted to a half microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulation. As a result, we are showing that forsythiaside A is the most stable molecule and it is likely to possess the highest inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Phenylethanoid glycosides also have been reported to have both protease and kinase activity. This kinase inhibitory activity is very beneficial in fighting viruses inside the body as kinases are required for viral entry, metabolism, and/or reproduction. The dual activity (kinase/protease) of phenylethanoid glycosides makes them very promising anit-COVID-19 agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/metabolism , Glucosides/pharmacology , Glycosides/chemistry , Glycosides/metabolism , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/metabolism , Phenols/pharmacology
7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(48): 25428-25435, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490696

ABSTRACT

The main protease (3CLp) of the SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for the COVID-19 pandemic, is one of the main targets for drug development. To be active, 3CLp relies on a complex interplay between dimerization, active site flexibility, and allosteric regulation. The deciphering of these mechanisms is a crucial step to enable the search for inhibitors. In this context, using NMR spectroscopy, we studied the conformation of dimeric 3CLp from the SARS-CoV-2 and monitored ligand binding, based on NMR signal assignments. We performed a fragment-based screening that led to the identification of 38 fragment hits. Their binding sites showed three hotspots on 3CLp, two in the substrate binding pocket and one at the dimer interface. F01 is a non-covalent inhibitor of the 3CLp and has antiviral activity in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. This study sheds light on the complex structure-function relationships of 3CLp and constitutes a strong basis to assist in developing potent 3CLp inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Vero Cells
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6055, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475294

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a global pandemic. 3CL protease is a virally encoded protein that is essential across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses with no close human analogs. PF-00835231, a 3CL protease inhibitor, has exhibited potent in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 as a single agent. Here we report, the design and characterization of a phosphate prodrug PF-07304814 to enable the delivery and projected sustained systemic exposure in human of PF-00835231 to inhibit coronavirus family 3CL protease activity with selectivity over human host protease targets. Furthermore, we show that PF-00835231 has additive/synergistic activity in combination with remdesivir. We present the ADME, safety, in vitro, and in vivo antiviral activity data that supports the clinical evaluation of PF-07304814 as a potential COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Indoles/administration & dosage , Leucine/administration & dosage , Pyrrolidinones/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/enzymology , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Design , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , HeLa Cells , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Infusions, Intravenous , Leucine/adverse effects , Leucine/pharmacokinetics , Mice , Pyrrolidinones/adverse effects , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacokinetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vero Cells
9.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470936

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious to humans and has caused a pandemic of global proportions. Despite worldwide research efforts, efficient targeted therapies against the virus are still lacking. With the ready availability of the macromolecular structures of coronavirus and its known variants, the search for anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics through in silico analysis has become a highly promising field of research. In this study, we investigate the inhibiting potentialities of triazole-based compounds against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro). The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is known to play a prominent role in the processing of polyproteins that are translated from the viral RNA. Compounds were pre-screened from 171 candidates (collected from the DrugBank database). The results showed that four candidates (Bemcentinib, Bisoctrizole, PYIITM, and NIPFC) had high binding affinity values and had the potential to interrupt the main protease (Mpro) activities of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The pharmacokinetic parameters of these candidates were assessed and through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation their stability, interaction, and conformation were analyzed. In summary, this study identified the most suitable compounds for targeting Mpro, and we recommend using these compounds as potential drug molecules against SARS-CoV-2 after follow up studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Triazoles/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzocycloheptenes/chemistry , Benzocycloheptenes/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Databases, Chemical , Half-Life , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Binding , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Triazoles/metabolism , Triazoles/therapeutic use
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470888

