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3.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1070235

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1070104

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
5.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 307-316, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Knowledge of Coronavirus 19 (COVID19) pathogenetic mechanisms is necessary to provide new treatment strategies. This study aims to assess how oncological disease impacts on the clinical course of COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1st March to 30th April 2020, 96 COVID-19 patients were classified according to clinical outcome as severe (n=67) and moderate (n=29). Demographic data, medical history, admission lymphocytes, procalcitonin (PCT), c-reactive-protein (CRP), D-dimer, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between hypertension (p=0.007) and three or more comorbidities with severe outcomes (p=0.034). No statistical differences were found between the severe and moderate groups with regards to the rate of patients with past oncological history. However, no patient allocated in the moderate group had received oncological treatment within 12 months. Higher values of CRP, IL-6, D-Dimer and lower values of lymphocytes were reported in the severe group (p=0.0007, p=0.00386, p=0.041, and p=0.007, respectively). Using binary logistic regression, higher values of CRP (OR=8.861; p=0.012) and PCT were associated with a higher risk of severe outcome (OR=21.075; p=0.008). Within the oncological population, D-Dimer and IL-6 did not confirm their prognostic significance as in the general population (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Specific prognostic factors for oncological patients should be designed for COVID-19 clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocytes , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/mortality , Prognosis
6.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 773-785, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064521

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, resulting in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has significantly affected the entire world. It was labelled a pandemic by World Health Organization. Although it commonly produces respiratory symptoms, neurological features have been described. Neurological manifestations may vary from non-specific symptoms such as headache, dizziness, myalgia and/or fatigue, olfactory or taste dysfunction to specific syndromes including meningitis, stroke, acute transverse myelitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. This review describes potential pathogenetic mechanisms and neurological manifestations of COVID-19 along with its management. Considering structural and pathogenetic similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV and MERS viruses, we compared their neurological manifestations and mentioned few features expected in COVID-19 in future. Interestingly, many COVID-19 cases may present with pure neurological manifestations at onset with non-neurological features manifesting few days later and we propose the term "Neuro-COVID syndrome" for such cases. Awareness of neurological manifestations may facilitate its management and improve outcome in such patients.


Subject(s)
/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(9): 1832-1837, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an epidemic in New York City, the global epicenter of the coronavirus pandemic. Previous studies suggest that obesity is a possible risk factor for adverse outcomes in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between obesity and COVID-19 outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 hospitalized patients tested between March 10 and April 13, 2020. SETTING: SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, a COVID-only hospital in New York. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 684 patients were tested for COVID-19 and 504 were analyzed. Patients were categorized into three groups by BMI: normal (BMI 18.50-24.99), overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99), and obese (BMI ≥ 30.00). MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes were intubation, acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and acute cardiac injury (ACI). RESULTS: There were 139 patients (27%) with normal BMI, 150 patients who were overweight (30%), and 215 patients with obesity (43%). After controlling for age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and qSOFA score, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality in the overweight (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.9) and obese groups (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7) compared with those with normal BMI. Similarly, there was a significantly increased relative risk for intubation in the overweight (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) and obese groups (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0) compared with those with normal BMI. Obesity did not affect rates of AKI, ACI, or ARDS. Furthermore, obesity appears to significantly increase the risk of mortality in males (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0, P = 0.03), but not in females (RR 1.2, 95% CI 0.77-1.9, P = 0.40). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that patients with overweight and obesity who have COVID-19 are at increased risk for mortality and intubation compared to those with normal BMI. These findings support the hypothesis that obesity is a risk factor for COVID-19 complications and should be a consideration in management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(8): 1784-1789, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: During the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak, obesity may contribute to COVID-19 transmission and deterioration. In addition, many patients with COVID-19 infection have suffered liver damage which might contribute to a worse prognosis. We conducted a clinical epidemiological analysis to investigate the association of overweight/obesity and abnormal liver function (ALF) with hospitalized duration in patients infected with COVID-19. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosed COVID-19 (22 women & 36 men; average age: 49.2 ± 13.1 yr) were included, and their clinical data were collected at The Second Affiliated and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang. Overweight/obesity was determined as body mass index (BMI) ≥24 kg/m2, ALF was determined as alanine aminotransferase >40 U/L, and prolonged hospitalization was lasting more than the median value of the hospitalized days (19 days) in this population. RESULTS: The proportions of prolonged hospitalization were elevated in patients with overweight/obesity and ALF compared with those without overweight/obesity (62.1% versus 26.1%, P = 0.010) and those without ALF (70.6% versus 41.5%, P = 0.043). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the hospitalized duration was increased from the patients with neither overweight/obesity nor ALF to those with either overweight/obesity or ALF, and to those with both of overweight/obesity and ALF (mean with 95% confidence interval: 16.4 [14.5-18.3] versus 25.3 [21.6-29.1] versus 28.3 [24.6-32.0], P for trend = 0.001). Being discharged from hospital in time was inversely and independently associated with BMI (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.90, P for trend = 0.002) and ALT (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, P for trend = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Present findings suggested that overweight/obesity and/or ALF contributed to predicting a probability of prolonged hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 infection, to whom extra attentions and precautions should be paid during clinical treatments.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Liver/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Overweight/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-755258

