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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205380

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Subject(s)
Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/psychology , Panic , Suicide/psychology , Aging/physiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Loneliness/psychology
3.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1011-1015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological variables are associated with daily COVID-19 incidence. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort from January 25 to February 29, 2020. SETTING: Cities of Wuhan, Xiaogan, and Huanggang, China. PATIENTS: The COVID-19 cases detected each day. METHODS: We collected daily data of COVID-19 incidence, 8 ambient air pollutants (particulate matter of ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5], particulate matter ≤10 µm [PM10], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and maximum 8-h moving average concentrations for ozone [O3-8h]) and 3 meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, and wind) in China's 3 worst COVID-19-stricken cities during the study period. The multivariate Poisson regression was performed to understand their correlation. RESULTS: Daily COVID-19 incidence was positively associated with PM2.5 and humidity in all cities. Specifically, the relative risk (RR) of PM2.5 for daily COVID-19 incidences were 1.036 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.032-1.039) in Wuhan, 1.059 (95% CI, 1.046-1.072) in Xiaogan, and 1.144 (95% CI, 1.12-1.169) in Huanggang. The RR of humidity for daily COVID-19 incidence was consistently lower than that of PM2.5, and this difference ranged from 0.027 to 0.111. Moreover, PM10 and temperature also exhibited a notable correlation with daily COVID-19 incidence, but in a negative pattern The RR of PM10 for daily COVID-19 incidence ranged from 0.915 (95% CI, 0.896-0.934) to 0.961 (95% CI, 0.95-0.972, while that of temperature ranged from 0.738 (95% CI, 0.717-0.759) to 0.969 (95% CI, 0.966-0.973). CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that PM2.5 and humidity are substantially associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and that PM10 and temperature are substantially associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Weather , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Poisson Distribution , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Bioessays ; 42(10): e2000091, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2074923

ABSTRACT

Despite claims from prominent scientists that SARS-CoV-2 indubitably emerged naturally, the etiology of this novel coronavirus remains a pressing and open question: Without knowing the true nature of a disease, it is impossible for clinicians to appropriately shape their care, for policy-makers to correctly gauge the nature and extent of the threat, and for the public to appropriately modify their behavior. Unless the intermediate host necessary for completing a natural zoonotic jump is identified, the dual-use gain-of-function research practice of viral serial passage should be considered a viable route by which the novel coronavirus arose. The practice of serial passage mimics a natural zoonotic jump, and offers explanations for SARS-CoV-2's distinctive spike-protein region and its unexpectedly high affinity for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), as well as the notable polybasic furin cleavage site within it. Additional molecular clues raise further questions, all of which warrant full investigation into the novel coronavirus's origins and a re-examination of the risks and rewards of dual-use gain-of-function research.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Gain of Function Mutation/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Serial Passage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zoonoses/virology
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2469-2477, 2020 Jun.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725054

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to perform a theoretical reflection on the historical-social foundations of the COVID-19 pandemic. The "capital worldization", "capital-imperialism", "space-time compression", and "structural crisis of capital" categories are conjured from the historical materialistic-theoretical matrix, outlining a course that transcends the limits of Health Sciences to understand global health, of which the COVID-19 pandemic is an expression. We then return to the field of health, when the category of "social determination of health" allows elucidating the bases of the pandemic studied. We show that, other elements typical of the current phase of contemporary capitalism have become universal besides the SARS-CoV-2 characteristics or the dynamics of the rapid movement of people and objects around the world, unifying the health social determination process.


Este artigo possui o objetivo de realizar uma reflexão teórica sobre os fundamentos histórico-sociais da pandemia de COVID-19. A partir da matriz teórica materialista histórica, evoca-se as categorias da "mundialização do capital", "capital-imperialismo", "compressão espaço-tempo" e "crise estrutural do capital" traçando um percurso que ultrapassa os limites das Ciências da Saúde a fim de entender a saúde global, da qual a pandemia de COVID-19 é expressão. Posteriormente, faz-se o retorno ao campo da saúde, quando a categoria da "determinação social da saúde" permite elucidar as bases da pandemia estudada. Demonstra-se que, para além das características próprias do SARS-CoV-2 ou da dinâmica de rápido trânsito de pessoas e objetos pelo mundo, há outros elementos típicos da atual fase do capitalismo contemporâneo que se tornaram universais, unificando o processo de determinação social da saúde.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Capitalism , Coronavirus Infections , Global Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Global Health/economics , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health/economics , Time Factors
7.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
9.
Adv Genet ; 106: 75-100, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363831

