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1.
Jpn J Radiol ; 38(6): 533-538, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479522

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the chest CT imaging characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This study included 150 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosed from January 10 to February 12, 2020 to analyze their clinical and CT imaging characteristics. RESULTS: The period between symptom onset and initial CT examination ranged from 1 to 8 days. There were 83 cases (55.33%) involving both lungs, 67 cases (44.67%) involving a single lung (left 25 cases and right 42 cases). There were 49 cases (32.67%) of single intrapulmonary lesion, 33 cases (22.00%) of multiple intrapulmonary lesions, 68 cases (44.00%) of diffused intrapulmonary lesions, 67 cases (44.67%) of subpleural lesions, 24 cases (16.00%) of lesions localizing along the bronchovascular bundles, and 59 cases (39.33%) with lesions in both locations. There were 18 cases (12.00%) exhibiting ground-glass nodules of < 10 mm, 124 cases (82.67%) of patchy ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation, 8 cases (5.33%) of cord-like lesions, 6 cases (4.00%) of pleural effusion, and 2 cases (1.33%) of enlarged lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: The main manifestations of initial chest CT in COVID-19 pneumonia patients was ground-glass opacities, commonly involving single site in patients < 35 years old and multiple sites and extensive area in patients > 60 years old. The common lesion sites were the subpleural region and the posterior basal segments of the lower lobes, mostly showing thickening of the interlobular septum and mixed with consolidation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
5.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(6): 1287-1294, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate 62 subjects in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia and describe the CT features of this epidemic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective study of 62 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia was performed. CT images and clinical data were reviewed. Two thoracic radiologists evaluated the distribution and CT signs of the lesions and also scored the extent of involvement of the CT signs. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare lesion distribution and CT scores. The chi-square test was used to compare the CT signs of early-phase versus advanced-phase COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS. A total of 62 patients (39 men and 23 women; mean [± SD] age, 52.8 ± 12.2 years; range, 30-77 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. Twenty-four of 30 patients who underwent routine blood tests (80.0%) had a decreased lymphocyte count. Of 27 patients who had their erythrocyte sedimentation rate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level assessed, 18 (66.7%) had an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and all 27 (100.0%) had an elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Multiple lesions were seen on the initial CT scan of 52 of 62 patients (83.9%). Forty-eight of 62 patients (77.4%) had predominantly peripheral distribution of lesions. The mean CT score for the upper zone (3.0 ± 3.4) was significantly lower than that for the middle (4.5 ± 3.8) and lower (4.5 ± 3.7) zones (p = 0.022 and p = 0.020, respectively), and there was no significant difference in the mean CT score of the middle and lower zones (p = 1.00). The mean CT score for the anterior area (4.4 ± 4.1) was significantly lower than that for the posterior area (7.7 ± 6.3) (p = 0.003). CT findings for the patients were as follows: 25 patients (40.3%) had ground-glass opacities (GGO), 21 (33.9%), consolidation; 39 (62.9%), GGO plus a reticular pattern; 34 (54.8%), vacuolar sign; 28 (45.2%), microvascular dilation sign; 35 (56.5%), fibrotic streaks; 21 (33.9%), a subpleural line; and 33 (53.2%), a subpleural transparent line. With regard to bronchial changes seen on CT, 45 patients (72.6%) had air bronchogram, and 11 (17.7%) had bronchus distortion. In terms of pleural changes, CT showed that 30 patients (48.4%) had pleural thickening, 35 (56.5%) had pleural retraction sign, and six (9.7%) had pleural effusion. Compared with early-phase disease (≤ 7 days after the onset of symptoms), advanced-phase disease (8-14 days after the onset of symptoms) was characterized by significantly increased frequencies of GGO plus a reticular pattern, vacuolar sign, fibrotic streaks, a subpleural line, a subpleural transparent line, air bronchogram, bronchus distortion, and pleural effusion; however, GGO significantly decreased in advanced-phase disease. CONCLUSION. CT examination of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed a mixed and diverse pattern with both lung parenchyma and the interstitium involved. Identification of GGO and a single lesion on the initial CT scan suggested early-phase disease. CT signs of aggravation and repair coexisted in advanced-phase disease. Lesions presented with a characteristic multifocal distribution in the middle and lower lung regions and in the posterior lung area. A decreased lymphocyte count and an increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level were the most common laboratory findings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
10.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(3): 607-609, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. This series of patients presented to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain, without the respiratory symptoms typical of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the abdominal radiologist was the first to suggest COVID-19 infection because of findings in the lung bases on CT of the abdomen. CONCLUSION. COVID-19 infection can present primarily with abdominal symptoms, and the abdominal radiologist must suggest the diagnosis when evaluating the lung bases for typical findings.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/virology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e108, 2020 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354064

