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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 168-171, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623181

ABSTRACT

HCoV-OC43 is one of the mildly pathogenic coronaviruses with high infection rates in common population. Here, 43 HCoV-OC43 related cases with pneumonia were reported, corresponding genomes of HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete genome, orf1ab and spike genes revealed that two novel genotypes of HCoV-OC43 have emerged in China. Obvious recombinant events also can be detected in the analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of novel HCoV-OC43 genotypes. Estimated divergence time analysis indicated that the two novel genotypes had apparently independent evolutionary routes. Efforts should be conducted for further investigation of genomic diversity and evolution analysis of mildly pathogenic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Base Sequence , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Common Cold/pathology , Common Cold/transmission , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/classification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Monte Carlo Method , Mutation , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic
3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 205, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1619949

ABSTRACT

Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Mozambique, and Reunion Island. A total of 871 samples from 28 bat species representing 8 families were tested by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase genes. Overall, 2.4% of bats tested positive for the presence of at least two viruses, only on Madagascar and in Mozambique. Significant variation in the proportion of co-infections was detected among bat species, and some combinations of co-infection were more common than others. Our findings support that co-infections of the three targeted viruses occur in bats in the western Indian Ocean region, although further studies are needed to assess their epidemiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Astroviridae Infections/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Madagascar , Mozambique , Reunion
4.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 306-307, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616794
5.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110169, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616407

ABSTRACT

The importance of pre-existing immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses (HCoVs) for the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is the subject of an ongoing scientific debate. Recent studies postulate that immune responses to previous HCoV infections can either have a slightly protective or no effect on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and, consequently, be neglected for COVID-19 risk stratification. Challenging this notion, we provide evidence that pre-existing, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies against endemic α-coronaviruses and S2 domain-specific anti-spike antibodies against ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43 are elevated in patients with COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic donors. This finding is particularly pronounced in males and in critically ill patients. Longitudinal evaluation reveals that antibody cross-reactivity or polyclonal stimulation by SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to be confounders. Thus, specific pre-existing immunity to seasonal coronaviruses may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and predispose individuals to an adverse COVID-19 outcome, guiding risk management and supporting the development of universal coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576994

ABSTRACT

The debate continues as to which governance structure is most appropriate for collaborative disaster response, particularly between centralization and decentralization. This article aims to contribute to this debate by analyzing the structural characteristics of a multisectoral network that emerged and evolved under strong state control during the 2015 outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS) in South Korea. This study particularly focuses on the evolution of intra- and inter-sectoral collaboration ties in the network. The data for the study were collected through a content analysis of government documents and news articles. Using social network analysis, the authors found that the network evolved into a centralized structure around a small number of governmental organizations at the central level, organizing the ties between participating organizations rather hierarchically. The network displayed a preponderance of internal ties both among health and non-health organizations and among public and nonpublic health organizations, but under different influences of structural characteristics. This tendency was intensified during the peak period. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that the centralization of disaster management may not or only marginally be conducive to cross-sector collaboration during public health disasters, calling for a careful design of governance structures for disaster response.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disasters , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
7.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 27: e27011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1609147

ABSTRACT

The situation created by the novel coronavirus disease has affected education worldwide, resulting in the urgent need for programs that promote physical activity at home and responsible use of internet-connected devices. This work provides a didactic proposal to perform Expressive Movement & Creative Dance (EMCD) at home adaptable to distinct educational levels and useful as a valuable online or face-to-face education experience even when the coronavirus crisis ends. The proposal is based on the Laban Movement Analysis, the Theatre of the Oppressed, and Lipdub. It seeks to develop students' own artistic body language, emotional intelligence, healthy physical activity and social awareness. Furthermore, it intends to promote the creation of a new social movement (#VIDLOP) using art and popular media as empowering and democratic channels for building a better world. In conclusion, this may be a promising proposal to develop the EMCD and human awareness in challenging scenarios and distinct educational settings.