ABSTRACT

The origins and global spread of two recent, yet quite different, pandemic diseases is discussed and reviewed in depth: Candida auris, a eukaryotic fungal disease, and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), a positive strand RNA viral respiratory disease. Both these diseases display highly distinctive patterns of sudden emergence and global spread, which are not easy to understand by conventional epidemiological analysis based on simple infection-driven human- to-human spread of an infectious disease (assumed to jump suddenly and thus genetically, from an animal reservoir). Both these enigmatic diseases make sense however under a Panspermia in-fall model and the evidence consistent with such a model is critically reviewed.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Candidiasis/etiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Origin of Life , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/physiology , Candidiasis/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Earth, Planet , Exobiology , Extraterrestrial Environment , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(5): 1289-1299, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352399

ABSTRACT

The number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2, and sadly dying from COVID-19, has exploded, and so the amount of literature on the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes has increased proportionately. The case numbers in some countries are beyond the epidemic peak, but the uncertainty about a second wave keeps politicians and societies under pressure. Appropriate decision-making and winning support from the population depends on precise scientific information rather than leaving the field to scaremongers of all proveniences. This mini-review is an update of earlier reports (Brüssow, Microb Biotechnol 2020a;13:607; Brüssow, Microb Biotechnol 2020b; https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13592).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Tropism
11.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104946, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279674

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has sparked a global pandemic, affecting more than 4 million people worldwide. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); with a fatality of 7.0 %. Accumulating evidence suggested that the progression of COVID-19 is associated with lymphopenia and excessive inflammation, and a subset of severe cases might exhibit cytokine storm triggered by secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH). Furthermore, secondary bacterial infection may contribute to the exacerbation of COVID-19. We recommend using both IL-10 and IL-6 as the indicators of cytokine storm, and monitoring the elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) as an alert for initiating antibacterial agents. Understanding the dynamic progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to determine an effective treatment strategy to reduce the rising mortality of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Procalcitonin/blood , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Sci Adv ; 7(25)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276873

ABSTRACT

Infection by highly pathogenic coronaviruses results in substantial apoptosis. However, the physiological relevance of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of coronavirus infections is unknown. Here, with a combination of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, we demonstrated that protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling mediated the proapoptotic signals in Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, which converged in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Inhibiting PERK signaling or intrinsic apoptosis both alleviated MERS pathogenesis in vivo. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV induced apoptosis through distinct mechanisms but inhibition of intrinsic apoptosis similarly limited SARS-CoV-2- and SARS-CoV-induced apoptosis in vitro and markedly ameliorated the lung damage of SARS-CoV-2-inoculated human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice. Collectively, our study provides the first evidence that virus-induced apoptosis is an important disease determinant of highly pathogenic coronaviruses and demonstrates that this process can be targeted to attenuate disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Transgenic , eIF-2 Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics
13.
Blood Adv ; 5(7): 1903-1914, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263006

ABSTRACT

Data are limited regarding risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and the significance of virologic documentation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. We retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing allogeneic HCT (4/2008-9/2018) with HCoV (OC43/NL63/HKU1/229E) detected by polymerase chain reaction during conditioning or post-HCT. Risk factors for all manifestations of LRTI and progression to LRTI among those presenting with HCoV upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were analyzed by logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Mortality rates following HCoV LRTI were compared according to virologic documentation by BAL. A total of 297 patients (61 children and 236 adults) developed HCoV infection as follows: 254 had URTI alone, 18 presented with LRTI, and 25 progressed from URTI to LRTI (median, 16 days; range, 2-62 days). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that male sex, higher immunodeficiency scoring index, albumin <3 g/dL, glucose >150 mg/dL, and presence of respiratory copathogens were associated with occurrence of LRTI. Hyperglycemia with steroid use was associated with progression to LRTI (P < .01) in Cox models. LRTI with HCoV detected in BAL was associated with higher mortality than LRTI without documented detection in BAL (P < .01). In conclusion, we identified factors associated with HCoV LRTI, some of which are less commonly appreciated to be risk factors for LRTI with other respiratory viruses in HCT recipients. The association of hyperglycemia with LRTI might provide an intervention opportunity to reduce the risk of LRTI.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons , United States , Young Adult
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104944, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246087