ABSTRACT

Vasculitis is a descriptive term for a wide variety of conditions characterised by inflammation of the blood vessels that may occur as a primary process or secondary to an underlying disease. Occlusive vasculopathy is a different clinical entity characterised by skin changes and ulceration of the lower extremities because of thrombosis of the small vessels of the dermis and is usually associated with pre-thrombotic conditions. Both conditions can be confirmed or excluded by skin biopsy. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms followed by a vasculitic rash on both legs. The patient underwent extensive radiological and laboratory investigations that were negative apart from positive coronavirus OC43. A biopsy of the skin was performed. Considering the clinical presentation and the investigations performed, the diagnosis of small vessel vasculopathy following coronavirus OC43 has been suggested by the authors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Vascular Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 907-913, nov. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1022871

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: Não há estudos avaliando o intervalo Tpico-Tfim (Tpe), a relação Tpe/QT e a relação Tpe/QTc para avaliar arritmias cardíacas em pacientes com COVID-19. Objetivo: Visamos investigar se há alterações nos intervalos QT, QTc e Tpe e nas relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc em pacientes com COVID-19. Métodos: O estudo incluiu 90 pacientes com infecção por COVID-19 e 30 controles saudáveis pareados por sexo e idade. Foram aferidos os intervalos QT, QTc e Tpe e as relações Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Os participantes incluídos no estudo foram divididos nos seguintes 4 grupos: controles saudáveis (grupo I), pacientes com COVID-19 sem pneumonia (grupo II), pacientes com COVID-19 e pneumonia leve (grupo III) e pacientes com COVID-19 e pneumonia grave (grupo IV). Significância estatística foi definida por valor p < 0,05. Resultados: Verificou-se que a frequência cardíaca basal, a presença de hipertensão e diabetes, a contagem de leucócitos, o nitrogênio ureico no sangue, a creatinina, o potássio, o aspartato aminotransferase, a alanina aminotransferase, o NT-proBNP, a proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade, o dímero-D, a TncI-as, o intervalo Tpe, a relação Tpe/QT e a relação Tpe/QTc aumentaram do grupo I para o grupo IV e foram significativamente mais altos em todos os pacientes do grupo IV (p < 0,05). A pressão arterial sistólica, a hemoglobina e os níveis de cálcio eram menores no grupo IV e significativamente menores em comparação com os demais grupos (< 0,05). Os intervalos QT e QTc eram semelhantes entre grupos. Determinou-se que os níveis elevados de frequência cardíaca, cálcio, dímero-D, NT-proBNP e PCR-as eram significativamente relacionados a Tpe, Tpe/QT e Tpe/QTc. Conclusões: Em pacientes com COVID-19 e pneumonia grave, o intervalo Tpe, a relação Tpe/QT e a relação Tpe/QTc, que estão entre os parâmetros de repolarização ventricular, foram aumentados, sem prolongação dos intervalos QT e QTc. A partir deste estudo, não podemos definitivamente concluir que as alterações eletrocardiográficas observadas estão diretamente relacionadas à infecção por COVID-19 ou à inflamação, mas sim associadas a cenários graves de COVID-19, que podem envolver outras causas de inflamação e comorbidades.


Abstract Background: There is no study evaluating the Tpeak-Tend (Tpe) interval, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio to assess cardiac arrhythmias in patients with COVID-19. Objective: We aimed to examine whether there is a change in QT, QTc, Tpe interval, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The study included 90 patients with COVID-19 infection and 30 age-and-sex-matched healthy controls. QT, QTc, Tpe interval, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio were measured. The participants included in the study were divided into the following 4 groups: healthy controls (group I), patients with COVID-19 without pneumonia (group II), patients with COVID-19 and mild pneumonia (group III), and patients with COVID-19 and severe pneumonia (group IV). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: It was found that baseline heart rate, presence of hypertension and diabetes, white blood cell count, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, high sensitive C reactive protein, D-dimer, hs-cTnI, Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc increased from group I to group IV, and they were significantly higher in all patients in group IV (p < 0.05). Systolic-diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, and calcium levels were found to be lowest in group IV and significantly lower than in other groups (< 0.05). QT and QTc intervals were similar between groups. It was determined that increased heart rate, calcium, D-dimer, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP levels were significantly related to Tpe, Tpe/QT, and Tpe/QTc. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and severe pneumonia, Tpe, Tpe/QT ratio, and Tpe/QTc ratio, which are among ventricular repolarization parameters, were found to be increased, without prolonged QT and QTc intervals. In this study, we cannot definitively conclude that the ECG changes observed are directly related to COVID-19 infection or inflammation, but rather associated with severe COVID-19 scenarios, which might involve other causes of inflammation and comorbidities. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):907-913)