A situação causada pela nova doença do coronavírus afetou a educação em todo o mundo, sendo urgente a aplicação de programas que promovam a atividade física em casa e o uso responsável de dispositivos conectados à internet. O presente trabalho apresenta uma proposta didática de Expressão Corporal (EC) para a sua prática desde casa, adaptável a diferentes níveis educacionais, e útil também como uma valiosa experiência educacional on-line ou presencial mesmo quando a crise do coronavírus acabe. Esta proposta baseia-se na Análise Laban de Movimento, no Teatro do Oprimido e no Lipdub. Procura desenvolver a linguagem corporal artística própria, a inteligência emocional, comportamentos saudáveis de atividade física e a consciência social dos alunos; e promover a criação de um novo movimento social (#VIDLOP), usando a arte e a mídia popular como canais democráticos e de poder para construir um mundo melhor. Em conclusão, esta pode ser uma proposta promissora para o desenvolvimento da EC e da consciência humana em cenários desafiadores e em diferentes ambientes educacionais.


La situación provocada por la nueva enfermedad del coronavirus ha afectado a la educación en todo el mundo, por lo que es urgente la aplicación de programas que promuevan la actividad física en el hogar y el uso responsable de dispositivos conectados a internet. El presente trabajo presenta una propuesta didáctica de Expresión Corporal (EC) para practicar desde casa, adaptable a diferentes niveles educativos, y útil también como una valiosa experiencia educativa online o presencial, incluso cuando la crisis del coronavirus acabe. Esta propuesta se basa en el Análisis del Movimiento de Laban, en el Teatro del Oprimido y en el Lipdub. Busca desarrollar el lenguaje corporal artístico propio, la inteligencia emocional, comportamientos saludables de actividad física y la conciencia social de los alumnos, además de promover la creación de un nuevo movimiento social (#VIDLOP), utilizando arte y medios de comunicación populares como canales democráticos y de poder para construir un mundo mejor. En conclusión, esta puede ser una propuesta prometedora para el desarrollo de la EC y la conciencia humana en escenarios desafiantes y en diferentes entornos educativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Isolation , Health , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Motor Activity , Physical Education and Training , Internet , Kinesics
11.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3418-3425, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) patients could be a vulnerable group in the pandemic era of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mainly due to respiratory muscle weakness, older age and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. We aimed to define factors predicting the severity of COVID-19 in MG patients and risk of MG exacerbation during COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated clinical features and outcomes after COVID-19 in 93 MG patients. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (38%) had severe pneumonia and we recorded 10 deaths (11%) due to COVID-19. Higher forced vital capacity (FVC) values tested before COVID-19 were shown to be protective against severe infection (95% CI 0.934-0.98) as well as good control of MG measured by the quantified myasthenia gravis score (95% CI 1.047-1.232). Long-term chronic corticosteroid treatment worsened the course of COVID-19 in MG patients (95% CI 1.784-111.43) and this impact was positively associated with dosage (p = 0.005). Treatment using azathioprine (95% CI 0.448-2.935), mycophenolate mofetil (95% CI 0.91-12.515) and ciclosporin (95% CI 0.029-2.212) did not influence the course of COVID-19. MG patients treated with rituximab had a high risk of death caused by COVID-19 (95% CI 3.216-383.971). Exacerbation of MG during infection was relatively rare (15%) and was not caused by remdesivir, convalescent plasma or favipiravir (95% CI 0.885-10.87). CONCLUSIONS: As the most important predictors of severe COVID-19 in MG patients we identified unsatisfied condition of MG with lower FVC, previous long-term corticosteroid treatment especially in higher doses, older age, the presence of cancer, and recent rituximab treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Myasthenia Gravis , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 30: e20210135, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1599698