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a globally leading public health concern over the past two years. Despite the development and administration of multiple vaccines, the mutation of newer strains and challenges to universal immunity has shifted the focus to the lack of efficacious drugs for therapeutic intervention for the disease. As with SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other non-respiratory viruses, flavonoids present themselves as a promising therapeutic intervention given their success in silico, in vitro, in vivo, and more recently, in clinical studies. This review focuses on data from in vitro studies analyzing the effects of flavonoids on various key SARS-CoV-2 targets and presents an analysis of the structure-activity relationships for the same. From 27 primary papers, over 69 flavonoids were investigated for their activities against various SARS-CoV-2 targets, ranging from the promising 3C-like protease (3CLpro) to the less explored nucleocapsid (N) protein; the most promising were quercetin and myricetin derivatives, baicalein, baicalin, EGCG, and tannic acid. We further review promising in silico studies featuring activities of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 and list ongoing clinical studies involving the therapeutic potential of flavonoid-rich extracts in combination with synthetic drugs or other polyphenols and suggest prospects for the future of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463771

ABSTRACT

3CL-Pro is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro). It acts as a homodimer to cleave the large polyprotein 1ab transcript into proteins that are necessary for viral growth and replication. 3CL-Pro has been one of the most studied SARS-CoV-2 proteins and a main target of therapeutics. A number of drug candidates have been reported, including natural products. Here, we employ elaborate computational methods to explore the dimerization of the 3CL-Pro protein, and we formulate a computational context to identify potential inhibitors of this process. We report that fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside), a natural flavonoid O-glycoside, and its structural analogs are potent inhibitors of 3CL-Pro dimerization, inhibiting viral plaque formation in vitro. We thus propose a novel basis for the search of pharmaceuticals as well as dietary supplements in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Glycosides/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Flavonoids/chemistry , Glycosides/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Multimerization/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells
12.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463770

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak prompts an urgent need for efficient therapeutics, and repurposing of known drugs has been extensively used in an attempt to get to anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents in the shortest possible time. The glycoside rutin shows manifold pharmacological activities and, despite its use being limited by its poor solubility in water, it is the active principle of many pharmaceutical preparations. We herein report our in silico and experimental investigations of rutin as a SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor and of its water solubility improvement obtained by mixing it with l-arginine. Tests of the rutin/l-arginine mixture in a cellular model of SARS-CoV-2 infection highlighted that the mixture still suffers from unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, but nonetheless, the results of this study suggest that rutin might be a good starting point for hit optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Arginine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Rutin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Solubility
13.
Antiviral Res ; 195: 105183, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458592

ABSTRACT

The likelihood of continued circulation of COVID-19 and its variants, and novel coronaviruses due to future zoonotic transmissions, combined with the current paucity of coronavirus antivirals, emphasize the need for improved screening in developing effective antivirals for the treatment of infection by SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) and other coronaviruses. Here we report the development of a live-cell based assay for evaluating the intracellular function of the critical, highly-conserved CoV2 target, the Main 3C-like protease (Mpro). This assay is based on expression of native wild-type mature CoV2 Mpro, the function of which is quantitatively evaluated in living cells through cleavage of a biosensor leading to loss of fluorescence. Evaluation does not require cell harvesting, allowing for multiple measurements from the same cells facilitating quantification of Mpro inhibition, as well as recovery of function upon removal of inhibitory drugs. The pan-coronavirus Mpro inhibitor, GC376, was utilized in this assay and effective inhibition of intracellular CoV2 Mpro was found to be consistent with levels required to inhibit CoV2 infection of human lung cells. We demonstrate that GC376 is an effective inhibitor of intracellular CoV2 Mpro at low micromolar levels, while other predicted Mpro inhibitors, bepridil and alverine, are not. Results indicate this system can provide a highly effective high-throughput coronavirus Mpro screening system.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sulfonic Acids/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Fluorescence , HEK293 Cells , Humans
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444233