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and to analyse the epidemiological features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients during convalescence. In this study, we enrolled 71 confirmed cases of COVID-19 who were discharged from hospital and transferred to isolation wards from 6 February to 26 March 2020. They were all employees of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University or their family members of which three cases were <18 years of age. Clinical data were collected and analysed statistically. Forty-one cases (41/71, 57.7%) comprised medical faculty, young and middle-aged patients (aged ⩽60 years) accounted for 81.7% (58/71). The average isolation time period for all adult patients was 13.8 ± 6.1 days. During convalescence, RNA detection results of 35.2% patients (25/71) turned from negative to positive. The longest RNA reversed phase time was 7 days. In all, 52.9% of adult patients (36/68) had no obvious clinical symptoms, and the remaining ones had mild and non-specific clinical symptoms (e.g. cough, sputum, sore throat, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract etc.). Chest CT signs in 89.7% of adult patients (61/68) gradually improved, and in the others, the lesions were eventually absorbed and improved after short-term repeated progression. The main chest CT manifestations of adult patients were normal, GGO or fibre streak shadow, and six patients (8.8%) had extrapulmonary manifestations, but there was no significant correlation with RNA detection results (r = -0.008, P > 0.05). The drug treatment was mainly symptomatic support therapy, and antibiotics and antiviral drugs were ineffective. It is necessary to re-evaluate the isolation time and standard to terminate isolation for discharged COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/analysis , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104821, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318924

ABSTRACT

AIM: Since December 2019, new COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred and spread around the world. However, the clinical characteristics of patients in other areas around Wuhan, Hubei Province are still unclear. In this study, we performed epidemiological and clinical characteristics analysis on these regional cases. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated COVID-19 patients positively confirmed by nucleic acid Q-PCR at Taihe Hospital from January 16 to February 4, 2020. Their epidemiological, clinical manifestations, and imaging characteristics were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 73 patients studied, 12.3 % developed symptoms after returning to Shiyan from Wuhan, and 71.2 % had a history of close contact with Wuhan personnel or confirmed cases. Among these patients, 9 cases were associated with family clustering. The first main symptoms presented by these patients were fever (84.9 %) and cough (21.9 %). The longest incubation period was 26 days, and the median interval from the first symptoms to admission was 5 days. Of the patients, 67.1 % were originally healthy people with no underlying diseases, others mostly had common comorbidities including hypertension (12.3 %) and diabetes (5.5 %), 10.9 % were current smokers, 30.1 % had low white blood cell counts and 45.2 % showed decreased lymphocytes at the first time of diagnosis. CT scans showed that multiple patchy ground glass shadows outside of the patient lungs were commonly observed, and a single sub-pleural sheet of ground glass shadow with enhanced vascular bundles was also found located under the pleura. Patient follow-up to February 14 presented 38.4 % severe cases and 2.7 % critical cases. After follow-up, the parameter of lymphocyte counts below 0.8 × 109/L cannot be used to predict severe and critical groups from the ordinary group, and a lower proportion of smokers and higher proportion of diabetes patients occur in the poor outcome group. Other co-morbidities are observed but did not lead to poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological characteristics of patients in the area around Wuhan, such as Shiyan, at first diagnosis are described as follows: Patients had histories of Wuhan residences in the early stage and family clustering in the later period. The incubation period was relatively long, and the incidence was relatively hidden, but the virulence was relatively low. The initial diagnosis of the patients was mostly ordinary, and the percentage of critical patients who evolved into the ICU during follow-up is 2.7 %, which is lower than the 26.1 % reported by Wuhan city. According to the Shiyan experience, early diagnosis with multiple swaps of the Q-PCR test and timely treatment can reduce the death rate. Diabetes could be one of the risk factors for progression to severe/critical outcomes. No evidence exists that smoking protects COVID-19 patients from developing to severe/critical cases, and the absolute number of lymphocytes at initial diagnosis could not predict the progression risk from severe to critical condition. Multivariate regression analysis should be used to further guide the allocation of clinical resources.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11548, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309456