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of their primitive strains, the complexity surrounding their pathogenesis, constant genetic mutation and translation are contributing factors to the scarcity of a successful vaccine for coronaviruses till moment. Although, the recent announcement of vaccine breakthrough for COVID-19 renews the hope, however, there remains a major challenge of accessibility to urgently match the rapid global therapeutic demand for curtailing the pandemic, thereby creating an impetus for further search. The reassessment of results from a stream of experiments is of enormous importance in identifying bona fide lead-like candidates to fulfil this quest. This review comprehensively highlights the common pathomechanisms and pharmacological targets of HCoV-OC43, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and potent therapeutic potentials from basic and clinical experimental investigations. The implicated targets for the prevention and treatment include the viral proteases (Mpro, PLpro, 3CLpro), viral structural proteins (S- and N-proteins), non-structural proteins (nsp 3, 8, 10, 14, 16), accessory protein (ns12.9), viroporins (3a, E, 8a), enzymes (RdRp, TMPRSS2, ADP-ribosyltransferase, MTase, 2'-O-MTase, TATase, furin, cathepsin, deamidated human triosephosphate isomerase), kinases (MAPK, ERK, PI3K, mTOR, AKT, Abl2), interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) and the human host receptor, ACE2. Notably among the 109 overviewed inhibitors include quercetin, eriodictyol, baicalin, luteolin, melatonin, resveratrol and berberine from natural products, GC373, NP164 and HR2P-M2 from peptides, 5F9, m336 and MERS-GD27 from specific human antibodies, imatinib, remdesivir, ivermectin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nafamostat, interferon-ß and HCQ from repurposing libraries, some iron chelators and traditional medicines. This review represents a model for further translational studies for effective anti-CoV therapeutic designs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2285-2288, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153173

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza and noninfluenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs) was assessed by test-negative design using historic datasets of the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network, spanning 2010-2011 to 2016-2017. Vaccine significantly reduced the risk of influenza illness by >40% with no effect on coronaviruses or other NIRV risk.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
16.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(7): 1195-1198, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152155

ABSTRACT

WHO declared SARS-CoV-2 a global pandemic. The present aim was to propose an hypothesis that there is a potential association between mean levels of vitamin D in various countries with cases and mortality caused by COVID-19. The mean levels of vitamin D for 20 European countries and morbidity and mortality caused by COVID-19 were acquired. Negative correlations between mean levels of vitamin D (average 56 mmol/L, STDEV 10.61) in each country and the number of COVID-19 cases/1 M (mean 295.95, STDEV 298.7, and mortality/1 M (mean 5.96, STDEV 15.13) were observed. Vitamin D levels are severely low in the aging population especially in Spain, Italy and Switzerland. This is also the most vulnerable group of the population in relation to COVID-19. It should be advisable to perform dedicated studies about vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
17.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(5): 1039-1042, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128242