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies , Electrocardiography , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology
17.
Curr Oncol ; 27(5): e512-e515, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024676

ABSTRACT

Sarcoma treatment during the covid-19 pandemic is a new challenge. This patient population is often immunocompromised and potentially more susceptible to viral complications. Government guidelines highlight the need to minimize patient exposure to unnecessary hospital visits. However, those guidelines lack practical recommendations on ways to manage triage and diagnosis expressly for new cancer patients. Furthermore, there are no reports on the efficiency of the guidelines. One of the main issues in treating musculoskeletal tumours is the complexity and variability of presentation. We offer a triage model, used in a quaternary-referral musculoskeletal oncology centre, that allows us to maintain an open pathway for referral of new patients while minimizing exposure risks. A multidisciplinary approach and analysis of existing investigations allow for a pre-clinic evaluation. The model identifies 3 groups of patients: ■ Patients with suspected high-grade malignancy, or benign cases with aggressive features, both in need of further evaluation in the clinic and prompt treatment■ Patients with low-grade malignancy, and benign cases whose treatment is not urgent, that are managed during the pandemic by telemedicine, with reassurance and information about their illness■ Patients who can be managed by their local medical professionals In comparison to a pre-pandemic period, that approach resulted in a higher ratio of malignant-to-benign conditions for new patients seen in the clinic (3:4 vs. 1:3 respectively), thus using available resources more efficiently and prioritizing patients with suspected high-grade malignancy. We believe that this triage system could be applied in other surgical oncology fields during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Bone Neoplasms/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Triage/standards , Bone Neoplasms/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Management , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/virology
18.
Curr Oncol ; 27(5): e501-e511, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024675

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to review data about delaying strategies for the management of hepatobiliary cancers requiring surgery during the covid-19 pandemic. Background: Given the covid-19 pandemic, many jurisdictions, to spare resources, have limited access to operating rooms for elective surgical activity, including cancer, thus forcing deferral or cancellation of cancer surgeries. Surgery for hepatobiliary cancer is high-risk and particularly resource-intensive. Surgeons must critically appraise which patients will benefit most from surgery and which ones have other therapeutic options to delay surgery. Little guidance is currently available about potential delaying strategies for hepatobiliary cancers when surgery is not possible. Methods: An international multidisciplinary panel reviewed the available literature to summarize data relating to standard-of-care surgical management and possible mitigating strategies to be used as a bridge to surgery for colorectal liver metastases, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Results: Outcomes of surgery during the covid-19 pandemic are reviewed. Resource requirements are summarized, including logistics and adverse effects profiles for hepatectomy and delaying strategies using systemic, percutaneous and radiation ablative, and liver embolic therapies. For each cancer type, the long-term oncologic outcomes of hepatectomy and the clinical tools that can be used to prognosticate for individual patients are detailed. Conclusions: There are a variety of delaying strategies to consider if availability of operating rooms decreases. This review summarizes available data to provide guidance about possible delaying strategies depending on patient, resource, institution, and systems factors. Multidisciplinary team discussions should be leveraged to consider patient- and tumour-specific information for each individual case.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hepatectomy/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/methods , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Surgeons/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(9): 1703-1706, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024494

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have symptoms of anosmia or partial loss of the sense of smell, often accompanied by changes in taste. We report 5 cases (3 with anosmia) of adult patients with COVID-19 in whom injury to the olfactory bulbs was interpreted as microbleeding or abnormal enhancement on MR imaging. The patients had persistent headache (n = 4) or motor deficits (n = 1). This olfactory bulb injury may be the mechanism by which the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 causes olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Olfactory Bulb/injuries , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Smell , Taste
20.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(9): 1707-1711, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024489

ABSTRACT

We report a case of bifacial weakness with paresthesia, a recognized Guillain-Barré syndrome subtype characterized by rapidly progressive facial weakness and paresthesia without ataxia or other cranial neuropathies, which was temporally associated with antecedent coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). This case highlights a potentially novel but critically important neurologic association of the COVID-19 disease process. Herein, we detail the clinicoradiologic work-up and diagnosis, clinical course, and multidisciplinary medical management of this patient with COVID-19. This case is illustrative of the increasingly recognized but potentially underreported neurologic manifestations of COVID-19, which must be considered and further investigated in this pandemic disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Paresthesia/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Young Adult
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