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to expound the CT features of COVID-19 patients whose throat swab samples were negative for two consecutive nucleic acid tests after treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 46 COVID-19 patients with two consecutive negative RT-PCR tests after treatment. The cases were divided into moderate group and severe/critical group according to disease severity. Clinical and CT scanning data were collected. CT signs of pulmonary lesions and the score of lung involvement were expounded. Thirty-nine moderate cases and seven severe/critical cases were included. Residual pulmonary lesions were visible in CT images. Moderate patients showed peripheral lesions while severe/critical cases exhibited both central and peripheral lesions with all lobes involvement. Mixed ground glass opacity (GGO) and pulmonary consolidation were noted. A larger proportion of severe patients showed reticular pulmonary interstitium thickening. Air bronchogram, pleural effusion, vascular enlargement, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis, pleural thickening and pleural adhesion were more frequently observed in severe/critical group. The severe/critical group showed higher CT score. Pulmonary lesions persisted even after twice consecutive negative nucleic acid tests. We strongly recommended regular follow-up of CT scans after nucleic acid tests conversion. Evaluation of complete remission should base on chest CT.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 906: 174248, 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267662

ABSTRACT

Concern regarding coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks has stayed relevant to global health in the last decades. Emerging COVID-19 infection, caused by the novel SARS-CoV2, is now a pandemic, bringing a substantial burden to human health. Interferon (IFN), combined with other antivirals and various treatments, has been used to treat and prevent MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2 infections. We aimed to assess the clinical efficacy of IFN-based treatments and combinational therapy with antivirals, corticosteroids, traditional medicine, and other treatments. Major healthcare databases and grey literature were investigated. A three-stage screening was utilized, and included studies were checked against the protocol eligibility criteria. Risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed, followed by narrative data synthesis. Fifty-five distinct studies of SARS-CoV2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV were spotted. Our narrative synthesis showed a possible benefit in the use of IFN. A good quality cohort showed lower CRP levels in Arbidol (ARB) + IFN group vs. IFN only group. Another study reported a significantly shorter chest X-ray (CXR) resolution in IFN-Alfacon-1 + corticosteroid group compared with the corticosteroid only group in SARS-CoV patients. In a COVID-19 trial, total adverse drug events (ADEs) were much lower in the Favipiravir (FPV) + IFN-α group compared with the LPV/RTV arm (P = 0.001). Also, nausea in patients receiving FPV + IFN-α regimen was significantly lower (P = 0.03). Quantitative analysis of mortality did not show a conclusive effect for IFN/RBV treatment in six moderately heterogeneous MERS-CoV studies (log OR = -0.05, 95% CI: (-0.71,0.62), I2 = 44.71%). A meta-analysis of three COVID-19 studies did not show a conclusive nor meaningful relation between receiving IFN and COVID-19 severity (log OR = -0.44, 95% CI: (-1.13,0.25), I2 = 31.42%). A lack of high-quality cohorts and controlled trials was observed. Evidence suggests the potential efficacy of several combination IFN therapies such as lower ADEs, quicker resolution of CXR, or a decrease in inflammatory cytokines; Still, these options must possibly be further explored before being recommended in public guidelines. For all major CoVs, our results may indicate a lack of a definitive effect of IFN treatment on mortality. We recommend such therapeutics be administered with extreme caution until further investigation uncovers high-quality evidence in favor of IFN or combination therapy with IFN.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferons/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Interferons/adverse effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality
18.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 215(1): 121-126, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. Confronting the new coronavirus infection known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging and requires excluding patients with suspected COVID-19 who actually have other diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical features and CT manifestations of COVID-19 by comparing patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with patients with non-COVID-19 pneumonia who presented at a fever observation department in Shanghai, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Patients were retrospectively enrolled in the study from January 19 through February 6, 2020. All patients underwent real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. RESULTS. Eleven patients had RT-PCR test results that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, whereas 22 patients had negative results. No statistical difference in clinical features was observed (p > 0.05), with the exception of leukocyte and platelet counts (p < 0.05). The mean (± SD) interval between onset of symptoms and