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Background: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can induce an exaggerated inflammatory response. Vitamin D is a key modulator of the immune system. We hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) could increase the risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. Methods: patients with confirmed COVID-19 seen at the emergency department of our hospital with recent measurements of 25(OH)D were recruited. We explored the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD), defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20 ng/mL, with a composite of adverse clinical outcomes. Results: we included 80 patients, of which 31 (39 %) presented the endpoint. VDD tended to predict an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 after adjusting for age, gender, obesity, cardiac disease, and kidney disease [OR 3.2 (95 % CI: 0.9-11.4), p = 0.07]. Age had a negative interaction with the effect of VDD on the composite outcome (p = 0.03), indicating that the effect was more noticeable at younger ages. Furthermore, male gender was associated with VDD and with severe COVID-19 at younger ages. Conclusions: in this retrospective study, vitamin D deficiency showed a signal of association with severe COVID-19 infection. A significant interaction with age was noted, suggesting VDD may have a greater impact in younger patients. These findings should be confirmed in larger, prospective, adequately powered studies.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) puede inducir una respuesta inflamatoria exagerada. La vitamina D es un modulador clave del sistema inmune. Planteamos que la deficiencia de vitamina D (VDD) podría aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar infección grave por COVID-19. Métodos: se reclutaron pacientes consecutivos que acudieron al servicio de urgencias de nuestro centro con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado (PCR-COVID-19 positiva) y mediciones recientes de 25(OH)D. Exploramos la asociación de la deficiencia de vitamina D (VDD), definida como una 25-hidroxivitamina D < 20 ng/ml, con un compuesto de resultados clínicos adversos. Resultados: se incluyeron 80 pacientes, de los cuales 31 (39 %) presentaron el criterio de valoración primario. El VDD tendió a predecir un mayor riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19 grave después de ajustar edad, sexo, obesidad, enfermedad cardíaca y enfermedad renal [OR: 3,2 (IC 95 %: 0,9-11,4), p = 0,07]. La edad tuvo una interacción negativa con el efecto de la VDD en el resultado compuesto (p = 0,03), lo que indica que el efecto fue más notable a edades más tempranas. Además, el género masculino se asoció con la VDD y con la COVID-19 grave en las edades más jóvenes. Conclusiones: en este estudio retrospectivo, la deficiencia de vitamina D mostró una tendencia de asociación con la infección grave por COVID-19. Se observó una interacción significativa con la edad, lo que sugiere que la VDD puede tener un mayor impacto en los pacientes más jóvenes. Estos hallazgos deben confirmarse en estudios más grandes, prospectivos y con potencia adecuada.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Kidney Diseases/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood
18.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 58(5): 991-996, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 cases and the postoperative outcomes of patients who had thoracic surgery during the beginning and at the highest point of transmission in our community. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who had undergone elective thoracic surgery from 12 February 2020 to 30 April 2020 and were symptomatic or tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection within 14 days after surgery, with a focus on their complications and potential deaths. RESULTS: Out of 101 surgical procedures, including 57 primary oncological resections, 6 lung transplants and 18 emergency procedures, only 5 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 were identified, 3 in the immediate postoperative period and 2 as outpatients. All 5 patients had cancer; the median age was 64 years. The main virus-related symptom was fever (80%), and the median onset of coronavirus disease 2019 was 3 days. Although 80% of the patients who had positive test results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 required in-hospital care, none of them were considered severe or critical and none died. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, in properly selected cases, with short preoperative in-hospital stays, strict isolation and infection control protocols, managed by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, a surgical procedure could be performed with a relatively low risk for the patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Postoperative Complications , Thoracic Surgical Procedures , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Treatment Outcome
19.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 58(5): 899-906, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Few anecdotal cases have been reported in the literature regarding heart transplant recipients and infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report our experience with 6 patients hospitalized in Northern Italy during the outbreak. METHODS: Of the 396 living heart transplant recipients from 1985 to 2020 included in the study, 6 patients developed the novel 2019 coronavirus disease. Risk factors, last follow-up characteristics, onset presentation, in-hospital course of disease and blood examinations data were collected for these patients. RESULTS: All patients were symptomatic and had positive results from a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 6 patients, 5 were hospitalized and 1 remained self-quarantined at home. Two patients died and 3 were discharged home. Two patients were admittted to the intensive care unit . Immunosuppressive therapy was modified with a median reduction comprising doses that were 50% cyclosporine and 50% mycophenolate. All patients received a medium-dose of corticosteroids as a bolus medication in addition to their therapy. All hospitalized patients received hydroxychloroquine; 2 patients received ritonavir/lopinavir. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for prophylaxis were administered to all. One patient had an ischaemic stroke and died of sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of any strong evidence regarding the treatment of heart transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2, we faced a new challenge in managing viral infection in an immunosuppressed population. Because immunomodulation interaction with the infection seems to be crucial for developing severe forms of the disease, we managed to reduce immunosuppressive therapy by adding medium doses of corticosteroids. Despite the limited number of affected patients, this report suggests that special considerations should be given to treating coronavirus disease in the heart transplant recipient population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Heart Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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