ABSTRACT

Considering the current dramatic and fatal situation due to the high spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is an urgent unmet medical need to identify novel and effective approaches for prevention and treatment of Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) by re-evaluating and repurposing of known drugs. For this, tomatidine and patchouli alcohol have been selected as potential drugs for combating the virus. The hit compounds were subsequently docked into the active site and molecular docking analyses revealed that both drugs can bind the active site of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, PLpro, NSP15, COX-2 and PLA2 targets with a number of important binding interactions. To further validate the interactions of promising compound tomatidine, Molecular dynamics study of 100 ns was carried out towards 3CLpro, NSP15 and COX-2. This indicated that the protein-ligand complex was stable throughout the simulation period, and minimal backbone fluctuations have ensued in the system. Post dynamic MM-GBSA analysis of molecular dynamics data showed promising mean binding free energy 47.4633 ± 9.28, 51.8064 ± 8.91 and 54.8918 ± 7.55 kcal/mol, respectively. Likewise, in silico ADMET studies of the selected ligands showed excellent pharmacokinetic properties with good absorption, bioavailability and devoid of toxicity. Therefore, patchouli alcohol and especially, tomatidine may provide prospect treatment options against SARS-CoV-2 infection by potentially inhibiting virus duplication though more research is guaranteed and secured.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Tomatine/analogs & derivatives , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tomatine/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
15.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 193(10): 3371-3394, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease that puts most of the world on lockdown and the search for therapeutic drugs is still ongoing. Therefore, this study used in silico screening to identify natural bioactive compounds from fruits, herbaceous plants, and marine invertebrates that are able to inhibit protease activity in SARS-CoV-2 (PDB: 6LU7). We have used extensive screening strategies such as drug likeliness, antiviral activity value prediction, molecular docking, ADME, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and MM/GBSA. A total of 17 compounds were shortlisted using Lipinski's rule in which 5 compounds showed significant predicted antiviral activity values. Among these 5, only 2 compounds, Macrolactin A and Stachyflin, showed good binding energy of -9.22 and -8.00 kcal/mol, respectively, within the binding pocket of the Mpro catalytic residues (HIS 41 and CYS 145). These two compounds were further analyzed to determine their ADME properties. The ADME evaluation of these 2 compounds suggested that they could be effective in developing therapeutic drugs to be used in clinical trials. MD simulations showed that protein-ligand complexes of Macrolactin A and Stachyflin with the target receptor (6LU7) were stable for 100 nanoseconds. The MM/GBSA calculations of Mpro-Macrolactin A complex indicated higher binding free energy (-42.58 ± 6.35 kcal/mol). Dynamic cross-correlation matrix (DCCM) and principal component analysis (PCA) on the residual movement in the MD trajectories further confirmed the stability of Macrolactin A bound state with 6LU7. In conclusion, this study showed that marine natural compound Macrolactin A could be an effective therapeutic inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 protease (6LU7). Additional in vitro and in vivo validations are strongly needed to determine the efficacy and therapeutic dose of Macrolactin A in biological systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Macrolides/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Humans
16.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438673

ABSTRACT

We report the design and synthesis of a series of new 5-chloropyridinyl esters of salicylic acid, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and related aromatic carboxylic acids for evaluation against SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease enzyme. These ester derivatives were synthesized using EDC in the presence of DMAP to provide various esters in good to excellent yields. Compounds are stable and purified by silica gel chromatography and characterized using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral analysis. These synthetic derivatives were evaluated in our in vitro SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition assay using authentic SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro enzyme. Compounds were also evaluated in our in vitro antiviral assay using quantitative VeroE6 cell-based assay with RNAqPCR. A number of compounds exhibited potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitory activity and antiviral activity. Compound 9a was the most potent inhibitor, with an enzyme IC50 value of 160 nM. Compound 13b exhibited an enzyme IC50 value of 4.9 µM. However, it exhibited a potent antiviral EC50 value of 24 µM in VeroE6 cells. Remdesivir, an RdRp inhibitor, exhibited an antiviral EC50 value of 2.4 µM in the same assay. We assessed the mode of inhibition using mass spectral analysis which suggested the formation of a covalent bond with the enzyme. To obtain molecular insight, we have created a model of compound 9a bound to SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in the active site.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Esters/chemistry , Esters/pharmacology , Halogenation , Humans , Ibuprofen/analogs & derivatives , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Indomethacin/analogs & derivatives , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyridines/chemistry , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Salicylic Acid/chemistry , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Vero Cells
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(44): 23492-23494, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427056

ABSTRACT

This article highlights recent pioneering work by Günther et al. towards the discovery of potential repurposed antiviral compounds (peptidomimetic and non-peptidic) against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ). The antiviral activity of the most potent drugs is discussed along with their binding mode to Mpro as observed through X-ray crystallographic screening.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Repositioning , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Allosteric Site , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Crystallography, X-Ray , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Vero Cells
18.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 49: 116415, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415233