admission to the fever observation department was 4.40 ± 2.00 and 5.52 ± 4.00 days for patients with positive and negative RT-PCR test results, respectively. The frequency of opacifications in patients with positive results and patients with negative results, respectively, was as follows: ground-glass opacities (GGOs), 100.0% versus 90.9%; mixed GGO, 63.6% versus 72.7%; and consolidation, 54.5% versus 77.3%. In patients with positive RT-PCR results, GGOs were the most commonly observed opacification (seen in 100.0% of patients) and were predominantly located in the peripheral zone (100.0% of patients), compared with patients with negative results (31.8%) (p = 0.05). The median number of affected lung lobes and segments was higher in patients with positive RT-PCR results than in those with negative RT-PCR results (five vs 3.5 affected lobes and 15 vs nine affected segments; p < 0.05). Although the air bronchogram reticular pattern was more frequently seen in patients with positive results, centrilobular nodules were less frequently seen in patients with positive results. CONCLUSION. At the point during the COVID-19 outbreak when this study was performed, imaging patterns of multifocal, peripheral, pure GGO, mixed GGO, or consolidation with slight predominance in the lower lung and findings of more extensive GGO than consolidation on chest CT scans obtained during the first week of illness were considered findings highly suspicious of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Disease Outbreaks , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150(1): 58-63, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study chest CT images and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant patients to examine any correlation. METHODS: Between December 31, 2019 and March 7, 2020, 23 hospitalized pregnant patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. Clinical presentations were collected retrospectively from records, including laboratory testing, chest CT imaging, and symptoms. Descriptive analysis and correlation of patients' clinical and CT characteristics were performed. Laboratory results from time of first admission and CT absorption (defined as reduction in lesion area, decrease in density, and absorption of some solid components) were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: Fifteen (65.2%) patients were asymptomatic with patchy ground-glass opacity in a single lung lobe. Eight (34.8%) patients were symptomatic with multiple patchy ground-glass shadows, consolidation, and fibrous stripes. Differences in lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil granulocyte rate between first admission and CT absorption were significant (P<0.001). Median absorption time was shorter in the asymptomatic group compared with the symptomatic group (5 vs 10 days; P<0.001). Median hospitalization time between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients was 14 vs 25.5 days; P>0.001. Median absorption time and length of hospitalization for all patients was 6 days (IQR 5-8) and 17 days (IQR 13-25), respectively. CONCLUSION: Radiological findings and clinical characteristics in pregnant women with COVID-19 were similar to those of non-pregnant women with COVID-19. Median absorption time and length of hospitalization in asymptomatic patients were significantly shorter than in symptomatic patients. Lymphocyte percentage and neutrophil granulocyte rate may be used as laboratory indicators of CT absorption.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Radiol Med ; 125(10): 931-942, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to assess the potential role of chest CT in the early detection of COVID-19 pneumonia and to explore its role in patient management in an adult Italian population admitted to the Emergency Department. METHODS: Three hundred and fourteen patients presented with clinically suspected COVID-19, from March 3 to 23, 2020, were evaluated with PaO2/FIO2 ratio from arterial blood gas, RT-PCR assay from nasopharyngeal swab sample and chest CT. Patients were classified as COVID-19 negative and COVID-19 positive according to RT-PCR results, considered as a reference. Images were independently evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the RT-PCR results and classified as "CT positive" or "CT negative" for COVID-19, according to CT findings. RESULTS: According to RT-PCR results, 152 patients were COVID-19 negative (48%) and 162 were COVID-19 positive (52%). We found substantial agreement between RT-PCR results and CT findings (p < 0.000001), as well as an almost perfect agreement between the two readers. Mixed GGO and consolidation pattern with peripheral and bilateral distribution, multifocal or diffuse abnormalities localized in both upper lung and lower lung, in association with interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening and air bronchogram, showed higher frequency in COVID-positive patients. We also found a significant correlation between CT findings and patient's oxygenation status expressed by PaO2/FIO2 ratio. CONCLUSION: Chest CT has a useful role in the early detection and in patient management of COVID-19 pneumonia in a pandemic. It helps in identifying suspected patients, cutting off the route of transmission and avoiding further spread of infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Mass Chest X-Ray/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling/methods , Young Adult
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