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the occurrence of the factors associated with: (1) suspected infection by the virus that causes COVID-19; (2) absenteeism at work due to suspected infection or diagnosis of infection by the virus that causes COVID-19; and (3) performance of tests for the screening of infection by the virus that causes COVID-19 among Nursing professionals. Method: a cross-sectional study conducted with 890 nurses in June and July 2020. The associations between the outcomes and the other variables were explored using Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators. Results: occurrence of the outcomes was (1) 35.5%, (2) 16.2% and (3) 38.2%, respectively. For suspected infection, associations were observed with assessment of the working conditions as deficient (RR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.21-1.99) and with lack of Personal Protective Equipment (RR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-1.51). Absenteeism at work was associated with the adoption of moderate social distancing (RR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00-2.21). To perform the screening tests, the associations with links to outpatient (RR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.52-4.01) and hospital (RR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.60-3.89) services stood out, in addition to direct contact with patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnoses (RR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.33-2.05). Conclusion: despite the high occurrence of suspected infection and a considerable incidence of absenteeism at work among professionals from the various services under study, disparity in access to the screening tests was evidenced, especially with regard to the professionals who work in Primary Care.


RESUMEN Objetivo: identificar la incidencia y los factores asociados con: (1) sospecha de infección por el virus que causa COVID-19; (2) ausencia laboral debido a sospecha o diagnóstico de infección por el virus que causa COVID-19; y (3) pruebas para detectar la infección por el virus que causa COVID-19 entre profesionales de Enfermería. Método: estudio transversal realizado con 890 profesionales de Enfermería durante los meses de junio y julio de 2020. Las asociaciones entre los resultados y las demás variables se estudiaron por medio de modelos de regresión de Poisson con estimadores robustos de varianza. Resultados: la incidencia de los resultados fue: (1) 35,5%, (2) 16,2% y (3) 38,2%. Para la sospecha de infección, se observaron asociaciones con condiciones de trabajo evaluadas como deficientes (RR: 1,55; IC 95%: 1,21-1,99) y con la falta de Equipos de Protección Personal (RR: 1,27; IC 95%: 1,06-1,51). La ausencia laboral se asoció con la adopción de distanciamiento social moderado (RR: 1,49; IC 95%: 1,00-2,21). Para llevar adelante las pruebas de detección, se destacaron las asociaciones con la vinculación a servicios ambulatorios (RR: 2,47; IC 95%: 1,52-4,01) y hospitalarios (RR: 2,49; IC 95%: 1,60-3,89), además del contacto directo con pacientes con diagnósticos confirmados da COVID-19 (RR: 1,65; IC 95%: 1,33-2,05). Conclusión: pese a la elevada incidencia de sospechas de infección y una considerable cantidad de ausencias laborales entre profesionales de los diversos servicios estudiados, se evidenció cierta disparidad en el acceso a las pruebas de detección, especialmente en lo que se refiere a los profesionales de Atención Primaria.


RESUMO Objetivo: identificar a ocorrência e os fatores associados a: (1) suspeita de infecção pelo vírus causador da COVID-19; (2) abstenção no trabalho devido a suspeita ou ao diagnóstico de infecção pelo vírus causador da COVID-19 e (3) realização de testes para o rastreio de infecção pelo vírus causador da COVID-19 entre profissionais de Enfermagem. Método: estudo transversal realizado com 890 enfermeiros entre os meses de junho e julho de 2020. As associações entre os desfechos e as demais variáveis foram exploradas com a utilização de modelos de regressão de Poisson com estimadores robustos de variância. Resultados: a ocorrência dos desfechos foi de (1) 35,5%, (2) 16,2% e (3) 38,2%. Para a suspeita de infecção, foram observadas associações com a avaliação das condições de trabalho como ruins (RR: 1,55; IC 95%: 1,21-1,99) e a falta de equipamentos de proteção individual (RR: 1,27; IC 95%: 1,06-1,51). A abstenção do trabalho esteve associada com a adoção de distanciamento social moderado (RR: 1,49; IC 95%: 1,00-2,21). Para a realização de testes de rastreio, destacam-se as associações com a vinculação a serviços ambulatoriais (RR: 2,47; IC 95%: 1,52-4,01) e hospitalares (RR: 2,49; IC 95%: 1,60-3,89), além do contato direto com pacientes confirmadamente acometidos pela COVID-19 (RR: 1,65; IC 95%: 1,33-2,05). Conclusão: apesar da elevada ocorrência de suspeitas de infecção e um número considerável de abstenção do trabalho entre profissionais dos diversos serviços estudados, foi evidenciada uma disparidade no acesso aos testes de rastreio, especialmente no que se refere aos profissionais da Atenção Primária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Laboratory Test , National Health Programs
13.
mBio ; 12(6): e0334721, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599212