ABSTRACT

Dengue remains a disease of significant concern, responsible for nearly half of all arthropod-borne disease cases across the globe. Due to the lack of potent and targeted therapeutics, palliative treatment and the adoption of preventive measures remain the only available options. Compounding the problem further, the failure of the only dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia®, also delivered a significant blow to any hopes for the treatment of dengue fever. However, the success of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) protease inhibitors in the past have continued to encourage researchers to investigate other viral protease targets. Dengue virus (DENV) NS2B-NS3 protease is an attractive target partly due to its role in polyprotein processing and also for being the most conserved domain in the viral genome. During the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, a few cases of Dengue-COVID 19 co-infection were reported. In this review, we compared the substrate-peptide residue preferences and the residues lining the sub-pockets of the proteases of these two viruses and analyzed the significance of this similarity. Also, we attempted to abridge the developments in anti-dengue drug discovery in the last six years (2015-2020), focusing on critical discoveries that influenced the research.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Dengue Virus/enzymology , Humans , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105363, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415210

ABSTRACT

We have discovered a family of synthetic oxazole-based macrocycles to be active against SARS-CoV-2. The synthesis, pharmacological properties, and docking studies of the compounds are reported in this study. The structure of the new macrocycles was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Compounds 13, 14, and 15a-c were evaluated for their anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity on SARS-COV-2 (NRC-03-nhCoV) virus in Vero-E6 cells. Isopropyl triester 13 and triacid 14 demonstrated superior inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 compared to carboxamides 15a-c. MTT cytotoxicity assays showed that the CC50 (50% cytotoxicity concentration) of 13, 14, and 15a-c ranged from 159.1 to 741.8 µM and their safety indices ranged from 2.50 to 39.1. Study of the viral inhibition via different mechanisms of action (viral adsorption, replication, or virucidal property) showed that 14 had mild virucidal (60%) and inhibitory effects on virus adsorption (66%) at 20 µM concentrations. Compound 13 displayed several inhibitory effects at three levels, but the potency of its action is primarily virucidal. The inhibitory activity of compounds 13, 14, and 15a-c against the enzyme SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was evaluated. Isopropyl triester 13 had a significant inhibition activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro with an IC50 of 2.58 µM. Large substituents on the macrocyclic template significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of the compounds. Study of the docking of the compounds in the SARS CoV-2-Mpro active site showed that the most potent macrocycles 13 and 14 exhibited the best fit and highest affinity for the active site binding pocket. Taken together, the present study shows that the new macrocyclic compounds constitute a new family of SARS CoV-2-Mpro inhibitors that are worth being further optimized and developed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Macrocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Oxazoles/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Macrocyclic Compounds/chemical synthesis , Macrocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Oxazoles/chemical synthesis , Oxazoles/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17748, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412634

ABSTRACT

Based on WHO reports the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is currently widespread all over the world. So far > 162 million cases have been confirmed, including > 3 million deaths. Because of the pandemic still spreading across the globe the accomplishment of computational methods to find new potential mechanisms of virus inhibitions is necessary. According to the fact that C60 fullerene (a sphere-shaped molecule consisting of carbon) has shown inhibitory activity against various protein targets, here the analysis of the potential binding mechanism between SARS-CoV-2 proteins 3CLpro and RdRp with C60 fullerene was done; it has resulted in one and two possible binding mechanisms, respectively. In the case of 3CLpro, C60 fullerene interacts in the catalytic binding pocket. And for RdRp in the first model C60 fullerene blocks RNA synthesis pore and in the second one it prevents binding with Nsp8 co-factor (without this complex formation, RdRp can't perform its initial functions). Then the molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the stability of created complexes. The obtained results might be a basis for other computational studies of 3CLPro and RdRp potential inhibition ways as well as the potential usage of C60 fullerene in the fight against COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fullerenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/ultrastructure , Crystallography, X-Ray , Fullerenes/chemistry , Fullerenes/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/chemistry , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure
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