ABSTRACT

The world was unprepared for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and remains ill-equipped for future pandemics. While unprecedented strides have been made developing vaccines and treatments for COVID-19, there remains a need for highly effective and widely available regimens for ambulatory use for novel coronaviruses and other viral pathogens. We posit that a priority is to develop pan-family drug cocktails to enhance potency, limit toxicity, and avoid drug resistance. We urge cocktail development for all viruses with pandemic potential both in the short term (<1 to 2 years) and longer term with pairs of drugs in advanced clinical testing or repurposed agents approved for other indications. While significant efforts were launched against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in vitro and in the clinic, many studies employed solo drugs and had disappointing results. Here, we review drug combination studies against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses and introduce a model-driven approach to assess drug pairs with the highest likelihood of clinical efficacy. Where component agents lack sufficient potency, we advocate for synergistic combinations to achieve therapeutic levels. We also discuss issues that stymied therapeutic progress against COVID-19, including testing of agents with low likelihood of efficacy late in clinical disease and lack of focus on developing virologic surrogate endpoints. There is a need to expedite efficient clinical trials testing drug combinations that could be taken at home by recently infected individuals and exposed contacts as early as possible during the next pandemic, whether caused by a coronavirus or another viral pathogen. The approach herein represents a proactive plan for global viral pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Drug Combinations , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Ecohealth ; 18(4): 421-428, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590480

ABSTRACT

We investigated the prevalence of coronaviruses in 44 bats from four families in northeastern Eswatini using high-throughput sequencing of fecal samples. We found evidence of coronaviruses in 18% of the bats. We recovered full or near-full-length genomes from two bat species: Chaerephon pumilus and Afronycteris nana, as well as additional coronavirus genome fragments from C. pumilus, Epomophorus wahlbergi, Mops condylurus, and Scotophilus dinganii. All bats from which we detected coronaviruses were captured leaving buildings or near human settlements, demonstrating the importance of continued surveillance of coronaviruses in bats to better understand the prevalence, diversity, and potential risks for spillover.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Metagenomics , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Eswatini , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny
15.
J Virol ; 94(13)2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583223

ABSTRACT

Fusion with, and subsequent entry into, the host cell is one of the critical steps in the life cycle of enveloped viruses. For Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the spike (S) protein is the main determinant of viral entry. Proteolytic cleavage of the S protein exposes its fusion peptide (FP), which initiates the process of membrane fusion. Previous studies on the related severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) FP have shown that calcium ions (Ca2+) play an important role in fusogenic activity via a Ca2+ binding pocket with conserved glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV FPs share a high sequence homology, and here, we investigated whether Ca2+ is required for MERS-CoV fusion by screening a mutant array in which E and D residues in the MERS-CoV FP were substituted with neutrally charged alanines (A). Upon verifying mutant cell surface expression and proteolytic cleavage, we tested their ability to mediate pseudoparticle (PP) infection of host cells in modulating Ca2+ environments. Our results demonstrate that intracellular Ca2+ enhances MERS-CoV wild-type (WT) PP infection by approximately 2-fold and that E891 is a crucial residue for Ca2+ interaction. Subsequent electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments revealed that this enhancement could be attributed to Ca2+ increasing MERS-CoV FP fusion-relevant membrane ordering. Intriguingly, isothermal calorimetry showed an approximate 1:1 MERS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, as opposed to an 1:2 SARS-CoV FP to Ca2+ ratio, suggesting significant differences in FP Ca2+ interactions of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV FP despite their high sequence similarity.IMPORTANCE Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a major emerging infectious disease with zoonotic potential and has reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats. Since its first outbreak in 2012, the virus has repeatedly transmitted from camels to humans, with 2,468 confirmed cases causing 851 deaths. To date, there are no efficacious drugs and vaccines against MERS-CoV, increasing its potential to cause a public health emergency. In order to develop novel drugs and vaccines, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that enable the virus to infect host cells. Our data have found that calcium is an important regulator of viral fusion by interacting with negatively charged residues in the MERS-CoV FP region. This information can guide therapeutic solutions to block this calcium interaction and also repurpose already approved drugs for this use for a fast response to MERS-CoV outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Ions/metabolism , Membrane Fusion , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Proteolysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells , Virulence , Virus Assembly
16.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(1): 7-11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581406

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that COVID-19 not only affects the lungs but beyond that the endothelial system. Recent studies showed that this can lead to microcirculatory impairments and in consequence to functional disorders of all inner organs. The combination of endothelial dysfunction with a generalized inflammatory state and complement elements may together contribute to the overall pro-coagulative state described in COVID-19 patients leading to venular as well as to arteriolar occlusions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580427

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a huge number of deaths from 2020 to 2021; however, effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 are currently under development. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols, particularly EGCG, inhibit coronavirus enzymes as well as coronavirus replication in vitro. Herein, we examined the inhibitory effect of green tea polyphenols on coronavirus replication in a mouse model. We used epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols containing more than 60% catechin (GTP60) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Scanning electron microscopy analysis results showed that HCoV-OC43 infection resulted in virion particle production in infected cells. EGCG and GTP60 treatment reduced coronavirus protein and virus production in the cells. Finally, EGCG- and GTP60-fed mice exhibited reduced levels of coronavirus RNA in mouse lungs. These results demonstrate that green tea polyphenol treatment is effective in decreasing the level of coronavirus in vivo.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Tea/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Catechin/pharmacology , Catechin/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 77, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588812

ABSTRACT

The aim of this scoping review was to identify knowledge gaps and to describe the current state of the research on the association between TMPRSS2 and the essential beta coronaviruses (Beta-CoVs) infection and the molecular mechanisms for this association. We searched MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). We included 13 studies. Evidence shows an essential role of TMPRSS2 in Spike protein activation, entry, and spread into host cells. Co-expression of TMPRSS2 with cell surface receptors (ACE2 or DPP4) increased virus entry. This serine protease is involved in the formation of large syncytia between infected cells. TMPRSS2 cleaved the Spike protein of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV, and increased virus propagation. Accumulating evidence suggests that TMPRSS2 is an essential protease for virus replication. We highlighted its critical molecular role in membrane fusion and the impact in viral mRNA replication, then promoting/driving pathogenesis and resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
19.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 828-838, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585701

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of three zoonotic coronaviruses which have jumped species to cause lethal disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the origins of MERS-CoV are not fully understood. Genomic analysis indicates it originated in bats and transmitted to camels. Human-to-human transmission occurs in varying frequency, being highest in healthcare environment and to a lesser degree in the community and among family members. Several nosocomial outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and South Korea in 2015. MERS-CoV remains a high-threat pathogen identified by World Health Organization as a priority pathogen because it causes severe disease that has a high mortality rate, epidemic potential, and no medical countermeasures. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. MERS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of clinical presentations, although the respiratory system is predominantly affected. There are no specific antiviral treatments, although recent trials indicate that combination antivirals may be useful in severely ill patients. Diagnosing MERS-CoV early and implementation infection control measures are critical to preventing hospital-associated outbreaks. Preventing MERS relies on avoiding unpasteurized or uncooked animal products, practicing safe hygiene habits in health care settings and around dromedaries, community education and awareness training for health workers, as well as implementing effective control measures. Effective vaccines for MERS-COV are urgently needed but still under development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
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